CHAPTER 11 - EXAM STUDY
❖ MOTIVATION AND EMOTION
a process that influences the direction, persistence, and vigour of goal-directed behaviour.
Factors move us toward our goals, e.g. obtaining good, a mate, success, or peace and quiet.
2. Instinct Theory of Motivation:
Instincts motivate much of our behaviour.An instinct is an inherited predisposition to
behave in a specific and predictable way when exposed to a particular stimulus. They have a
genetic basis and are found universally among all members of the species, don’t depend on
learning, and have survival value for the organism.
These instinct theories faded cause they had little evidence. Instead, scientists now
examine hereditary contributions to human motivation more productively. They do so by
conducting twin and adoption studies.
3. Homeostasis and Drive Theory of Motivation:
Homeostasis is a state of internal physiological equilibrium that the body strives to
maintain. This requires a sensory mechanism for detecting changes in the internal environment, a
response system that can restore equilibrium, and a control centre that receives information from
the sensors and activates the response system.
Physiological disruptions to homeostasis produces drives, states of internal tension that
motivate an organism to behave in ways that reduce this tension. E.g. hunger and thirst which
arise from tissue deficits and provide a source of E which “pushes” an organism into action.
4. Incentive and Expectancy Theories of Motivation:
Incentives represent environmental stimuli that “pull” an organism toward a goal. E.g.
getting a good grade is an incentive to studying. Incentive theories focus on external stimuli that
motivate behaviour, without the biological need. This is being applied to the study of drug abuse
cause seeking drugs is motivated by the positive incentive value of the drug’s effect. But some
people respond differently to the same incentive.
This is explained by the Expectancy Theory which proposes that goal-directed behaviour
is determined by 2 factors:
● The strength of the person’s expectation that particular behaviours will lead to a goal
● The value the individual places on the goal (called incentive value)
These factors then get multiplied: Motivation = Expectancy X Incentive Value
Extrinsic motivation: performing an activity to obtain an external reward or avoid
Intrinsic motivation: performing an activity for its own sake - cause you find it enjoyable.
Giving people extrinsic rewards to perform activities reduces intrinsic motivation.
5. Freud’s Psychodynamic Theory - What Motivates Human Behaviour:
To Freud, most of our behaviour results from a never-ending battle between unconscious
impulses struggling for release and psychological defenses used to keep them under control.
Energy from instinctive sexual and aggressive drives is disguised and expressed through socially
acceptable behaviours. THEREFORE, hidden aggressive impulses may fuel one’s career as a
trial attorney, businessperson, or athlete.
6.Maslow’s Humanistic Theory - Hierarchy of Needs:
Maslow proposed the concept of a need hierarchy, a progression of needs containing
deficiency needs at the bottom (needs for physical and social survival), and growth needs at the
top (uniquely human and motivate us to develop our potential). CHAPTER 11 - EXAM STUDY
● Physiological needs (food and drink)
● Safety needs (security and psychological safety)
● Belongingness and love needs (affiliation, acceptance, affection)
● Esteem needs (approval and recognition)
● Cognitive needs (knowledge and understanding)
● Esthetic needs (beauty and symmetry)
● SELF-ACTUALIZATION (the need to fulfill our potential; the ultimate human motive)
❖ HUNGERAND WEIGHT REGULATION
1. Mechanisms of Hunger and Satiation (being full):
Metabolism is the body’s rate of energy utilization, & approx ⅔ of the energy we use
goes to support basal metabolism; the resting, continuous metabolic work of body cells. Hunger
isn’t only linked to immediate energy needs because homeostatic mechanisms are designed to
prevent you from running low on energy in the first place.
Also, we have something called a set point; a point around which our body weight (fat
mass) is regulated. SO if you overeat or eat too little, homeostatic mechanisms will return us
close to our original weight.
Others believe that’s not how it works and rather, it’s that if we gain weight, it becomes
harder to gain weight, and if we lose weight, it becomes harder to lose weight.
Stomach contractions cause the feeling of hunger.Also, the glucose level’s rising and
falling causes the feeling of hunger and satiety. (low glucose=liver converting nutrients into
glucose and sending away from cells and into blood)
Stomach and intestinal distention (stretching) are satiety signals.
