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Western University
Psychology 1000

Motivation: a process that influences the direction, persistence, and vigor of goal-directed behaviour PERSPECTIVES ON MOTIVATION INSTINCT THEORY AND MODERN EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY Instinct: -(a fixed action pattern) is an inherited characteristic, common to all members of a species, that automatically produces a particular response when the organism is exposed to a particular stimulus; instincts motivate much of our behaviour -human instinct theories faded because there was no evidence to support it Today… -scientists examine hereditary contribution to human motivation; using twin and adoption studies scientists seek to find how strongly heredity accounts for differences among people in different aspects of motivated behaviour -modern evolutionary psychologists believe that many motives have evolutionary meanings and are then expressed as genes (the motivated behaviours have adaptive significance) Ex. being social creatures was selected for since it helped to create alliances which increased the expression of social behaviour in the gene pool and now we are predisposed to be social rather than reclusive HOMEOSTASIS AND DRIVE THEORY (internal factors) Homeostasis: a state of internal physiological equilibrium which our body strives to maintain -requires a sensory mechanism for detecting changes in the internal environment, a response that restore equilibrium, and a control centre that receives information from the sensors and activates the response system -regulation also can involved learned behaviours (Ex. when were hot we not only perspire, but we go somewhere cold) Drive Theory: (Clark Hull, 1943, 1951); physiological disruptions in homeostasis produce drives, states of internal tension that motivate an organism to behave in ways that reduce this tension Ex. hunger and thirst provides energy which pushes an organism into action -reducing drives is the ultimate goal of motivation Today… drive theory is less influential since people believe in ways that seem to increase rather than reduce states of arousal (ex. skip meals in order to diet) INCENTIVE AND EXPECTANCY THEORIES (external factors) Incentives: an environmental stimulus that “pull” an organism toward a goal (ex. a good grade) Before… Hull argued that all reinforcement involves some biological drive reduction Ex. food is an incentive because it reduces the drive of hunger Modern Incentive Theory: -stimuli with high incentive value can motivate behaviour in the absence of a biological drive Ex. after a meal there is no biological need for food, but we will still eat dessert (an incentive value of an external stimulus) Drug abuse -seeking and administering the drug is motivated by the incentive value of the drug’s effects (the biological drive would be to escape from withdrawal) Why is it that people respond differently to the same incentive? Expectancy x value theory: -proposes that goal-directed behaviour is jointly directed by two factors; 1) The strength of the person’s expectation that certain behaviours will lead to the goal 2) The value the individual places on that goal (incentive value) (Motivation = expectancy x incentive value) Ex. two children in the same class with the same math aptitudes; one hopes of getting an A, the other puts in enough work for a C Extrinsic motivation: performing an activity to obtain an external reward or avoid a punishment Intrinsic motivation: performing an activity for one’s own sake Overjustification hypothesis: giving people awards for something they intrinsically enjoy may over justify the behaviour and decrease the intrinsic motivation (now they just want the reward) PSYCHODYNAMIC AND HUMANISTIC THEORIES -both psychodynamic and humanistic view motivation in the context of personality development and functioning Psychodynamic: Freud’s psychoanalytic approach -energy from the unconscious motives which are defended against through repression (especially aggression and sexual) are often disguised and expressed through socially accepted behaviour Ex. hidden aggression may fuel one’s career as an attorney or athlete Today… psychodynamic theories believe that unconscious and conscious processes guide how we act and feel Humanistic: Maslow’s Hierarchy Abraham Maslow (1954); deficiency needs (concerned with physical and social survival) and growth needs (uniquely human and motivate us to develop our potential) Need Hierarchy: a progression of needs containing deficiency needs at the bottom and growth needs at the top st 1ndur basic physical survival 2 our need for safety and security 3 our need for belongingness and love (acceptance and affection) 4 our esteem needs (approval, recognition) 5 Aesthetic needs (beauty) th 6 self actualization: the need to fill our potential; ultimate human motive HUNGER AND WEIGHT REGULATION THE PHYSIOLOGY OF HUNGER Metabolism: the body’s rate of energy (or caloric) utilization; 2/3 of the energy we use goes to support basal metabolism (the resting, continuous metabolic work of the body cells) -the body does not monitor its immediate energy supply, this information interacts with other signal to regulate food intake; therefore hunger is not necessarily linked to immediate energy needs -homeostatic mechanisms are designed to prevent you from “running low” on energy Set