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March Midterm Notes.docx

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Western University
Psychology 1000

March Mid-Term Notes Chapter 9: Language and Thinking − Mental representation – include images, ideas, concepts, principles o Humans have ability to create and manipulate these in the form of language, thinking, reasoning, and problem solving Language − Consists of a system of symbols and rules for combining these symbols to generate an infinite number of possible messages and meanings − Psycholinguistics – scientific study of the psychological aspects of languages (how people understand, produce, acquire language) Adaptive Functions of Language − Brain has been in its present form for 50,000 years o Time lag to paintings and writing occurred − Time lag shows human thought/behaviour depends on more than just brain structure − Evolutionary theorists believe that use of language evolved as people gathered to form larger social units o Environmental demands increased (e.g. need for social custom/passage of knowledge), and development of language made it easier to deal with these demands − Human brain has innate capacity to acquire any of the 5,000-6,000 languages of the world − Conscious thinking usually takes the form of self-talk/inner speech − Language = powerful learning mechanism Properties of Language 1. Language is symbolic and structured − Uses sounds, written characters, or some other system of symbols (e.g. hand signals) to represent objects, events, ideas, feelings and actions − Symbols used in any language are chosen at random or due to personal choice (no order to it) however each word has an agreed-on meaning to people who speak that language − Has a rule governed structure o Grammar – set of rules that dictate how symbols can be combined o Syntax – rules that govern the order of words − Grammars of all language share common functions (e.g. how to change present tense to past tense) − Grammatical rules change across languages 2. Language conveys Meaning − Once the symbols are learned, people can form and transfer mental representations to the mind of another person − Semantics – the meaning of words and sentences 3. Language is generative and Permits Displacement − Generativity – symbols of language can be combined to generate an infinite number of messages that have new meaning − Displacement – languages allows us to communicate about events and objects that are not physically present The Structure of Language − Surface structure and deep structure o Surface structure – the symbols that are used and their order o Deep structure – the underlying meaning of the combined symbols o A single surface structure could have multiple deep structures o Different surface structures could have the same deep structure o When you read/hear speech you move from surface structure to deep structure o When you express your thoughts you put deep structure into surface structure − The Hierarchical structure of language – 5 steps o 1. Simplest building block = phoneme - smallest unit of speech sound in a language that can signal a difference in meaning  About 100 phonemes that humans can produce (no language uses all the sounds) o English uses about 40 phonemes (includes various consonant and vowel sounds, and some letter combinations e.g. ‘sh’) o Phonemes have no inherent meaning, alter meaning when combined with other elements o 2. Morphemes – smallest units of meaning in a language (multiple phonemes)  e.g. ball, log, prefixes such as pre- o morphemes are not always syllables o rules of each language determine how phonemes can be combined into morphemes o 40 phonemes = over 100,000 morphemes o 3. Words (multiple morphemes) o Morphemes into over 500,000 words o 4. Words into phrases o 5. Phrases into infinite sentences o 6. Discourse – sentences combined into paragraphs, articles, books etc. Understanding and Producing Language − Context plays an important role in understanding language The role of Bottom-Up Processing − To understand language, brain must recognize, and interpret patterns of stimuli (sounds of speech, shapes of letters etc.) − Extracting info from linguistic stimuli involves influence of bottom-up and top-down processing − Bottom-up: individual elements of a stimulus are analyzed then combined to form a unified perception o Combining phonemesmorphemeswords-phrases etc. − 1. Analyze the basic elements of the visual patterns infront of eyes o 2. Feed info to cell groups that lead you to perceive the lines as letters − 3. Either recognize letters as words OR translate visual patterns to auditory sounds (sounding it out in your head) The role of Top-Down Processing − Sensory info interpreted in light of existing knowledge, concepts, expectations − The words you hear activate and draw on your knowledge of vocab, grammar etc. − Speech segmentation – perceiving where each word within a sentence begins and ends − 40% of words have 2+ syllables that are vocally stressed when spoken − Through experience, learn that