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Psychology 1000 Semester 2 Exam Notes .docx

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Western University
Psychology 1000
Terry Biggs

Psychology 1000 Semester 2, Term 2 Textbook notes Chapter 14: Personality What is personality? • Comes from human individuality • People seem to behave consistently over time across situations o Tends to become more constant in adulthood, but change can occur even in adulthood • Personality: a distinctive and relatively enduring way of thinking, felling and acting that characterize a person’s response to life situations • Personality tends to have three traits o Components of identity o Being caused primarily by internal rather than the environment o Behaviours seem to fit together in a meaningful fashion suggesting an inner personality that guides and directs behaviour • Theories driven by perspectives who were discovered by those who each have their own personality o The theory must provide a framework o Allow us to predict future o Stimulate discovery of new knowledge The Psychodynamic Perspective • Look for the causes of behaviour in a dynamic interplay of inner forces that often conflict with eachother • Unconscious determinants of behaviour • Frued was the most influential and still influence ideas today • Freuds psychoanalytical theory o Life in Vienna, attended med school to be a researcher on brain functioning o Fellowship with Charcot in paris  Conversion hysteria in which physical symptoms like paralysis and blindness suddenly appear with no obivious cause  Was convinced they were due to painful memories and repressed feelings (sexual or aggressive) o Became convinced that unconscious influenced behaviour o Accessed by  Hypnosis  Free association  Dream analysis o Dreams  Self analysis  Wrote a book on interpretations  Theory got critism from Victorian society that was not ready to see people as sexual and aggressive beings o Theory was baed on clinical ovservation o Became a theory of personality, an approach to studying the mind and way to treat mental disorders o Considered personality to be an energy system… steam engines  Instinctual drives generate psychic energy which powers the mind and constantly presses for either direct or indirect release (sexual drives) o Mental events many be conscious, preconscious or unconscious  Conscious mind consists of mental events that we are aware of  Preconscious contains memory, thoughts feelings and images that may not be presently current but can be recalled  Unconscious was thought to be dynamic and most important • A realm of wishes , feelings and impulses that lie beyond awareness • Only discharged by dreams, slips of tongue, disguised by behaviour o Personality divided into three separate and interacting structures  The id, ego and superego  Id • Exists completely within the unconscious mind • Innermost core of personality • Only structure present at birth • Source of all psychic energy • No contact directly with reality • Is irrational, operates according to pleasure principle…seeks immediate gratification or release regardless of rational considerations or environmental realities • Cannot directly satisfy itself by obtaining what it needs from the environment because no contact therefore it develops ego • Does need actualization thinking about it will do  Ego • Functions at a primarily conscious level • Operates according to the reality principle…decides when and under what conditions the id can safely discharge its impulse and satisfy its needs • Tries to delay gratification until conditions are safe and appropriate  Superego • The moral arm of personality • Develops at age 4 or 5 • Repository for values and ideals of society • Ideals are internalized through identification with parents and by training of what is right and wrong and how the child “should act” • Self control takes over from external controls of rewards and punishments • Strives to control instincts of the id particularly the sexual and aggressive impulses looked down upon by society • Quest for perfection tried to block gratification permanently • Moralistic over realistic goals regardless of the cost  Superego gives id a hard time as it must make a compromise between the demands of id and constraints of superego  Therefore ego is the executive of the personality o Dynamics between the structures create a struggle as id is trying to discharge instinctive energies and opposing forces are the ego and the superego  When ego confronts ids impulses anxiety occurs • Anxiety can serve as a danger signal and motivates ego to deal with the problem at hand • It can be reduced through realistic coping behaviours, often ineffective so resort to defence mechanisms • Defence mechanisms deny or distory reality, permiting the release of impulses of the id in a disguised form that will not conflict with the limits imposed by the external world or with the prohibitions of the super ego • Tend to be unconscious so they are unaware that they are using self deception to ward of anxiety • Constant reliance on defence mechanisms leads to maladaptation or dysfunctional behaviour o Repression  Active defensive process through which anxity arousing impulses or memories are pushed into unconscious  May come out indirectly, in dreams or in slips of the tongue  o Denial  Refuses to acknowledge anxiety arousing aspects, may involve emotions connected to event o Displacement  Unacceptable or dangerous impulse is respressed and then directed at a safer substitute target o Intellectualization  The emotion connected with an upsetting event is repressed and the situation is dealth with as an intellectually interesting event o Projection  An unacceptable impulse is repressed and then attributed to other people o Rationalization  A person constructs a false but plausible explanation or excuse for an anxiety arousing behaviour or event that has already occured o Reaction formation  Impulse is repressed and its psychic energy finds release in an exaggerated expression of the opposite behaviour o Sublimation  A repressed impulse is released in the form of a socially acceptable behaviour o freud believed children pass through psychosexual stages during which the ids pleasure seeking tendencies are focused on specific pleasure sensitive areas of the body called the erogenous zones  deprivation or overindulgences in any of these stages can result in fixation • fixation is a state of arrested psychosexual developmentin which instincts are focused on a particular psychic theme  controversial • there is evidence of emotional attachment that does influence personality there is