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Psychology 1000

1. How many research credits do you need to obtain by the end of the year? A) 1 B) 100 C) 6 D) 2500 E) research credits? 2. In the classic study described early in your text – the Robbers Cave Study – psychologists investigated the social dynamics associated with hostility between groups. Which of the following statements is/are untrue? A) the Robbers cave was essentially an exercise in basic as opposed to applied research B) the results suggested that placing groups in a competitive situation tended to increase hostility C) increasing the direct contact between groups was not sufficient to reduce hostility D) forced cooperation between the competing groups increased hostility E) all of the above are true 3. Which of the following statements comparing the behavioral and psychodynamic perspectives is most accurate? A) though they are rather different on the surface, the perspectives are similar in that they both place a strong emphasis on free will and personal choice B) the behavioral approach emphasizes free will and personal choice while the psychodynamic approach does not C) the behavioral approach emphasizes internal causes while the psychodynamic approach places more emphasis on external causes D) the behavioral approach emphasizes external causes while the psychodynamic approach places more emphasis on internal causes E) A & C are correct 4. Professor Smith studies the role of Circadian rhythm cycles in abnormal behaviour. Which of the following perspectives on psychology is she likely to take? A) cognitive B) biological C) behavioural D) humanistic E) psychodynamic 5. Professor Abel views the causes of schizophrenia as strictly biological, while Professor Worth sees the causes as completely environmental. Both are wrong. Why? A) the causes of abnormal behaviour are best described at the psychological level B) the causes of abnormal behaviour are best described in terms of psychodynamic principles C) interaction must be considered—both levels are likely involved and each influence the other D) there are no known explanations for schizophrenia. E) B & D are correct 6. Dr. Mitchell is interested in the aggressive behaviour of pigeons. So, he goes to the park and records how many times one pigeon “attacks” another. This aspect of Dr. Mitchell’s research is MOST consistent with which goal of psychology? A) description B) understanding C) prediction D) control E) usefulness 7. As you listen to one of your psychology professors talking to a colleague, she uses the words hysteria and repression when speaking about memory. Most likely, she is speaking about which psychological perspective? A) social constructivism B) psychodynamic C) humanistic D) neuroscience E) sociobiology 8. You overhear two psychologists talking about a patient. Dr. A insists that the patient’s problem is the result of repression. Dr. B says no, it is the result of social constructivism. Most likely A) Dr. A is a behaviourist; Dr. B is humanist B) Dr. A follows the cognitive perspective; Dr. B is a structuralist C) Dr. A is a sociobiologist; Dr. B is a functionalist D) Dr. A is a psychoanalyst; Dr. B follows the cognitive perspective E) Dr. A is a cognitive behaviourist; Dr. B follows the sociocultural perspective 9. Which of the following factors has NOT been suggested as a cause of depression? A) disruption in the sleep/wakefulness cycle B) self-blame for negative events C) an environment with far too many rewards D) a significant loss (e.g., of a parent) early in life E) all of the above have been suggested as causes of depression 10. Dr. Chan is interested in the study of basic processes in learning and memory. He conducts his research in a laboratory. Most likely, Dr. Chan is A) a clinical psychologist B) an educational psychologist C) a social psychologist D) a neuroscientist E) an experimental psychologist 11. Your friend is a bit unsure about her answers to a number of the questions on this exam and has asked you for your opinion. She wants to know what she should do in the future. According to the text, you would recommend all of the following EXCEPT A) you can rule out some alternatives immediately. Eliminate them and choose from the rest B) try to answer the questions before you look at the alternatives C) answer the questions you know first, then come back to the more difficult ones D) do not change your answers—your first guess is likely to be correct E) check your progress from time to time and make sure that you are on track 12. Which of the following statements would likely have been made by a sociobiologist? A) reality is a social construction and little is shared across cultures B) an individual’s social behaviour is determined by external rewards C) much our behaviour is unknown to our conscious mind—we are driven by unconscious impulses and desires D) social behaviours that increase our ability to pass on our genes will be more likely to be represented in future generations E) all humans seek to self-actualize and grow 13. The fact that a person with a strong biological predisposition to depression may become depressed over a minor psychological issue supports the concept of A) empiricism B) interaction C) repression D) insight E) dualism 14. During dinner one evening, Arial mentions that she just read in a popular magazine that a particular herbal substance improves memory. She’s very excited about trying this supplement in hopes that it might improve her grades. Sitting across the table from her, Juan is skeptical. He begins to ask her about such things as the nature of the evidence regarding the herb’s effectiveness and how big the memory improvement effect is supposed to be. Juan’s behavior is most consistent with which of the following concepts discussed in the