point: -an internal physiological state around where the fat mass is regulated -if we over or under eat, homeostatic mechanisms will return us close to our original weight Contrast: some theorists believe that if we gain/lose weight, homeostatic mechanisms make it harder to gain/lose more weight but do not return us to our original weight; we may “settle in” at a new weight -the body has several mechanisms to keep the body in energy homeostasis by regulating food intake Signals that Start and Terminate a Meal -signals that start meals by producing hunger and stop eating by producing satiety (short term signals) Experiment: A.L Washburn swallowed a balloon; when it reached his stomach it was hooked up to a device which recorded stomach contractions. He pressed a key whenever he was hungry Results: the stomach contractions corresponded to feelings of hunger Today… known that “hunger pangs” (muscle contractions) don’t cause hunger since even people who have had their stomach removed still feel hungry Start Signals: Monitoring by glucose levels: Enzymes break down food into various nutrients, one being glucose (the body and brains’ major source of immediate fuel)  After eating, some glucose goes to cells for energy, but a large portion goes to the liver and fat cells where they are converted into nutrients and stored  Sensors in the hypothalamus and liver monitor blood glucose concentrations; a drop-rise glucose pattern is produced *found that humans and rats experience the drop-rise glucose pattern prior to experiencing hunger Termination Signals: Stomach and intestinal digestion: -“satiety signals”; when we eat, the walls of these organs stretch and signals are sent to the brain -rich food produces satiety more quickly than an equal volume of less nutritious food -intestines release hormones (called peptides) as a response to food (reason why people without a stomach still feel satiety) Ex. CCK (cholecystokinin) is released to the bloodstream by the small intestine as food comes from stomach. It stimulates receptors in the brain that decreases eating Signals that regulate general appetite and weight -based on how much body fat you have; adjust appetite and metabolism (long term signals) -fat cells regulate food intake and weight by secreting leptin: -a hormone that decreases appetite When we gain fat more leptin is secreted; leptin reaches the brain and is detected by receptors on certain neurons—influence neural pathways to decrease appetite and increase energy expenditure -A “background signal”- regulates appetite by increasing the potency of other satiety signals (ex. CCK) Experiment 1: ob gene usually directs fat cells to produce leptin; mice with a ob mutation lack leptin; therefore they do not stop eating and become obese—injections of leptin reduces their appetite Experiment 2: another strain of mice with a db gene mutation (brain receptors are insensitive to leptin); therefore injecting with leptin does not reduce their appetite **not the same in humans since obese people have ample leptin levels Brain Mechanisms: Early experiments believed… Lateral hypothalamus: the “hunger on” centre; stimulating a rats LH causes it to eat, damage to the LH causes the rat to refuse to eat Ventromedial hypothalamus: the “hunger off” centre; simulating a rats VMH causes even a hungry rat to refuse to eat, lesioning the VMH causes the rat to eat (even double or triple in body mass) Today… -the LH and VMH do play a part in hunger but are not the off and on centres Ex. the same effects of LH and VMH damage occurs when nerve leading to the hypothalamus are cut anywhere along their path -paraventricular nucleus (PVN): a cluster of neurons packed with receptor sites for various transmitters that stimulate or reduce appetite; integrates several short term and long term signals -when leptin reaches the hypothalamus it inhibits the activity of neurons that release neuropeptide Y (an appetite stimulant) into the PVN and therefore appetite is reduced PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF HUNGER Behavioural: eating is positively reinforced by taste and negatively reinforced by hunger reduction Cognitive: we develop an expectation that eating will be pleasurable which becomes an important motivator Ex. amnesia patients who forget eating can eat 3 meals 30 min apart, whereas patients who do remember eating will reject an additional meal; shows that there is a psychological aspect -attitudes and habits regulate food intake (Ex. needed to snack when watching TV) -women think that they are too overweight and restrict themselves from eating, men think they need to bulk up Objectification theory: Western culture teaches women to view their bodies as objects; women restrict eating to restore self esteem ENVIRONMENTAL AND CULTURAL FACTORS -food availability is the most obvious environmental regulator of eating; abundant low cost food contributes to a high rate of obesity -good tasting food positively reinforces eating and increases food consumption; food variety increases consumption after a person has become “tired of eating the same thing” -classical conditioning: associate the smell and sight of food with its taste which can trigger hunger -we eat more with people than alone because the meals are longer; we usually feel most comfortable selecting from familiar foods OBESITY -the BMI (body mass index- weight/height): between 