little support to the idea of the stages o proof of freud  case studies and clinical observations  believed in careful observation of everyday behaviour and clinical phenomena  opposed experimental research  research of defense mechanisms and respression, as well as who will be the target of projection  it is ambiguous and hard to define/measure o evaluating the psychoanalytic theory  no research and untestable due to defense mechanisms  reseach overtime has supported that the unconscious exists • but far different than those suggested by freud  neoanalysts were psychanalsts who disagree with freud’s thinking and developed their own theories • believed freud did not give social and cultural factors sufficient importance…stressed infantile sexuality too much • too much emphasis on events of childhoods as determmiants of adult personality but agreed they were important some believed that personality continued (erikson)  Alfred Adler • Insisted humans are inherently social beings who are motivated by social interest and desire to advance welfare of others • Social welfare above selfish instincts while freud viewed people as selfish animals governed by civilization • Alder also had the motive of striving for superiority which drives people to compensate for real or imagined defects in themselves and strive to be even more competent  Carl Jung • Freuds friend and associate who broke away for the analytic theory o Expaned the unconscious o Believed humans possess a personal uncounsious based on their life experiences and a collective unconscious that consist of meories accumulated through entire history of human race which is represented by archetypes (inherited tendencies to interpret experience in certain way, find expression in symbols, myths and beliefs….. God, evil, hero, good mother , completeness and self unity)  Object relations • Melanie klein otto kernburk … o Focus on images or mental representations that people form of themselves and other people as a result of early experiences with caregivers o Realistic or distorted they become working models through which later social interactions are viewed and these relational themes exert an unconscious influence on future relationships o Create self fulfilling prophecies influencing the recurring realtionsips people form with others  Attachment theory • Outgrowth of the object relation • Later adult relationships • Lasting impact of attachment patterns is apparent in forms of early attachment that is associated with personality disorders • Humanistic Perspective o In a reaction to freuds conception of human as being driven by those half tamed demons that inhabit the beast o Humanists embrace a positive view that affirms the inherent dignity and goodness of human o Central role of conscious experience and striving for self actualization o Carl Rogers  Behaviour is not reaction to unconscious conflicts but a response to immediate conscious experience of self and environment  Believed guiding forced are reliable when not affected by environment  The self • Organized and consistent set of perceptions and beliefs about oneself • Self plays a powerful role in guiding our perceptions and directing behaviour • Believed that at the beginning of childrens lives they cannot distinguish between environment and themselves…interact they learn what self is and it develops due to life experiences and many aspects will remain stable • Self consistency : an absence of conflict among self perceptions • Congruency: consistency between self perceptions and experience • Any inconsistent experience with self concept evokes threat and anziety • Well adjusted respond to threat adaptively by modify self concept so that experiences are congruent with self • Those who chose to deny or distort experiences to remove the incongruence leads to problems in living • To preserve self images people not only interpret situations in self congruent ways but they also behave in ways that will lead others to respond to them in a self confirming fashion • People are pushed by self consistency needs to behave in accord with their self concepts • Degree of congruence between self concept and experience helps to define ones level of adjustment • The more inflexible peoples self concepts are the less open they will be to their experience and the more maladjusted they will become • Significant degree of incongruence between self and experience eand the experiences are forceful enough the defences used to deny and distort reality may collapse resulting in extreme anxiety and disorganization of self concept  Innate need for positive regard that is for acceptance, sympathy and love from others, essential for development, from parents is unconditional (independent of how child acts) • Unconditional positive regard communicates that the child is inherently worthy of love • C’onditional positive regard is dependent on how the child behaves, in extreme cases love and acceptances are given to the child only when the child behaves as the parent wants • Need positive regard from self, lack of unconditional from others in past teaches that they are only worthy of approval and love with certain standards leading to conditions of worth that dictate when we approve or disapprove of ourselves. Can be major causes of incongruency between self and experience with aneed to deny or distory important aspects of experience • Conditions of worth are similar to superego  Those who achieved self actualization are fully functioning persons and do not hide themselves • Inner freedom, self determination and choice in growth direction • Free of conditions of worth they can accept nner and other experiences as they are without modifying them defensively o Research on the self  Self esteem refers to how positively or negatively we feel about ourselves and is very important aspect of personal well being happiness and adjustment • Males in teens tend to have higher self esteems • Levels of self esteem tend to be stable across development from childhood to old age • Is related to many positive behaviours and life outcomes • High self esteem= less social pressure and less interpersonal problems, are happier better relationships • Children have higher self esteem with unconditional acceptance and love and estabilish clear guidelines for behaviour and reinforce compliance while giving freedom to make options within guidelines • High self esteem may be more dangerous because more aggressive to defend self • Higher self esteem greater vulnerability to ego threats • When people do things to increase self esteem they have a harder time succedding and may react to threats in destructive