Study Guides (238,295)
Canada (115,061)
Psychology (1,609)

MIDTERM PART 1, psychology 1000, 2013.docx

8 Pages
Unlock Document

Western University
Psychology 1000
John Campbell

th, Wednesday, September 11 2013 History and Perspective: Psychology is a science involving the systematic gathering and evaluating of empirical evidence to answer questions and test beliefs around the natural world. Psychology is?  The scientific study of behaviour and the mind Behaviour: refers to actions and responses that we can directly observe Mind: refers to internal states and processes such as thoughts and feelings that cannot be seen directly and must be inferred from observable, measurable responses 6 subcategories of psychology: 1. Biopsychology  Focus on the biological underpinnings of behaviour  They examine how brain processes, genes, and hormones influence our actions, thoughts and feelings 2. Developmental  Examines human physical, psychological and social development across the lifespan 3. Experimental  Focus on basic processes such as learning, sensory systems, perception and motivational states 4. Industrial-organizational  Examines behaviour in the workplace, focusing on leadership, teamwork and factors that influence employee’s job satisfaction, motivation and performance 5. Personality  Study of human personality  How different traits relate to one another and influence behaviour 6. Social  Study how people influence one another, behave in groups and form impressions and attitudes Empirical Evidence:  Evidence gained through experience and observation  These observations need to be systematic th, Wednesday, September 11 2013 The four central goals of psychology: 1. To describe how people and other animals behave 2. To explain and understand the causes of these behaviours 3. To predict how people and animals behave under certain conditions 4. To influence or control behaviour through knowledge and control of its causes to enhance human welfare **if we understand the causes of behaviour and know when the casual factors are present or absent then we should be able to predict when the behaviour will occur. Thus is we can control the causes we can essentially control the behaviour** Psychology is based on perspectives; there can be many different perspectives  Ex looking at a young or old woman  Or the Necker cube Basic research: the quest for knowledge purely for its own sake  Goals are to describe how people behave and identify factors that influence these behaviours Applied research: designed to solve specific practical problems  Uses principles discovered through basic research to solve practical problems Levels of Analysis: Behaviour and its causes can be examined in 3 levels 1. Biological Level  Brain processes, genetic influences 2. Psychological level  Our thoughts, feelings and motives 3. Environmental level  Past and current physical and social environments Mind-body interactions:  When your mind triggers your body to have a certain reaction  Example. When you think of your favorite food it can cause you to feel hungry th, Wednesday, September 11 2013 History : Rene Descartes (1596-1650)  Proposed that the mind and body interact through the brain’s tiny pineal gland  Although he placed the mind within the body he maintained that the mind was a spiritual, nonmaterial entity Dualism: implies that no amount of research on the physical body could ever hope to unravel the mysteries of the nonphysical mind Monism: the mind and body are one and that the mind is not a separate spiritual entity (Thomas Hobbs). This meant the mind could be measured with physical processes within the brain Psychology’s “birth” was in the late 1800’s Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)  Established the first experimental psychology lab  Trained the first psychologists; Kirschmann and Baldwin and Humphreys o Humphreys began the research in experimental psychology at Queen’s  Along with Edward Titchener, they developed the Structuralism approach o Structuralism: the mind should be studied by breaking it down into basic components o Used “introspection” to study sensations o “describe inner experiences” Structuralism gave way to functionalism  William James o A leader in the functionalism movement o He trained psychologist who went on into distinct careers o Example. Mary Calkins who was first female president of psychology association  Focuses on the functions of consciousness rather than its structure  Our Hands- “why do we have hands?” “How do they help us?”  Ask similar questions about our mental processes and behaviours **Functionalism is no longer a school of thought in psychology its tradition endures in two modern day fields: 1. Cognitive psychology a. Mental processes th, Wednesday, September 11 2013 2. Evolutionary psychology a. Emphasizes the adaptiveness of behaviour Psychodynamic perspective:  Searches for the causes of behaviour within the inner workings of our personality  Emphasizes the role of unconsciousness processes  Freud developed the first psychodynamic theory Sigmoid Freud:  Treated his patients using a technique called free association  Where he allowed them to say whatever they were feeling or any thoughts  Patients eventually would describe painful and long-“forgotten” childhood experiences, often sexual in nature  He became convinced that an unconscious part of the mind profoundly influences behaviour  Psychoanalysis: o The analysis of internal and primarily unconscious psychological forces o Repression is a primary defense mechanism that is used to relieve us of traumatic experiences  Modern psychodynamic theories o Continue to explore how conscious and unconscious aspects influence behaviour o They downplay the role of hidden sexual and aggressive motives and focus more on how early relationships with family members and other caregivers sha
More Less

Related notes for Psychology 1000

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.