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Psych Chpt 16 Review.pdf

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Psychology 1000
Richard Shugar

Chapter 16▯ Psychological Disorders▯ ▯ - abnormal behaviour: behaviour that is personally distressing, personally dysfunctional, and/or so culturally deviant that people judge it to be inappropriate or maladaptive.▯ ▯ Vulnerability-Stress Model.▯ - each person has a degree of vulnerability of developing a psychological disorder.▯ - given sufficient stress.▯ - can have a biological basis.▯ - example: over/under activity of neurotransmitters, hormone imbalance, of personality factors such as low self esteem.▯ ▯ Diagnosing Psychological Disorders.▯ - reliability: the clinician is using the system should show high levels of agreement in their diagnostic decisions. ▯ - validity: the diagnostic categories should accurately capture the essential features of the various disorders.▯ ▯ - allows diagnostic information to be represented along five dimension (axes) that take both the person and his/her life situation into account.▯ - Axis 1: represents the patient’s primary clinical symptoms▯ - Axis 2: reflects long standing personality or developmental disorders.▯ - Axis 3: notes any physical conditions that might be relevant.▯ - Axis 4: rates the intensity of the environmental stressors in the person’s recent life.▯ - Axis 5: rates the person’s coping resources as reflected in recent adaptive functioning.▯ ▯ Social Implications of Diagnostic Labeling.▯ - once a diagnostic label is attached to a person, it becomes all to easy to accept the label as an accurate description of the individual rather then the behaviour.▯ ▯ Legal Consequences.▯ - diagnosis have important legal consequences.▯ - two important concepts.▯ - compe- not at the time the crime was committed.▯time of the judicial hearing.▯ - insanity: the presumed state of mind at the time if the crime.▯ - far more controversial topic.▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Anxiety Disorders▯ - def’n: the frequency and intensity of anxiety responses are out of proportion to the situations that trigger them, and the anxiety interferes with daily life.▯ - responses have four components:▯ - subjective emotional: feelings of tension and apprehension.▯ - cognitive component: subjective feelings of apprehension, a sense of impending danger, and the feeling of inability to cope.▯ - physiological responses: examples being increased heart rate, increased breathing, nausea, dry mouth, diarrhea, and frequent urination.▯ - “fight or flight”.▯ - behavioural responses: avoidance of certain situation and impaired task performance.▯ - can take a number of different forms including: phobias, generalized anxiety disorders, panic disorders, post traumatic stress disorder, and obsessive compulsive disorders.▯ Phobic Disorders (Phobias).▯ - phobias are strong irrational fears of certain objects or situations.▯ - most common are agoraphobia (open public spaces), social phobias (public embarrassment), and specific phobias (examples are: dogs, spiders, airplanes, etc).▯ Phobic Disorders (Phobias) (2).▯ - fear of heights is most common among men, and animal fears are common among women.▯ - seldom go away and usually broaden and intensify over time.▯ ▯ General Anxiety Disorders.▯ - def’n: a chronic state of diffuse (free floating) anxiety that is not attached to specific situations or objects.▯ - can last for months on end with signs almost continuously present.▯ - symptoms include: being jittery, tense, and cognitively thinks that something bad is going to happen to them but does not know what.▯ ▯ Panic Disorders.▯ - occur suddenly and unpredictably.▯ - very intense.▯ - symptoms can be terrifying, and not unusual for victims to feel as if they are dying.▯ - occur out of the blue.▯ - many people with panic attacks develop agoraphobia because they feel that they will be attacked.▯ - def’n: the fear of public spaces.▯ ▯ Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.▯ - def’n: an anxiety disorder characterized by persistent and unwanted thoughts and compulsive behaviours.▯ - usually consist of two components.▯ - one cognitive and one behavioural.▯ - some cases where just a signal component is present.▯ - obsessions are unwanted thought, images, or impulses that invade consciousness, and are often abhorrent to the person.▯ - very difficult to dismiss or control.▯ - compulsions are repetitive behavioural responses.▯ - can be resisted with great difficulty. ▯ - often a response to a repetitive thought and function to reduce the anxiety that the thought causes.▯ ▯ Miscellaneous.▯ - neurotic anxiety: occurs when unacceptable impulses threaten to over whelm the ego’s defense and explode into action.▯ - culture bound disorders: occur only in certain places.▯ ▯ Eating Disorders.▯ - anorexia nervosa: an intense fear of being fat.▯ - victims severely restricts their food intake to the point of starvation.▯ - becomes a battle of control (“me verse food”).▯ - bulimia nervosa: victims are overly concerned with becoming fat but instead of self starvation they will binge eat and purge the food.▯ - purging is usually done by induced vomiting or laxatives.▯ - most bulimic are normal body weight, but purging can have serious physiological consequences. ▯ - eating disorders are more common in industrialized countries that equate thinness with beauty.▯ - cultural norms alone can not account for eating disorders.▯ - only a small percentage of a given culture is anorexic. ▯ - pattern difference between anorexics and bulimics.▯ - bulimics tend to be depressed and anxious.▯ - exhibit low impulse control and lack of self identity.▯ - there can be a predisposition, genetically, for eating disorders.▯ ▯ Mood (Affective) Disorders▯ - mood disorders are the most frequently experienced psychological disorder.▯ - anxiety and mood disorders have a high co-occurrence rate.▯ ▯ Depression.▯ - most people face depression.▯ - major depression leaves people unable to function effectively in their lives.▯ Depression (2).▯ - people can exhibit a less intense form of major depression called dysthymia.▯ - has less dramatic effects on people and occupational functioning.▯ - more chronic and long lasting form of misery.▯ - can occur for years on end with intervals of normal mood that do no last for more then a few weeks. ▯ - has three types of symptoms: cognitive, motivational, and somatic (physical).▯ - cognitive symptoms: difficulty focusing and making decisions.▯ - motivational symptoms: the inability to get started and perform behaviours that might produce pleasure or accomplishment.▯ - somatic symptoms: loss of appetite, weight loss in moderate and severe depression, and sleep disturbances (particularly insomnia).▯ - depression is prevalent across all socioeconomic and ethnic group, however there are gender differences over cultures.▯ ▯ Bipolar Disorder.▯ - when just depression is experience, known as unipolar.▯ - women are twice as like to have then men.▯ - bipolar is when depression alternates with mania. ▯ - mania: a state of highly excited mood and behaviour that is the opposite of depression.▯ - state of euphoria and thoughts are grandiose.▯ - believes that there is no limit to what can be accomplished and does not recognize the negative consequence that may ensue if grandiose plans are acted on.▯ - speech is often rapid or pressured (as if the person must say as many words as possible in the time allotted.▯ - manic episodes are less common than depressive one.▯ - manic disorders may stem from an overproduction of the same neurotransmitters that are under-active in depression.▯ - depressive cognitive triad: negative thoughts concerning the world, oneself, and the future that people with depression can not control.▯ - depressive attributional pattern: the tendency of depressed people to attribute negative outcomes to their own inadequacies and positive ones to factors outside of themselves.▯ - learned helplessness theory: depression occurs when people expert that bad events will occur and that there is nothing they can do to prevent or cope with them.▯ ▯
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