ways, when unsuccessful it can lead to poor self regulation, mental and physical health decline and decreasing learning l  Self verification: people are motivated to preserve their self concept by maintaining self consistency and congruence • People how have low self esteem are happier in a marriage where their negative image is kept intact  Self enhancement: people have a need to regard themselves positively and research confirms a strong pervasive tendencyto gain and preserve a positive self image • Attribute success to self effort and failure to environment • Most rate themselves as better than average on any socially desireable characteristic that is subjective in nature • “positive illusions”  Culture • North americans and Europeans tend to emphasis independence and personal attainment, personailty • Collectivistic cultures like asia and Africa tend to make emphasis achievement of group goals, social identity  Gender • Gender schemas: organized mental structures that contain our understanding of the attributes and behaviours that are appropriate and expected for males and females • Western: men tend to prize attributes of achievement, strength athleticism. Women prize interpersonal competencies, kindness and helpfulness • Men tend to develop individualistic self concept and women tend to be more collective o Evaluating humanistic theories  Individuals subjective experiences  Maintain that accepting what a person says rists maintain that accepting what a person says at face value may easily lead to erroneous conclusions because of the always present influence of the unconscious factor-psychoanalytic  Impossible to define a person self actualization tendency except in terms of behaviour that supposedly creates it  Self growth in psychotherapy • Measured discrepancy between ideal selves and perceived selves, which gets smaller with therapy • Traits and Biological Perspectives o Factor analysis to identify clusters of specific behaviours that are correlated with one another so highly that they can be viewed as reflecting a basic dimension or trait o Introversion-extraversion  Highly introverted at one end and extroverted at another  Introversion (retiring, reserved, solitary)  Extraversion (outgoing, talkative, friendly, parties) o Cattells Sixteen Personality factors  Cattell got thousands of people to rate themselves on characteristics and with factor analysis identified 16 basic behaviour factors  Developed a personality test 16PF  Developed personality profiles not for only individuals but for groups of people  Reserved vs outgoing  Intelligence  Affected by feelings vs emotionally stable  Submissive bs dominant  Serious vs happy  Expedient vs conscientious  Timid bs venturesome  Tough vs sensitive  Trusting , suspicious  Practical imaginative  Forthright vs shrewd  Self assured vs apprehensive  Conservative vs experimenting  Group dependent vs self sufficient  Uncontrolled vs controlled  Relaxed vs tense o Eysenck Extraversion-stability model  Three basic dimensions  Original two were introversion-extroversion and stability-instability (neurotism) • Extraversion reflects the tendency to be sociable active and willing to take risks • Introversion is inhibited, passive and cautious • Stability-instability represents a continuum from high emotional stability and poise to moodiness worry and anxiety • Creates a circle where degrees of the above can be combined • Third factor was psychoticism-self control, by psychoticism means creative and nonconformity,social deviance o Five factor model  Big Five  Consistent across cultures and time  Openness  Conscientiousness  Extraversion  Agreeableness  Neuroticism  Overlap with eysencks and  When a person Is placed on a specific point on each of these dimensions by apsychological test behaviour ratings or observation the essence of the personality is captured  Many variations can occur from blending of 5 o Traits and behaviour prediction  NEO-PI measures the Big five • Scores on each facet as well as corresponding major factor • More specific dimensions that allow for more accurate behavioural predictions o Biological foundations of personality traits  Nature and nurture influence personality development  Three levels  Differences in functioning of the nervous system  Genes make a contribution  Evolutionary principles why traits exist  Eysenck • First biological base • Linked introversion – extroversion (level of cortical arousal) and stability-instability to differences in patterns of arousal in the brain • Extreme introverts are overaroused, to electrically active so minimize stimulation • Extreme extraverts are underaroused so they need stimulation to achieve optimal level of cortical arousal • Suddenness with which shifts in autonomic nervious system arousal occur for instable-stable • Unstable have hair trigger nervous systems that show large and sudden shifts in arousal whereas stable are more gradual and small • Neuroticism- people who are extremely unstable nervous systems are more emotional and need clinical attention • Believed personality is influenced by environment and experiences the response may be due somewhat to biological factors  Cloninger • Novelty seeking, harm avoidance and reward dependence all come about in differences in functioning of certain neurotransmitters • Novelty = dopamine o Stability of personality traits  Personality traits are enduring behavioural predispositions, should be stable across situtations  Some personality dimensions tend to be more stable than others • Tendancy to think in a certain way: pessimistic vs optimistic • Temperament traits  Behaviour across situations, personality can be stable or changing • In terms of deception most children will do so in some situations but not in others  Hard to decide because • Personality traits interact with other traits and characteristics in different situations • Degree of consistency across situations is influenced by how important a given trait is • People differ in their tendency to tailor their behaviour to what is called for by the situation by self monitoring (it is a personality trait) o People who are good at this are attentive to situational cues and adapt their behaviour o The low self moniters act on internal beliefs and attitudes rather than demands and they therefore show greater consistency across situations o Evaluating the trait approach  More attention must be paid to how traits interact with each other to affect behaviour and to create the idea of personality  Distinction between description and explanation • The trait perspective is more concerned with describing structure of personality and measuring