There are also chemical signals that cause satiety, such as CCK which is released into
blood stream by small instestine as food arrives from the stomach - it goes to the brain and
stimulates receptors in regions that decrease hunger.
Fat cells regulate food intake by secreting leptin - a hormone that decreases hunger so
when you gain fat, more leptin gets secreted into blood stream.As you lose fat, there’s less
leptin, so more hunger.
2. Brain Mechanisms
Two regions in the hypothalamus are important in regulating hunger:
● Lateral hypothalamus (LH): “hunger on” centre, found on the sides of the hypothalamus
● Ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH): “hunger off” centre, found in the lower-middle area
There are also various neural circuits within the hypothalamus that regulate food intake, such as
the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) pathway, which is a cluster of neurons packed with receptor
sites for various transmitters that stimulate/reduce appetite. It has the transmitter neuropeptide Y
which is a powerful appetite stimulant that gets inhibited by leptin to reduce appetite.
3. PsychologicalAspects of Hunger:
● Behavioural perspective: eating is positively reinforced by the good taste of food and
negatively reinforced by satiety.
● Cognitive perspective: we develop and expectation that eating will be pleasurable, which
becomes an important motivator to seek and consume food. Even the thought of food can
Sometimes, it’s just habits that regulate food intake. Like finishing up a meal even though you’re CHAPTER 11 - EXAM STUDY
full, just because people always say “don’t leave food on your plate”, and there are conditioned
habits like snacking while watching tv.
There’s also social pressure on women to be super skinny which makes them not want to
4. Environmental & Cultural Factors:
Food availability is an environmental regulator of eating (people living in famine-ravaged
regions have low limits of consumption and people living in areas with lots of low-cost food will
have higher consumption).
Food taste and variety also regulates eating. Sometimes, something we like a lot will
becoming boring if we eat it too much and we’ll eat less of it. Food variety increases
consumption (e.g. buffets).
The smell of food can trigger hunger and increase consumption.Also, we eat more when
dining with other people than when eating alone cause meals take longer.
Cultural norms influence when, how and what we eat.Also, we prefer familiar foods.
1. Factors that Affect Sexual Behaviour:
● Peer pressure
● Express love
● Build one’s ego
● Get over a broken relationship
● Earn money
2. The Sexual Response Cycle:
Most people go through a 4 stage sexual response cycle when sexually aroused:
● Excitement Phase: arousal builds rapidly, blood flow increases to arteries in and around
the genital organs, nipples, and women’s breasts, causing these body areas to swell
(vasocongestion). Penis and clit begin to become erect, vagina becomes more lubricated,
muscle tension increases throughout body.
● Plateau Phase: respiration, heart rate, vasocongestion and muscle tension continue to
build until there is enough muscle tension to trigger orgasm.
● Orgasm Phase: In males, rhythmic contractions of internal organs and muscle tissue
surrounding the urethra project semen out of the penis. In females, orgasm involves
rhythmic contractions of the outer third of the vagina, surrounding muscles, and uterus.
● Resolution Phase: arousal decreases quickly, return to normal condition
3. Hormonal Influences:
Pituitary gland controls secretion of hormones called gonadotropins into the bloodstream.
These hormones affect the rate at which gonads (testes and ovaries) secrete androgen hormones
such as testosterone, and estrogen hormones such as estradiol.
Sex hormones have organizational effects that direct the development of male and female
sex characteristics, so when a boy reaches puberty, his testes start to release lots of sex
hormones, and when a girl reaches puberty, the ovaries release sex hormones on a cyclical basis
to regulate menstrual cycle.
Sex hormones also have activational effects which stimulate sexual desire and behaviour.
These effects begin at puberty. Males have a constant secretion of sex hormones, females only
cyclically so they’re not horny as often. CHAPTER 11 - EXAM STUDY
In both men and women, androgens have the primary influence on sexual desire.
4. Sexual Violence:
39% of women have been sexually assaulted, and most rapes are not committed by
strangers. According to social learning theory, people learn through observation, so porn could
be a big cause of sexual violence cause a lot of porn materials model rape myths; that men are
entitled to sex when they want it and that women enjoy being dominated into sex.
Freud proposed the catharsis principle, which states that as inborn aggressive and sexual
impulses build up, actions are made to release t