25-29.9 is overweight, over 30 is obese -research does not find such psychological differences such as willpower between obese and not obese people -some scientists believe that obese people eat to cope with stress or have stronger reactivity to food cues Genes and Environment: Biology: -heredity influences our basal metabolic rate and tendency to store energy as either fat or lean tissue -genetics account for 40-70% of the variation is body mass among women and among men Ex. identical twins reared apart are as similar in body mass as identical twins reared together -over 200 genes have been identified as possible contributes; in most cases it is a combined effect of several genes Environment: -genes have not changed in the decades but the obesity rate has (therefore there has to be another factor) -both the environment and biology interact with each other Ex. Pima Indians in Arizona: genetically predisposed to obesity and diabetes; displayed neither until after WWII where they adapted the eating habits of the western culture Dieting and Weight Loss -being fat primes people to stay fat in part by altering body chemistry; Ex. obese people have higher level of insulin which converts glucose to fat -it is also harder to exercise when obese; dieting slows down basal metabolism because the body responds to food deprivation with decreased energy expenditure -in order to lose weight, must combine healthy eating (reduced energy input) with exercise (increased energy output) EATING DISORDERS Anorexia nervosa: have an intense fear of being fat and severely restrict their food intake to the point of self-starvation -weigh less than 85% of what would be expected for their age; 90% are female -causes menstruation to stop, strains the heart, produces bone loss, and increases the risk of death Bulimia nervosa: overly concerned with becoming fat; they binge and then purge the food usually by inducing vomiting or using laxatives -usually normal body weight but can cause problems including gastric problems and badly eroded teeth Causes of Anorexia and Bulimia: -more common in industrialized cultures where beauty is equated with “thinness”; variations in beauty norms may account for why eating disorders are more common among Whites than Blacks -consistent with the objectification theory Personality Factors: -anorexics are often perfectionists; try and live to loft self standards (including their standard of being thin) Ex. anorexics set harsher standards for their own and other women’s bodies (an average person would appear fat) -treat losing weight as a battle for success and control; could be due to an upbringing (anorexics describe their parents as disapproving and setting abnormally high achievements -bulimics tend to be depressed and anxious, exhibit low self control, lack a stable sense of personal identity -bingeing: triggered by stress, guilt purging: reduce depression and anxiety Genetics: -may create a predisposition towards eating disorders; concordance rates are higher among identical twins than fraternal twins -anorexics and bulimics exhibit abnormal levels of serotonin and other body chemicals which regulate eating Problem: serotonin levels may cause eating disorders or it may be a reaction to eating disorders Answer: it is believed that these changes are initially a response but they then perpetuate eating irregularities Ex. leptin is secreted by fat cells and anorexics have low body mass therefore they have low leptin levels; when anorexics begin to eat more, the leptin rebounds quicker than weight gain (which decreases ability to gain weight since leptin reduces appetite) SEXUAL MOTIVATION SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR: PATTERNS AND CHANGES -Alfred Kinsey conducted the first large-scale American sex survey in the late 1930s -A recent survey found that… -70% if people from 18-59 have sex -single adults who cohabit (live together) are the most active; single adults who do not cohabit are the least active -85% of men and 45% of women with a regular sex partner masturbate at least once a year -Males have their first sexual experience 1-2 years before women; by the end of high school, similar proportions have had sex -an increase in premarital sex in the past decade; due to norms, a trend of sexual activity, the delaying of marriage -some studies suggest the amount of premarital sex to level off due to AIDS awareness and the emphasis on relationship depth THE PHYSIOLOGY OF SEX -William Masters and Virginia Johnson (1953) began a landmark study examining the sexual responses of men and women; physiologically monitored masturbation and intercourse The Sexual Response Cycle: Sexual response cycle: concluded by Master and Johnson that people go through four stages when sexually aroused 1) Excitement Phase: -arousal builds rapidly; blood flow increases to arteries in and around genital organs, nipples, breasts, pooling and causing them to swell (vasocongestion) -penis and clitoris become erect, vagina becomes lubricated, muscle tension increase through the body 2) Plateau Phase: -respiration, heart rate, vasocongestion, and muscle tension continue to build until there is enough muscle tension to trigger an orgasm 3) Orgasm Phase: -males: rhythmic contractions of internal organs and muscle tissues surrounding the urethra project semen -females: rhythmic contractions of the outer third of the