indiv. Differences and prediction then understanding the psych. • Social Cognitive Theory o Behaviours due to personality come from classical and operant conditioning as well as modelling o The human is a perceiver, thinker and planner who mentally interprets events, thinks about the past, anticipates the future and decides how to behave o Social cognitive theorists take an intermediate position and focus on both internal and external factors o Reciprocal determinism  The person and their behaviour and the enviorment all influence on another in a pattern of two way casual links o Julian Rotter: Expectancy, Reinforcement value and locus of control  The likelihood that we will engage in a particular behaviour in a certain situation is determined by expectancy and reinforcement value  Expectancy: the perception of how likely it is that cetain conseqences will occur if we engage in a behaviour in a situation  Reinforcement value how much we want the outcome that we expect the behaviour to create  Internal-external locus of control • An expectancy concerning the degree of personal control we have in our loves • Internal: believe life outcomes are under personal control and behaviour, more self determined behaviour, active movements o Tend to be more independent in groups but cooperative, less affected by social influence and practice better health o Positive self esteem and tend to cope with stress actively and more problem focused o Less maladjustment • External: believe their fate has less to do with own efforts than with environmental factors like chance and other people • Use IE scale to measure • Is called a generalized expectancy because it is thought to apply across many life domains o Albert Bandura: social cognitive perspective and self efficacy  Made major contributions to the development of the social cognitive approach  Modelling  Human agency: the idea that humans are active agents in their own lives • Not at the mercy of the environment we make plans, set goals and then behave to reach them, self reflective and self regulatory • Is a process, includes intentionality(we plan and modify and then act with intention), forethought (anticipate and actively choose behaviours for goals), self reactiveness (process of motivating and regulating our own actions, the process that we use to modify and monitor) and self reflectiveness (think about and evaluate our own motives,values and goals) • Guides much of behaviour, mostly social • Not by learning phenomenon • How we engage in processes is set in part by learning history and includes past models and by reciprocal interactions with others in environment  Self efficacy • Key factor in way people regulate their lives • Believes concerning ability to perform behaviours necessary to achieve outcome • Specific to particular situations • Determinants of self efficacy o Most important: performance attainments  shape own beliefs about capabilities o Observational learning  Observing others behaviours and their outcomes  Observe someone similar to yourself acacomplish a particular goal then you are more likely to believe that if you perform the same you too will succeed o Verbal persuasion  What we get from other people who affirm or disagree with capabilities effects efficacy beliefs o Emotional arousal  That is interpreted as anxiety or fatigue tends to decrease  Aboult to control negative arousal it mau enhance efficacy beliefs and performance o Strong [redictors of future performance and accomplisments  Walter mischel: the consistency paradox and if then behaviour consistencies • Third key figure • Power of situational factors and how people characteristically deal mentally and emotionally with experience • Importance of personal constructs and individual ways of perceiving and understanding events in behaviour • If someone we know behaves in an inconsistent way from past then excuses are made • Would expect high consistency but it actually quite low : the consistency paradox • Perhaps personality may not account for behaviour…however both are important • Cognitive affective personality system (CAPS) o Both the person and situation matter o Dynamic interplay between the characteristics that a person brings to the situation and the characteristics of the situation o Behaviour results from relatively stable personal dispositions and with cognitive affective processes that interact with a specific situation  If then behaviour consistencies which suggest that there is consistency in behaviour but it is found within similar situations, behaviour tends to be consistent but the if and then affect eachother o Evaluating Social cognitive theories  Strong scientific base  Two perspective, behavioural and cognitive that have strong research traditions  Has advanced the knowledge of how processes within the person occur and characteristics of situations interact with each other to influence behaviour  Ability to translate insights derveid from other perspectives  Helps resolve apparent contradictions between central assumptions about personality producing stability in behaviour • Personality Assessment o Interview, ask others ask person, observe o Personal websites, oersonality tests (must be reliable((it is marked the same and are the same marks achieved)) consistent and take several forms, valid((is it actually measuring the right thing))) o Interview  Oldest  Can obtain info on thoughts feelings and internal states as well as past and current relationships experiences and behaviours  Structural interviews: frequently used to collect research data or make diagnosis  Interviewers do not limit attention to what is said, look at body language  Direct personal contact • Limited o Can affect validity of info obtained (honesty, cooperation level, etc) • Essential for cinical psychology and research o Behavioural assessment  Devise an explicit coding system that contains the behavioural categories of interest  Train observers to have high levels of agreement  Can determine how frequently and under what conditions behaviours apply  Precision in defining the behaviour of interest and the conditions is important in measuring differences and in indentifying potential situational causes o Remote Behaviour Sampling  Not reasonable to be followed around for a long period of time  Researchers can collect samples of behaviour as they live daily lives by a tiny computerized device that randomly beeps and participants respond with thoughts feelings etc  Collect large behaviour samples over lots of time o Personality scales  Inventories  Objective measures  Lots of data from many people at the same time , easy scoring  Disadvantage that people