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MIDTERM PART 2, psychology 1000, 2013.docx

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Western University
Psychology 1000
John Campbell

Monday, September-16-13 Psychology Follow up from last week: Lecture slides may or may not be posted before class - Don’t forget 6 credits needed - Participation in research Practice exams? - Contacting other prof to see if we are getting practice exam - We will do review before our tests in class - Read text book prior to class- make notes and re-read after if some concepts are still unclear - Doesn’t cover everything in the textbooks…but we are responsible for everything in the text books - He won’t ask for a date or name generally, more about concepts and what they did. Who was the father of the psychodynamic approach? Fleud Watson was a behavioral psychologist that focuses on the role of the external environment. Asch did the lines test. He was social psychologists Today’s lecture: Biological perspective- examines how brain processes and other bodily functions regulate behavior. Behavioral neuroscience- examines brain processes and other physiological functions that underlie our behaviors, sensory experiences, Emotions and thoughts. *loved ones replaced by imposters*---- very rare disease- Kakraw delusion - David did not think his mother was his actual mother - He believed she was an imposter - He also believed his house was not his own, the mother took him from the apartment and moved him around outside and then brought him to the same apartment and he then said “oh yes this is my apartment” - Refers to himself as the other David occasionally What’s causes the Kakraw delusion?  You have an emotional response to all pictures when you see them  The message reaches the temporal lobes and gets relayed to the imobula o This does not become relayed after an accident because the emotional connection in the imobula is disconnected so he doesn’t have any emotional response to his mother Fleud would say that David was sexually attracted to his mother due to the blow to the head so he would have said he created this imposter to deal with those feelings  We now know that Kakraw is due to an emotional response delay Monday, September-16-13  Because of the emotional disconnection he would not be able have feelings for someone new when seeing them.  However because when they talk on the phone David still knows his dad is his dad. This is because the auditory connections to emotional are still intact and working Famous researchers in behavioral neuroscience  Karl Lashley o Pioneer of behavioural neuroscience o Trained rats to run a maze and then measured how surgically produced lesions to various parts of the brain areas affected the rats learning and memory o Research inspired others to map brain regions involved in specific psychological functions  W.B. Scoville and Brenda Milner o While treating a patient named H.M. who had epilepsy they found that damage to some areas of the brain was associated with sever memory loss (MORE ON H.M. )  James Olds and Peter Milner o Found that some areas of the brain were specialized by providing animals with pleasurable sensations  Donald O. o Proposed that changes in the connections between the nerve cells in the brain provide biological basis for learning, memory and perception o This eventually lead to the discovery of neurotransmitters HM  Suffered from seizures  They did brain surgery to alleviate them  The surgery worked and he no longer had seizures but he go amnesia  He could no longer create new memories  He was stuck in the age and state that he went into the surgeries o The chess example o Said he couldn’t play or had ever played chess o But when taught how to play again he would remember certain rules o He just could not report on having ,learned or played ever before Behaviour Genetics: the study of how behavioural tendencies are influenced by genetic factors  Animals can be selectively bred not only for physical traits but for behavioural traits as well o Example: the Siamese fighting fish in Thailand are constantly put into battles where they must win (past time in Thailand that they bet on) o These fish have inherited an aggressive behaviour in order to survive  Identical twins have the same genetic makeup o They tend to have many of the same behaviours, even if they were separated at birth and grew up in completely different environments Monday, September-16-13 o **(Jim Twins)** Evolutionary psychology: Through a process known as natural selection  Some members of a species possess specific traits to a greater extent than others  This happens if an inherited trait gives certain members an advantage over others, giving them an advantage at survival which they will pass to offspring  Through natural selection a species biology evolves in response to environmental conditions Thus evolutionary psychology seeks to explain evolution shaped modern human behaviour  Humans mental abilities and behavioural tendencies evolved along with a changing