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Psych Chpt 13 Review.pdf

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Psychology 1000
Richard Shugar

Chapter 13▯ Behaviour in a Social Context▯ ▯ Social Thinking and Perception▯ ▯ Attribution: Perceived the Causes of Behaviour▯ - attributions: judgements about the cause of our own and other people’s behaviour and outcomes.▯ - influence our subsequence behaviour and emotions.▯ - personal (internal) attributions: infer that people’s behaviour is caused by their characteristics.▯ - situational (external) attributions: infer that aspects of the situation cause a behaviour.▯ - Harold Kelley said that there are three types of information determine the attribution we make:”▯ - consistency, distinctiveness, and consensus.▯ - fundamental attribution error: we underestimate the impact of the situational and overestimate the role of personal factors when explaining other people’s behaviour.▯ - applies to how we perceive other people’s behaviour rather than our own.▯ - when it comes to our own behaviour we tend to protect our self esteem by displaying self serving bias.▯ - def’n: making relatively more personal attributions for successes and more situational attributions for failures.▯ - strength of self serving bias depends on various factors, ranging from one’s psychological state to cultural norms.▯ - cultural backgrounds.▯ - also seem to affect the way we go about making attributions.▯ - same underlying psychological principle: a link between holistic thinking and beliefs about causality.▯ - attributions play a key role in impression formation.▯ - primacy effect: refers to our tendency to attach more importance to the initial information that we learn about a person.▯ - primacy decreases and recency effect may occur.▯ - capacity for forming snap judgments based on small amounts of initial information.▯ - recency effect: giving greater weight to the most recent information.▯ - mental sets.▯ - the readiness to perceive the world in a particular way.▯ - powerfully shapes how we interpret a stimulus.▯ - also know as schemas.▯ - stereotypes: a generalized belief about a group or category of people.▯ - a powerful type of schema.▯ - self fulfilling prophecy: occurs usually without conscious awareness, when people’s erroneous expectations lead them to act toward others in a way that brings about the expected behaviours, thereby confirming the original impression.▯ ▯ Attitudes and Attitude Change.▯ - attitude: a positive or negative evaluative reaction toward a stimulus, such as a person, action, object, or concept.▯ - shape the course of world events.▯ - our attitudes are supported by an extensive personal belief and value system.▯ - attitudes predict our behaviour.▯ - three factors to help explain why the attitude behaviour relationship is strong.▯ - first: attitudes influence behaviour more strongly when counteracting situational factors are weak.▯ - theory of planned behaviour: our intention to engage in a behaviour is strongest when we have a positive attitude toward the behaviour.▯ - second: attitudes have a greater influence on behaviour when we are aware of them and when they are strongly held.▯ - third: general attitudes are better at predicting general classes of behaviour, and specific attitudes are better at predicting specific behaviours.▯ - theory of cognitive dissonance: people strive for consistency in their cognitions.▯ - cognitive dissonance: uncomfortable state of tension. ▯ - behaviour that is inconsistent with our attitude is called counter-attitudinal behaviour.▯ - dissonance does not always lead to attitude change.▯ - self perception theory: we make inferences about our own attitudes by observing how we behave.▯ - both predict that counter-attitudinal behaviour will produce attitude change.▯ Persuasion.▯ - communicator credibility: how believable the communicator is.▯ - often key to effective persuasion.▯ - two major components: expertise and trustworthiness.▯ - more effective to present only your side of the issue or to also present the opposition’s arguments and then refute them.▯ - central route to persuasion: occurs when people think carefully about the message and are influenced because they find the arguments compelling.▯ - peripheral route to persuasion: occurs when people do not scrutinized the message but are influenced mostly by other factors, such as speaker’s attractiveness or a message’s emotional appeal.▯ ▯ Social Influence▯ Mere presents of Others.▯ - the presents of others energizes performance.▯ - studies have found two things: ▯ - mere presents of co-actors or a passive, silence audience enhanced performance.▯ - the presents of co-actors worsened performance.▯ - the mere physical presents of another person increases our arousal.▯ - arousal increases, we become more likely to perform whatever behaviour happens to be our dominant response.▯ - called social facilitations.▯ - may be the most basic of all social influence processes, and it has an important practical implications: when learning complex tasks, minimize the presence of other people.▯ ▯ Social Norms: The Rules of the Game.▯ - social norms: shared expectations about how people should think, feel, and behave, and they are the cement that binds social systems together.▯ - some are formal laws and some are unspoken.▯ - social role: consists of a set of norms that characterizes how people in a given social position ought to behave.▯ - role conflict: occurs when someone has more then one role to play in a society.▯ - example: a woman may be a teacher, mother, wife, sister, etc.▯ - norms and roles can influence behaviour so strongly that they compel a person to act uncharacteristically. ▯ - norms regulate even such subtle aspects of social behaviour as the amount for personal space that we prefer when interacting with people.▯ - norms vary across cultures.▯ - conclusion: whether at a cultural level or in a small random group, humans place together seem to develop common standards for behaviour and judgements. ▯ ▯ Conformity and Obedience.▯ - informational social influence: when we follow the options or behaviours of others because we believe they have accurate knowledge and what they are doing is “right”.▯ - we also may conform to obtain rewards that come from being accepted by other people, while at the same time avoiding their rejection.▯ - situational factors that influence people’s degree of conformity are:▯ - group size.▯ - conformity of others.▯ - rewards of conformity.▯ - face to face confrontation or not.▯ - factors that influence destructive obedience.▯ - remoteness of the victim.▯ - closeness and legitimacy of the authority figure.▯ - cog in a wheel.▯ - personal characteristics.▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Detecting and Resisting Compliance Techniques.▯ - norm of reciprocity: involves the expectations that when others treat us well, we should respond in kind.▯ - therefore to get you to imply with a request, someone can do something nice for you now and in hopes that you feel pressure to reciprocate later when they present you with a request.▯ - door in the face technique: a persuader makes a large request, expecting you to reject it and presents you with a smaller request.▯ - the persuader “compromises” by making the second, smaller request, so we feel pressure to reciprocate by complying.▯ - foot in the door technique: a persuader get you to comply with a small request first, and later presents a larger request.▯ - lowballing: a persuader gets you to commit to some action and then before you actually perform the behaviour, he/ she increased the “cost” of that same behaviour.▯ - lowballing and foot in the door techniques involve moving from a smaller request to a larger, more costly one.▯ - by recognizing when compliance techniques are being used to manipulate your behaviour, you are in a better position to resist them.▯ - the goal is not to automatically reject every social influence attempt but to avoid feeling coerced into doing something you don’t want to do.▯ ▯ Crowd Behaviour and Deindividuation.▯ - anonymity that exists in mobs leads to a loss of personal identity and a weakening of restraints that prompt people to engage in behaviours they would not perform as individuals.▯ - condition referred as deindividualization. ▯ - def’n: a loss of individuality that leads to disinhibited behaviour.▯ - anonymity to outsiders is key.▯ - conditions make people less identifiable to people outside the group reduce feelings of accountability and, slightly but consistently, increase the risk of antisocial actions.▯ ▯ Social Loafing.▯ - the tendency for people to expend less individual effort when working in a group.▯ - social loafing involves collective performance.▯ - can also occur in cognitive tasks.▯ - collective effort model: on a collective task, people will put forth effort only to the extent that they expect their effort to c
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