may not answer or not truthful  Have validity scales that detect tendencies to respond is socially desireable manner or in an overly negative way  Items chosen by • Rational approach o Theories conception of personality trait to be measured • Empirical approach o No chosen for content but because previous reseach has shown items were answered differently by groups of people who are known to differ in personality characteristic of interest o Developed the Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory which is most commonly used  Used as apsychiatric diagnosis  Wide variety of content o Projective tests  Freud and psychodynamics..importance of the unconscious factors  When a person is presented with an ambiguous stimulus whose meaning is not clear the interpretation must come from within being a projection og inner needs and feelings  Rorschach Inkblots • Ten blots fine in black and white and five in colour • Asked what the blot might look like and what it might be or what it looks like, then what caused it too look like that • Word for word is recorded • Looks at body language • What responses symbolize • Interpretation by examiners is biased and creates unreliability • Comprehensive system with coding and scoring still didn’t help much • Good test retest stability  Thematic apperception tests • Series of pictures from paintings, drawings and magazines • Less ambiguous than the RI but still ambiguous • Asked to respond what is going on, how the scene became so, what characters are thinking etc • Also not standardized • When specific systems are used the tat is valid • Stronger relations with motivated behavioru o Personality theory and personality assessment  Projective are favoured by psychodynamics  Humanistics favour self report  Social cognitive use behavioural and ask to rate expectations of future  Remote behaviour sampling is useful in studying interaction between person and situation  Inventories are favored by trait theories  Physiological measures for biological processes Chapter 15: Stress Nature of Stress • A stimulus, a response and an organism-environment interaction • Events that place strong demands are stressors o Characteristics of stressors  Intensity/severity  Duration  Predictability  Controllability  Chronicity o There are internal processes  Appraisals • Cognitive o Of demands o Of resources o Of consequences o Of meaning of consequences  Leads to effects • Worrying, low self esteem, expecting the worst, hopelessness • Physiological o Sympathetic arousal o Stress hormones  Leads to effects of • Muscle tension • Elevated H.R • Shortness of breath • Illness susceptibility increase  Go back and forth affecting each other ultimately causing coping and task behaviours • Which causes o Task irrelevant responses o Behavioural rigidity o Self destructive behaviours • Stress can also be viewed as a response o Cognitive, physiological • Stress can be a person-situation interaction • Stress is a pattern of cognitive appraisals physiological responses and behavioural tendencies that occurs in response to a perceived imbalance between situational demands and resources needed to cope with them • Stressors o Specific kinds of eliciting stimuli o Microstressors- daily hassles and everyday annoyances o Catastrophic events are unexpected and have a large affect on many people o Major negative events (death, failure, abuse) • Life event scales quantify the amount of life stress that a person has experienced over an amount of time o Includes the persons appraisal of what happened o Any event that requires adaptation is a stressor • Stress response o Appraisal of the demands of the situation (primary) o Appraisal of the resources available to cope (secondary) o Judgement of what the consequences could be o Appraisal of personal meaning • Autonomic and somatic feedback can affect our reappraisals of how stressful • GAS o General adaptation syndrome o A physiological response pattern to strong prolonged stressors o Phases  Alarm reaction • Sudden activation of sympathetic nervous system and the release of stress hormones by the endocrine system • Helps body deal with stress • Cascade of messages from hypothalamus to the pituitary and then to the adrenal glands which produce cortisol, triggering increase in blood sugars for additional oxygen • Cortisol supresses the immune system and creates anti-inflamatory, helps with ability to function despite stress • Persistent secretion of cortisol leads to clinical conditions uch as depression and axiety • Helps with flight or fight • Parasympathetic returns homeostasis  Resistance • Bodys resources continue to be mobilized so that function can occur with stressor • It comes to an end when resources run out  Exhaustion • Resources are too low • Increases vulnerability to disease and death • Stress and Health o Physical mobilization system sculpted by evolution to help organisms deal with life threatening physical stressors may not be as adaptive for dealing with the psychological stressors we face in modern life o Rape trauma syndrome , feel nervous for some time after, decreased sex enjoyment for quite sometime o The more negative the even the more likely to report symptoms of psychological disorders o Stress causes distress = negative event scores leads to psychological distress scores and psychological distress scores lead to negative life event scores o And neuroticism can lead to both  This trait leads to heightened tendency to to experience negative emotions and get themselves into stressful situations through their maladaptive behaviours o Post traumatic stress disorder  What can happen to victims of extreme stress and trauma  Caused by exposure to extreme traumatic life events  Four symptoms • Severe anxiety, and physiological arousal and distress • Reliving of the events in dreams and flashbacks • Emotional numbing and avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma • Intense survivor guilt • May show self destructive and impulsive behaviour  Trauma by human perpetrators causes greater PSD than natural disasters  Influenced by personality, coping strategies, pre existing psychological conditions and childhood stresses  Can take time to emerge  Can increase vulnerability to other disorders o Stress and illness  Chronic health conditions increases arthristis, rheumatism, bronchitis and emphysema and ulcers  Heart disease increases for men  Women increase in asthma and migraines  Hormones affect the activity of the hearth and can damage arteries, by reducing fat metabolism stress can contriubute to increased blockages leading to heart attacks and stroke  Can trigger illness or increase rate