certain sequences of phonemes are unlikely to occur within the same words (so we hear them as the beginning or ending of a words) − Use context provided by other words in a sentence to interpret the meaning of any individual word Pragmatics: The social context of Language − Takes more than having a vocab to understand language and communicate − Pragmatics – knowledge of the practical aspects of using language o Helps you understand what other people are really saying to you and vice versa o Pragmatics is another example of top-down processing − Social rules that guide communication between people o Messages should be as clear as possible (change aspects of speech based on audience) Language Functions, the Brain, and Sex Differences − Broca’s area ( in left hemisphere’s frontal lobe) most centrally involved in word production and articulation − Wernicke’s area (rear portion of the temporal lobe) is more centrally involved in speech comprehension − Damage to 1 or both of these areas results in aphasia (impairment in speech comprehension and/or production) o Can be permanent or temporary − Visual area of the cortex also involved in recognizing written words − During language task, men have more activation on left hemisphere of brain (females is spread on both hemispheres) o Left hemisphere stroke cause more men than females to show aphasic symptoms Acquiring a First Language Biological Foundations − Suggested biological basis for language acquisition − Children begin to master language early in life without formal instruction − All adult languages of the world have common underlying structural characteristics − Language = a biologically primed process within a social learning environment − Infants can perceive the entire range or phonemes in the world’s languages o Between 6-12 months, begin to discriminate to sounds only from their language − Language acquisition device (LAD) – Proposed by Noam Chomsky o An innate biological mechanism that contains the general grammatical rules (called universal grammar) common to all languages o Universal grammar becomes calibrated to the grammar and syntax of one’s native tongue Social Learning Processes − Child-directed speech – parents attract the child’s attention and maintain their interest by conversing with them (high-pitched baby talk) − Teach kid’s words by pointing at the object and naming them − Operant condition explanation: (not agreed with) o Kid’s language development governed by parent’s positive reinforcement or appropriate language and nonreinforcement/correction of inappropriate verbalizations − By 2 grade, know about 5,000 to 6,000 words − Shown that parents don’t typically correct children’s grammar skills when language is developing o Focus on the deep structure of their kid’s language − Kid’s language is different from their parents (not an imitative process) − Language Acquisition Support System (LASS) – by Jerome Bruner o Factors in the social environment that facilitate the learning of a language − When LAD and LASS interact in a mutually supportive fashion, normal language development occurs Developmental Timetable and Sensitive Periods − Biological (maturation of speed-production mechanisms) and experiential factors combine, language acquisition proceeds according to a developmental timetable that is common to all cultures − By 2, telegraphic speech (consist of a noun and a verb e.g. “want cookie”, leave out non- essential words, then start to add in more words) − Sensitive period from infancy to puberty when brain is most responsive to language input from the environment − LANGUAGE TIMELINE: o 1-3 months: distinguish speech from non-speech, usually crying o 4-6 months: babbling sounds occur, vocalizes in response to verbalizations of others o 7-11 months: only phenomes from native language perceived, moves tongue with vocalizations (lalling), starts imitating sounds of others o 12 months: first recognizable words spoken o 12-18 months: increases knowledge of word meanings, uses single words to express phrases/requests, primarily nouns o 18-24 months: 50-100 words, some sentences (of 2 words) – telegraphic speech o 2-4 years: vocab rapidly expands, longer sentences (often grammatically incorrect), more correct syntactically o 4-5 years: learned basic grammatical rules for combining nouns, adjectives, articles, conjunctions, verbs into meaningful sentences Bilingualism: Learning a Second Language − 18% of Canadians speak English and French nd − 2 language learned best if learned during the sensitive period of childhood − Mastery of syntax, grammar, depends on early acquisition − After 7, learning another language becomes more difficult − First French immersion class in 1965 − Bilingual children show superior cognitive processing when compared with monolingual peers Learning a second language: Is earlier better? − Hypothesis: Critical period for learning a second language that ends in childhood or in early teens − Earlier you learn, more years of experience you have − Very possible it is a sensitive period (rather than