text? A) Gestalt psychology B) functionalism C) British empiricism D) critical thinking E) A & C are both correct 15. You are listening to a psychologist describe his view of human nature. He uses terms like “free will”, “choice” and the “search for meaning”. This illustrates which of the major perspectives on psychology? A) humanistic B) behavioural C) cognitive D) psychodynamic E) socio-cultural Chapter 2 & Appendix A 16. A limitation of correlational research is that A) the data do not permit cause and effect conclusions B) the correlation coefficient only goes from -1.00 to +1.00 C) the data collected cannot be plotted D) it only addresses questions that cannot be studied experimentally E) it does not allow us to make predictions about the variables 17. A control group A) must always be used in correlational research B) is not exposed to the experimental treatment C) cannot be used as a comparison to the experimental group D) must be deceived into believing they are receiving treatment E) all of the above 18. With respect to ethics and the use of deception in research A) it should only be used when there is no other way to obtain natural, spontaneous responses from participants B) deception violates the principle of informed consent C) the participant should be told the true purpose of the study when it is over D) the benefits should clearly outweigh the ethical costs E) all of the above 19. A good theory should A) not follow the law of parsimony B) be testable C) produce predictions that are different and do not support findings of new research D) be regarded as absolute truth E) none of the above 20. A psychologist is studying the effects of orange juice on the prevention of colds. She has one group drink a glass of orange juice every day for the month of December. A second group drinks a glass of orange juice once a week during December, while a third group is not given any orange juice at all during this time period. Previous medical histories were obtained for all the participants. In January, she records how many colds each participant gets over the entire month. In this study, the independent variable is A) the severity of the colds in January B) the number of colds each participant got in January C) the prior medical histories D) drinking orange juice every day E) the amount of orange juice consumed 21. Which of the following conditions would best increase the external validity of an experiment? A) replications of the experiment consistently produce the same results B) there were no confounding variables C) a representative sample was used D) a double-blind procedure was used E) A) and C) above 22. Dr. Barnes is an organizational psychologist who has just completed a profile of the employees of Alcan. He reports that there is a positive correlation (r = +0.60) between salary and job satisfaction while there is a negative correlation (r = - 0.75) between number of hours worked in a week and job satisfaction. Comparing the correlation coefficients, we can conclude that A) high salaries cause greater job satisfaction than less work hours B) less work hours cause greater job satisfaction than high salaries C) there is a stronger association between salary and job satisfaction D) there is a stronger association between number of hours worked and job satisfaction E) no conclusions can be made 23. Which of the following was discussed in the text as a disadvantage of the case study method of research? A) case studies are very vulnerable to demand characteristics B) case studies are not a good way to investigate rare or unusual behaviour C) case studies are not a good way to establish cause-effect relationships D) case studies give results that can be easily generalized to other people E) case studies are an effective way to investigate rare or unusual behaviour 24. Consider the following distribution: 5,3,1,2,4,3,3. Which of the following statements are true? A) the mean is greater than the mode B) the range is less than the median C) the median is less than the mode D) mean, median, and mode are equal E) mean and mode are equal, but the median is a lower number 25. Professor Miller studies aggression in real world settings. In one study, he measured the number of times someone honked their horn at a stalled car. Honking the horn A) is the operational definition of aggression B) is the independent variable C) is the dependent variable D) is a confounding variable E) A) and C) above 26. Dr. Lewis is interested in assessing the study habits of Western students. She wants to gather information about the number of hours spent in class, at a job, in extracurricular activity, exercising, sleeping, and studying for as many students as possible. Which research method should she use? A) experiment B) case study C) survey D) correlation E) observation 27. For your doctoral thesis, you spend two years observing a particular patient (P.T.) and then write up your observations and conclusions about P.T. Your thesis is a good example of A) an experiment B) a correlational study C) a survey D) a case study E) a meta-analysis 28. You would really like to minimize any possible experimenter expectancy effects in your study. What can you do? A) use a double-blind procedure B) use a placebo C) decrease internal validity D) increase the demand characteristics E) nothing – you cannot minimize experimenter effects 29. Why is replication of research important? A) this increases internal validity B) this increases external validity C) this increases psychological validity D) this decreases confounding E) this insures random assignment 30. A new measure of I.Q. is normally distributed with a mean of 10 and a standard deviation of 1.0. Based on what you know about normal distribution, we should expect
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