because of less exercise or forgetting to take meds  Hippocampus (memory) is sensitive to cortisol  Mild early life stress strengthens emotional cognitive and hormonal resistance  Evidence that childhood abuse interferes with hippocampus and its ability to reduce stress • Vunerability and protective factors o Vunerability factors increase susceptibility to stress while protective are resources that help people cope o Social support  Knowledge that we have a support system to rely on helps with immediate impact  Pople with weak social ties were twice as likely to die  Stronger in men  More disease resistant when under stress with social ties  Social support may bring a sense of identity and meaning  Social ties can prevent maladaptation like drug abuse  Talking helps decrease stress responses • The importance of beliefs o Hardiness  Commitment, control (strongest) and challenge  Demanding situations stimulate these people o Coping self efficacy  The conviction that we perform the behaviours necessary to cope successfully is an important protective factor  Increase self by watching others  A low level physiological arousal in the face of a stressor can convey a sense of strength and ability to cope  Also the feelings of self efficacy may fortify the body as well as minds against stress o Optimism  The view of the future  Appraisal as less helpless  Pessimists suffer more illnesses o Personality Factors  Type A • Live under greater pressure and are demanding of themselves and others • High levels of competitiveness and ambition • Double the risk for coronary heart disease • It is the negativity and hostility that causes so • Overreact physiologically to events that arouse anger •  Type B are relaxed and agreeable and have far less urgency o Finding meaning in stressful life events  Religious helps accept grief but may cause stress if we feel we are never God enough or may help with stress if you know God has a plan  Is a way of coping with the loss on even longer positive effects o Physiological reactivity  Physiological toughness involves relations between hormones in stress • Catecholamines and corticosteroids mobilize the fight or flight response but have different effects • Cortisol lasts longer and is more damaging than catecholamines  toughness consist of a low resting cortisol over time and a low resting catecholamines but a quick strong catecholamine response and decline to minimize exhaustion • Coping with Stress o Problem focused coping  Attempting to confront and deal directly  Studying  Going for help o Emotion focused  Involve appraising the situation in a manner that minimizes its emotional impact  Realizing nothing can be done and going forward o Seeking social support  Turning to others for assistance and emotional support in times of stress o Effectiveness of the ^ coping strategies  Problem focused and seeing social support are most favourable  Emotion focused just provides denial and wishing o Controllability and coping efficacy  Emotion focused may be most adaptive when nothing can be done o Cost of constraint  Impact of disclosure lessens over time and disclosure should be immediately dealt with  May be helpful just to have the idea that you can talk about it o Gender culture and coping  Women are more likely to seek help  Women are expected to be expressive supportive and dependent  North americans and Europeans tend to use problem solving more than Asian and Hispanic who use social and emotional  Asians tend to avoid stressful situations to obtain interpersonal harmony • Health promotion and illness prevention o Over time death cause has changed from flu and pneumonia and tuberculosis to heart disease cancer and stroke o Health enhancing behaviours serve to maintain and increase health…safe sex, exercise, examinations o Health compromising behaviours are those that promote the development of illness like eating poorly, smoking etc • How people change: the transtheoretical model o Stages  Precontemplational • Problem unrecognized or unacknowledged  Contemplational • Recognition of problem; contemplating change • Need a wake up call  Preparation • Preparing to try to change • Needs a specific plan  Action • Implementing change strategies  Maintenance • Behaviour that was changed must be maintained  Termination • Permanent change no maintenance  Important to make stage matched interventions designed to move person towards one of the stages o Increasing behaviours to enhance health  Need 7-8 hours of sleep, breakfast, not smoking, no snacking, body weight, activity, and drinking moderate amounts of alcohol  Exercise • Aerobic exercise is better for oxygen efficiency, cholesterol and adaptation to stressors • May not need a lot of exercise just a moderate amount • Low self efficacy for success in exercising regularly o Type A personality is too busy o Inflated estimated of current fitness o Inactive leisure time pursuits o Weight control  Can cause cardiovascular disease, kidney disease and diabetes  Fat localized in the abdomen is a far greater risk than thighs or but  Yo yo dieting results in big ups and downs  Start by cutting out bad foods and increase opportunity for the good and monitoring intake  Goal is to eat less but enjoy the food more  High levels of activity are useful for initial and maintenance of weight loss  Those taught in self regulation are more successful o Reducing behaviours that impair health  Aids caused by hiv  Incubation period for the disease is slow allowing for many to pass it on as well as there is no vaccine since the phenotype is changing so much  Prevention programs • Educate • Motivate to change behaviour • Provide guidelines • Give support and encouragement • Early AIDs interventions were directed at homosexual men o Success of prevention groups depends on the extent to which the individuals social system supports the desired changes o Many have irrational sense of invulneravility to infections and this contribuites to failure to have sex sex • Social cognitive theory o Modelling procedures to change attitudes and behaviour in some of the poorest and hopless parts of the world o Produce highly engaging entertainment education o Learning from role models  Positive  Negative  Ad transitional who change to become positive • Combatting substance abuse o Motivational interviewing  Need to increase awareness, have a desire to take an action and believe that they can change  Leads people to their own conculsions by asking questions focusing on the problem o Counsellor helps the client set goals and strategies o Effective and low cost • Multimodal treatment approaches o Overcoming genetics and physical dependence