critical) to learn a 2 language (up to teens) Linguistic Influences on Thinking − Whorf: Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis – language influences and determines what we are capable of thinking o E.g. people with few words for colours have more difficulty perceiving colours − Instead of Whorf’s hypothesis, language can influence how we think, categorize info, and attend to daily experiences − Language can influence our perceptions, the decisions we make, and conclusions we draw (e.g. stereotypes) − May influence how well we think in certain domains (e.g. Asians better at math) o Due to words and symbols the languages use for numbers Neuroscience: The Bilingual Brain − Variability among people in how bilingual abilities are represented in the brain AND each language is represented by at least partially distinct neural networks − When people acquire a second language early in life/learn a high degree of proficiency, both languages use a common neural network o Some brain regions are more active when fluent bilinguals use their 2 language o Left inferior frontal gyrus has different centres for the diff languages o Superior temporal gyrus has no distinction nd − People who only moderately learn a 2 language have more variability in their patterns of neural activation Thinking Thought, Brain, and Mind − Conscious thought arises from the unified activity of different brain areas o A particular subset becomes joined in unified activity that is strong enough to become a conscious thought or perception o The specific pattern of brain activity that composes this subset varies from moment to moment and respond to changing stimuli − Thought exists as patterns of neural activity − At a psychological level, thinking is seen as an internal language (self-speech but it’s actually several mental activities − Modes of thinking o Propositional thought – verbal sentences that we say or hear in our minds (expresses a proposition, or statement) o Imaginal thought – images that we can see, hear, feel in our minds o Motoric thought – mental representations of motor movements − All 3 modes enter into our ability to reason, solve problems, engage in intelligent behaviour Concepts and Propositions − Propositions – statements that express ideas o Consist of concepts combined in a particular way − Concepts – basic units of semantic memory (mental categories into which we place objects, activities, abstractions, events that have features in common) − Concepts can be acquired though explicit instruction or through our own observations of similarities/differences among objects/events − Many concepts are defined by prototypes (the most typical/familiar members of a category) o Often decide which category something belongs to by its degree of resemblance to the prototype o Prototypes may differ as a result of personal experience, there is room for arbitrariness and individual differences in prototypic concepts Reasoning − Reasoning allows us to acquire knowledge, make sound decisions, solve problems o Helps us avoid hazards/time consuming efforts of trial and error − People solve problems by developing solutions in their minds before applying them to the real world Deductive Reasoning − Reason from the top-down, from general principles to a conclusion about a specific case − Begin with a set of premises (propositions assumed to be true) and determine what the premises imply about a specific situation − Basis of formal mathematics and logic − Conclusions cannot be false if the premises are true Inductive Reasoning − Reason from the bottom-up, start with specific facts and try to develop a general principle − Scientists use when they discover a general principle as a result of observing specific instances − Possibility of error remains because some new observation may disprove our conclusion Stumbling Blocks in Reasoning – factors preventing us from selecting the info needed to draw sound conclusions − Distraction by irrelevant info – need to focus only on relevant info − Belief basis – tendency to abandon logical rules in favour of our own personal beliefs − Emotions and framing – “trusting your gut” by following your emotions o Framing – the same info can be structured and presented in different ways Problem Solving − Use inductive and deductive reasoning to solve problems − Solving problems follows through 4 stages 1. Understanding, or framing the problem a. Framing effectively makes it easier to generate effective solutions b. Outside the box thinking 2. Generating potential solutions a. Determine which procedures and explanations will be considered b. Determine which solutions are consistent with the evidence that has so far been observed (Rule out any solutions that do not fit evidence) 3. Testing the solutions a. If 2 explanations, come up with test that would show 1 result if the first explanation is true, and vice versa b. Mental set – the tendency to stick to solutions that have worked in the past (can sometimes result in less-effective problem solving) 4. Evaluating results a. After