body  Psychological abilities became more necessary for survival so through natural selection the brain evolved Sociobiology -complex social behaviours are also built into the human species as a product of evolution  Certain social behaviours can increase the ability to pass one’s genes on to the next generation Summary 1. Biological Level a. Biological 2. Psychological Level a. Cognitive b. Psychodynamic c. Humanistic 3. Environmental a. Behavioural Psychodynami Behavioural Humanistic Cognitive Sociocultur Biological c al Conception of Controlled by Reactor to the Free-agent, thinker Social-being animal Human inner forces and environment seeking self- embedded in Nature conflicts actualization culture Major causal Unconscious Past learning Free will and Thoughts, Social Genetic and factors in motives, experiences and innovative anticipations, forces, evolutionary behaviour conflicts and the stimuli and drive toward planning, interactions factors, defenses; early behavioural self- perceptions, and group brain and childhood consequences that actualization, attention and processes in biochem experiences exist in current search for memory one’s culture processes environment personal processes and social meaning environment Predominant Intensive Study of learning Study of Study of Study of Study of focus and observations of processes in lab meaning, cognitive behaviour/m brain- methods of personality and real-world values and processes, ental behaviour discovery processes in settings (emphasis purpose in life under highly processes of relations, Monday, September-16-13 clinical settings on stimuli and controlled lab people in diff role of responses) settings cultures; hormones examine and responses to biochem social stimuli factors in behaviour b. Sociocultural Different perspectives: -Capgras syndrome- one example -differing perspectives give different explanations -psychodynamic vs. behavioural neuroscience Chapter 2 Studying behaviour scientifically Scientific attitudes  Curiosity o Why?  Skepticism o Show me your evidence  Open-mindedness o recognizing that the results and findings may go against your instincts Example from text -Kitty Genovese murder -Horrible crime, witnessed by 38 bystanders, none of whom called the police -could these bystanders all be apathetic?  People don’t care about others in the world was the explanation given at the time -Darley and Latane  They were curious, what had actually happened? -was there something more going on here? -why would no one call the police?? Darley and Latane Example  Why had no one helped Kitty? (IDENTIFY QUESTION) o Not apathy, it was diffusion of responsibility o Everyone thought someone else would call the police  Created an if-then question (GATHER) Monday, September-16-13 o In an emergency: IF multiple bystanders are present, THEN the likelihood that an one bystander will intervene is reduced  THE TEST: o They set up two rooms. Individuals in a room talking to someone on the other line vs. multiple people in a room talking to someone on the other line o They play a clip of someone having a seizure and see who responds o The individual who was alone responded much more quickly  WHY? (ANALYZE) o The single person has no choice they must help o The multiple people don’t help as fast because they don’t want to be responsible, they assume someone else is more qualified, they assume someone else can get help faster  DOES THIS EXPLAIN THAT NIGHT? (BUILD) o Textbook page 39 o No because there findings were not drastic enough that not one person helped that night to save kitty Video of people lying on the ground walking by:  If you are part of the right group you may be helped faster  It only takes one person to notice to get much more help  But getting that one person to help is the problem because no one wants to get involved  Stereotypes become a factor in this situation o I think this is due to the fact that people don’t want to help a no one but if someone looks like they are important helping them seems like the right thing to do because they have a higher class in society Measuring Behaviour 1. Hindsight:  “life is lived forwards but understood backwards”  We often use hindsight reasoning to explain certain behaviours  However there is some problems with relying solely on hindsight reasoning o Related past events can be explained in many creative, reasonable and sometimes contradictory ways. There is no sure way to determine which of the alternatives is correct  Although hindsight has its problems, it is a good base work that can be built on with more scientific inquiry Theories developed by scientists are the strongest method of understanding because they create an integrated network of predictions. Good theories have:  Facts and previously existing observations are incorporated into the framework  It is testable  Predictions made by the theory are supported by the findings Monday, September-16-13  Conforms to the law of parsimony o Two theories explain and predict the same
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