o Many factors can causue relapses o Combine factors to cause change o Often include biological factors with psychological factors  Aversion therapy  Relaxation and stress management  Self monitoring procedures  Coping and social skills  Counselling to reduce family conflict  Positive reinforcement o Long term effectiveness may not happen • Relapse prevention o Research with substance abuse shows relapses tend to occur after a person has auffered a one time lapse when confronted with a high risk situation o High risk situations are stressful events, personal conflicts, social pressure being in the company of other uses and negative emotions o More likely when do not have a strong enough coping skills o Lack of self efficacy for resisting temptation or allowed expected positive benefits to probpt decosoon tp perform the undesirable behaviour o Absitence violation effect  Becomes upset and selfblaming over failure to remain abstinent and see lapse as proof they will never succeed  If they have better coping opportunities then it is easier to avoid a relapse after a slip o Relapse prevention strategies involve teaching people that a lapse means nothing more than the fact trhat they encountered a situation that exceeded current copping skills o Progress not perfection • Harm reduction approaches to prevention o Is a prevention strategy that is designed not to eliminate a behaviour but rather to reduce the harmful effects of a behaviour when it occurs o Even if an addictive behaviour cannot be eliminated it is possible to modify how often and under what conditions it occurs and thereby to minimize harmful effects o Binge drinking leads to unplanned and unprotected sex, injuries driving etc Chapter 16: Psychological Disorders • What is abnormal? o Defined by  Personal values of diagnostician  The expectations of culture  The expectations of cultures orgin  Assumptions about human nature  Statistical deviation from the norm  Harmfulness, suffering and impairment o Some cultures cannibalism is accepted while in others it can be a sign of pathological behaviour o Homosexuality used to be considered a form of mental illness o Time place and value of judgement can be random differentiating  Also includes distress, decisions about abnormality o We are likely to label behaviours as abnormal if they are intensely distressing to the individual while some may find that those are anxious, depressed dissatisfied about life may be viewed as disturbed while personal distress is not necessary or sufficient to define abnormality as some patients are way to gone from reality to notice o Most behaviours judged abnormal are dysfunctional to the individual or society, they interfere with peoples work or experience of life, some behaviours become labelled as abnormal o Third criterion for abnormality is societies judgements concerning deviance of a behaviour, within every society there are norms, behavioural rules that specify how people should think feel and act. Some are coded by laws while others are less explicit. Breaking these make one seem psychologically disturbed o Overall personal and social judgements of behaviour are considered to define abnormal behaviour  Personally distressing, personally dysfunctional or culturally deviant can be judged by others as wrong or maladaptive  374 disorders in current edition of diagnostic of mental disorders • Historical perspectives on deviant behaviour o Ancient Chinese, Egyptians, and Hebrews all thought abnormal behaviour was due to supernatural forces and the devil o Trephination was carried out to release evil spirits from a body, a sharp tool was used to chisel a hole in the skull , it ended behaviour by killing the person o Medieval times had people possessed involuntarily by the devil or had voluntary packs with the devil. They killed witches based on diagnostic tests and theological grounds o Hippocrates suggested mental illnesses as diseases like physical disorders, believed the site of mental illness was the brain o Biological emphasis was important again bt the general paresis, a disorder characterized in its advanced stages by mental deterioration and bizarre behaviour due to brain deterioration from syphilis…first proof that a psych. Disorder came from a physical malady o Freuds psychoanalysis then joined by behavioural, cognitive and and humanistic concepts to capture the determinants of abnormal behaviour  Combination of all factors o Vulnerability-stress model (aka diathesis-stress model) each of us has some degree of vulnerability for developing a disorder given sufficient stress  The vulnerability or predisposition can be genetic, neurological, hormonal, or hair trigger to the automatic nervous system could also be personality such as low self esteem, pessimism or environmental factors like poverty or trauma o Predisposition creates a disorder only when a stressor, some recent event that a person must cope with, that combines with the vulnerability to create the disorder • Diagnosing psychological disorders o Reliability means that clinician’s using the system should show high levels of agreement in their diagnostic decisions, look at behaviours that can minimize subjective judgements o Validity means that the diagnostic categories should accurately capture the essential features of various disorders, the diagnostic categories should allow to differentiate between disorders and should match between observation and research o DSM-IV-TR diagnostic classification system in north America  Contains 350 diagnostic categories with lists of observable behaviours that must be present for diagnosis  5 Axes • Axis one, the primary diagnosis, clinical symptoms • Axis two, long standing personality or developmental disorders sych concrete personality factors affecting behaviour and treatment • Axis 3 relevant physical conditions • Axis 4 is intensity of environmental stressors in a persons recent life • Axis 5 is a persons coping resources as reflected in adaptive functioning  Integrating categorical and dimensional approaches • Currently categorical, people are placed within specific diagnostic categories o It is very reliable however is so detailed many people don’t fit perfectly into one category or when placed in a category people within may be very different from one another o Does not capture severity of disorder and does not capture symptoms that are adaptively important but are not important for behavioural criteria • Can also use the dimensional system in which relevant behaviours are rate along severity o Believes disorders are extensions of different degree than kind from normal personality functioning o Normal