vagina, surrounding muscles, and the uterus 4) Resolution Phase: -males: physiological arousal decreases rapidly; genital organs and tissues return to normal conditions -they enter a refractory period where they are incapable of another orgasm -females: may have two or more orgasms before the resolution phase; most women only have one Hormonal Influences: -the hypothalamus controls the pituitary gland which regulates the secretion of hormones called gonadotropins into the bloodstream; they effect the rate at which the gonad (testes in males and ovaries in females) secrete androgens (testosterone) and estrogen (estradiol) **both males and females produce androgens and estrogen Sex hormones have… Organizational effects: -direct the development of male and female sex characteristics; male and female embryos form a primitive gonad that has potential to develop as either testes or ovaries -male: forms testes 8 weeks after conception; testes release sex hormones during key period of prenatal development which allows enough androgen to produce male genitals, brain, reproductive development -years later the hypothalamus stimulates a release of hormones when the male reaches puberty -female: the absence of androgen causes a female pattern; at puberty the hypothalamus stimulate the release of hormones on a cyclical basis that regulates the menstrual cycle Acitvational effects: Stimulate sexual desire and behaviour; begin at puberty Males: constant secretion of hormones, readiness for sex is governed by external stimuli Females: follow an “estrus” cycle and are sexually receptive during periods of high estrogen secretion Influence on sexual desire: -hormonal surge of puberty in increased sexual motivation; normal short-term hormonal fluctuations have little effect -in both men and women, androgens have the primary influence on sexual desire -a baseline of certain hormones (such as testosterone) is needed to maintain sexual desire THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SEX -sexual arousal typically begins with a desire and a sexual stimulus that is perceived positively Sexual Fantasy: -illustrates how mental processes can affect physiological functioning; fantasy can trigger erection or orgasm in people -men and women tend to fantasize during intercourse; not due to dissatisfaction Desire, Arousal, and Sexual Dysfunction -psychological factors can inhibit arousal; you can be “turned off” by your partner; -many people who are physiologically capable of sexual arousal do not have the desire -Sexual dysfunction: chronic, impaired sexual functioning that distresses a person; can be caused by performance anxiety or may be a psychological consequence of childhood sexual abuse CULTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES Cultural Norms -sexual activity may be determined by how a culture views sex Ex. Marquesas Islands of French Polynesia: families sleep together in one room so children have ample opportunity to view sexual activity; when a baby boy is in distress, the parents may masturbate the child; when children reach adolescence, an adult will instruct them on the techniques of intercourse Ex. Inis Beag, the coast of Ireland: only infants are allowed to be completely naked; the genders are separated until marriage; animals are beaten if they are caught licking their genitals Arousing Environmental Stimuli: -the environment provides sexually arousing stimuli Ex. watching your partner undress is ranked 2 (intercourse being 1) for what men/women find most appealing -erotic portrayals of sex can trigger arousal and sexual behaviour if people perceive the stimuli positively Ex. studies show that women and men are aroused when listening to a tape of erotic stories from popular novels Pornography, Sexual Violence, and Sexual Attitudes -a multibillion dollar industry; explicit magazines, movies, sex phone lines, nude dance clubs, “cyberporn” -most rapes are not committed by a stranger (usually someone you know) 2 psychological viewpoints to predicting pornography’s effects: 1) Social learning theory: -people learn through observation; pornography portrays women as enjoying being dominated, therefore men are more likely to use women as objects and sexually aggress towards them 2) Catharsis Principle (Freud) -as inborn aggressive and sexual impulses build up, actions that release these tendencies provide a “catharsis” that temporarily returns us to a more balanced physiological state -pornography should provide people with a safe outlet for releasing sexual aggression and should therefore decrease sexual aggressive behaviour towards women -Correlational studies do not support either viewpoint Ex. some countries with high rape rate have little pornography -to isolate pornography’s possible effects, controlled experiments are needed Experiment 1: Gr.1- watched a non-sexual film Gr.2- a couple making love Gr.3- a women being raped but then enjoying it Gr.4- a women being raped and suffering during the entire experience Experiment 2: the men interacted with a woman; she angered half of them: watching rape depictions increased aggression towards the woman but not toward a man Today… it is believed that pornography increases sexually aggression because it shows sex as being impersonal SEXUAL ORIENTATION Sexual orientation: refers to one’s emotional and ero
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