solving a problem, ask yourself if there was an easier way to accomplish the same objective b. That question can lead to development of additional problem solving principles that may be applicable to future problems The role of Problem-Solving Schemas − Problem-solving schemas – mental blueprints/ step-by-step scripts for selecting info and solving specialized classes of problems Algorithms and Heuristics − Algorithms - formulas/procedures that automatically generate correct solutions o If you use them you always get the right answer (math/chem formulas) − Heuristics – general problem-solving strategies that we apply to certain classes of situations o Means-ends analysis – identify differences between the present situation and the desired state/goal then make changes that will reduce the differences o Subgoal analysis – formulating subgoals/intermediate steps toward a solution Uncertainty, Heuristics and Decision Making − Can’t make all life decisions with the absolute certainty of algorithms so we apply certain heuristics to form judgments of likelihood The representativeness heuristic − Representativeness heuristic – used to infer how closely something or someone fits our prototype for a particular concept, and therefore how likely it is to be a member of that class − Sometimes representativeness causes us to make decisions that aren’t logical o Because some people confuse representativeness with probability o Priming – activating the elements in memory that are associated with a concept The availability heuristic − Availability heuristic – causes us to base judgments/decisions on the availibity of info in memory o We remember events that are most important/significant to us o However, if something comes to mind easily, we may exaggerate the likelihood that it could occur o Can blind us to the base rates (actual frequencies) at which things occur Confirmation Bias and Overconfidence − Disconfirming evidence proves conclusively that our idea cannot be true in its current form − Confirming evidence only supports our idea o Doesn’t prove with certainty (possible that future observation will disconfirm it) − Confirmation bias – we tend to look for evidence that will confirm what we currently believe rather than looking for evidence that could disconfirm our beliefs − Overconfidence – tendency to overestimate one’s correctness in factual knowledge, beliefs, and decisions (a reason people do not challenge their beliefs) o Stems from people’s need to see themselves as knowledgeable, and competent Guidelines for Creative Problem Solving − Creativity- ability to produce something new and valuable − Experience teaches us useful heuristics and problem solving schemas − Creativity is the ability to break out of conventional schemas when the occasion demands it and to engage in divergent thinking (the generation of novel ideas that epart from the norm – being able to apply concepts or propositions from one domain to another unrelated domain in a manner that produces a new insight and refusing to be constrained by traditional approaches to a problem − Functional fixedness – the tendency to be so fixed in their perception of the proper function of an object/procedure that they are blinded to new ways of using it − Incubation – as if the problem is incubating and being worked on at a subconscious level (a creative solution to a problem seemingly appears out of the blue after we have temporarily given up and put the problem aside) o Sometimes putting a problem aside temporarily causes mental sets and other biases to dissipate somewhat allowing a new idea to emerge o Over time new internal/external stimuli may activate a different perspective on the problem Knowledge, expertise, and wisdom Acquiring Knowledge: Schemas and Scripts − Schema - a mental framework, an organized pattern of thought about some aspect of the world o Categories and concepts represent types of schemas, and together help you build a mental framework of your world o Algorithms and heuristics are types of schemas- problem solving schemas that provide you with mental frameworks for solving certain types of problems − Script – a type of schema that is a mental framework concerning a sequence of events that usually unfolds in a regular, almost standardized order o The scripts you learn provide knowledge to guide and interpret actions − Your knowledge grows as you acquire new scripts, concepts and other types of schemas The Nature of Expertise − Schemas help explain what it is to be an expert o Experts in all fields have developed many schemas to guide problem solving in their field (are better at recognizing when each schema should be applied) Expert Schemas and Memory − Schemas reside in long term memory − Experts can analyze a problem deductively, select the retrieval cues needed to pull the appropriate schema from memory and apply the schema to solve the problem at hand − Novices haven’t yet learned specialized schemas must use general problem solving methods in working memory − As you develop expertise, the brain functioning