to adaptive to subclinical to disordered to severely disordered • Personality disorders have six basic dimensions of disorder o Negative emotionality, schizotypy (odd unusal thinking), disinhibition, introversion, antagonism and compulsivity o Different combinations lead to antisocial/ psychopath or borderline personality type o Helps to link abnormal and normal behaviours o Severity rating leads to a description that better reflects individual and helps with treatment plan o Critical issues in diagnostic labelling  Social and personal implications • Once a person is labelled diagnostically it becomes easy to accept it as a description of individual rather than the behaviour • Affects self and the people around you  Legal consequences • When commited because may be harmful to society some civil rights are lost and they may be permentally detained if behaviour does not improve • Law trials can be altered by competency and insanity o Competency is a defendants state of mind at the time of the hearing … become institutionalized until fit o Insanity is more controversial and is the state of mind when the crime was committed , not a psychological term  Recently this has become an option to not be considered as evidence  Have come up with guilty but mentally ill, creats a normal sentence but in a mental hospital for treatment o Do I have this disorder?  Medical students disease • Everyone may see charactersitics in themselves • However, should not believe that this defines you unless hyou are feeling it is interfering with your life • Anxiety disorders o Anxiety is a state of tension and apprehension that is a natural response to threat o In disorders the frequency and intensity of responses are out or proportion to the trigger and they interfere o Has four components  Subjective emotional • Feelings of tension and apprehension  Cognitive symptoms • Worry • Thoughts about inability to cope  Physiological symptoms • Increase H.R • Muscle tension • And other autonomic arousal symptoms  Behavioural symptoms • Avoidance of feared situations • Decreased task performance • Increased startle response o Has different forms such a phobic, generalized, post traumatic and ptsd and OCD o Incidence refers to number of new cases per time period o Prevalence is number of people who have a disorder in a specified time period o Phobic disorders  Phobias are strong and irrational fears of objects or situations  Less realistic no intense nature  People know their fears are out of proportion to danger but feel helpless to deal  Avoidance  Social phobias (might be evaluated or embaressed in social places), may come from shyness as a child  Specific phobias are of dogs, lanes, death etc  Agoraphobia is fear of open and public places  Animals are common among women and heights among men  Can develop any time but most are before early adult hood  Once developed they do not go away on own and can get worse over time  Degree of impairment depends on how often the stimulus is present o Generalized Anxiety disorder  A chronic state of diffusion or free floating anxiety that is not attached to spevific situations or objects  Anxiety may last months on end  Emotionally: jittery, tense and on endge  Cognitively: expects the worse  Physically: sweats, stomach is upset etc  Interferes with daily life, hard to concentrate, decide or remember  Onset tends to occur childhood or adolescence o Panic Disorder  Contrast generalized because it is sudden and unpredictable and is much more intense  Feel like they are dying  No identifiable stimulus  Develop agoraphobia because they fear they will have an attack in public  Need recurrent attacks not tied to environment along with behavioural and psychological problems for diagnosis  Late adolescence to early adulthood o Obsessive compulsive disorder  Cognitive and behavioural components  Obsessions are repetitive and unwelcome thoughts, images or impulses that invade consciousness and are hard to comtrol  Compulsions are repetitive behavioural rituals that can be resisted with great difficulty • Are often responses to obsession to reduce anxiety  Interferes with life  Compulsions appear to reduce anxiety and strengthened by negative reinforcement because anxiety is avoided  Onset in late 20s o Casual factors in anxiety disorders  Biological factors • Genetics create vulnerability • May take the form of an autonomic nervous system that overreacts to threats causing physical arousal • over reactivity of neurotransmitters in emotional responses • trauma produced overactivity in the emotional systems of the right hemisphere may create vulnerability is PTSD • GABA, reduced neural activity in amygdalad and other structures in phyisiological arousal, low GABA may lead to highly reactive nervouse systems and more susceptible to classically conditioned phobias • Serotonin may also be involved • Women more than men…biological predisposition or is it that women have less power and personal control • Evolutionary factors in predisposing people as a survival instinct and to learn to fear stimuli…more for primal things  Psychological Factors • Psychodynamic theories o Neurotic anxiety occurs with unacceptable impulses o The defense mechanism of the ego determines the form of the anxiety disorder o In phobias neurotic anxiety is displaced onto a symbolic stimulus in relation to the conflict o OCD, the obsession is symbolic of the impulse and the compulsion is the way of undoing the urges, washing hands of the dirty impulses o Generalized anxiety and panic occur when ones defences are not strong enough to control or contain anxiety but can hide the conflict • Cognitive factors o The role of maladaptive thought patterns and beliefs in anxiety disorders o People with anxiety disorders catastrophize about things and magnify, they anticipate the worse and feel hopeless, specific to phobia o Intrusive thoughts o Panic attacks, exaggerated misinterpretations of normal anxiety leads escalation • Anxiety as a learned response o Behavioural perspective o From emotional conditioning …need the trauma though and not all anxiety disorders had trauma o Observational learning…televised images o Once learned it can be triggered by thoughs and images o Phobics, cues tend to be external o Panic, anxiety arousing cues are internal (heart rate or mental images) o Behaviours are successful in reducing anxiety, compulsions or phobic avoidance responses are strengthed by negative reinforcement o Successful avoidance is a problem in the long run as it prevents extinguishing  Sociocultural factors • Culture bound diseases only occur in cert
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