changes in ways that increase processing efficiency o Also occurs in animals What is Wisdom? − Wisdom – represents a system of knowledge about the meaning and conduct of life − Wisdom has 5 major components o Rich factual knowledge about life (includes knowledge about human nature, social relationships, and major life events) o Rich procedural knowledge about life (includes strategies for making decisions, handling conflicts, and giving advice) o An understanding of lifespan contexts (includes an awareness that life involves many contexts such as family, friends, work and leisure o An awareness of the relativism of values and uncertainty (includes recognizing that values and priorities differ across people and societies o The ability to recognize and manage uncertainty (stems from an awareness that the future cannot be fully known) − Expertise and wisdom are NOT the same thing Mental Imagery − Mental image – a representation of a stimulus that originates inside your brain rather than from external sensory input (e.g. dreams) − Athletes receive psychological training in how to effectively use mental imagery to rehearse skills Mental Rotation − People rotate one object in their mind’s eye until it lines up sufficiently with the other object to permit a same-different judgment Are Mental Images Pictures in the Mind? − Researchers believe that mental images function in ways analogous to actual visual images and are represented in the brain as a type of perceptual code o If that’s true, mental images should have qualities similar to those that occur when we perceive objects, and scenes in the real world Mental Imagery as perception − Mental images involve a spatial representation − Also had experiments conducted that indicated that the size and level of detail of mental images can be changed in ways that correspond to perceiving actual objects Mental Imagery as language − Some researchers argue that mental imagery is more closely tied to language than to visual perception o E.g. creating a mental image of a wall, “wall” is being represented by linguistic concepts that are brought together to form propositions Mental Imagery and the Brain − If mental imagery is rooted in perception, then people who experience brain damage that causes perceptual difficulties might also be expected to show similar impairments in forming mental images o This seems to be the case but there are exceptions − Visual neglect (damages usually on the right hemisphere) – failing to visually perceive objects on the other side (left side) − Many brain regions that become more active when people perceive actual objects also become more active when people form mental images of those objects − Imagery neurons – fire in response to a particular stimulus regardless of whether it is visual or imagined − While mental imagery and visual perception do not map onto all the same neural components, there is a lot of overlap btwn the 2 processes Metacognition: Knowing your own Cognitive Abilities Recognizing what you do and don’t know − Metacognition – your awareness and understanding of your own cognitive abilities o Has to do with truly knowing whether you do or don’t understand a concept − Metacomprehension – people with good metacomprehension are accurate in judging what they do or don’t know − Metamemory – represents your awareness and knowledge of your memory capabilities Chapter 10: Intelligence − Intelligence is a socially constructed concept − Intelligence – the ability to acquire knowledge, to think and reason effectively, and to deal adaptively with the environment Intelligence in Historical Perspective − Sir Francis Galton and Alfred Binet Sir Frances Galton: Quantifying Mental Ability − Cousin of Charles Darwin, influenced by Darwin’s theory of evolution − Showed that eminence and genius seemed to occur within certain families − Convinced that eminent people had “inherited mental constitutions” that made them more fit for thinking then their less successful counterparts o Didn’t notice that more successful people he studied almost always came from privileged environments − Used lab experiments e.g. measuring reaction time, hand strength, even measured skulls size − Approach fell to disfavour because his measures of nervous-system efficiency proved unrelated to socially relevant measures of mental ability (e.g. academic and occupational success) Alfred Binet’s Mental Tests − Commissioned by France’s Ministry of Public Education to develop the test that would become the forerunner of modern intelligence tests − Interested in solving a practical problem rather than supporting a theory − Made 2 assumptions about intelligence o Mental abilities develop with age o The rate at which people gain mental competence is a characteristic of the person and is fairly constant over time − Developed a standard interview to determine whether a child was performing at the correct mental level for their age o Result of the testing was a score called “mental age” (e.g. an 8 year old solving problems at a level of an average 10 year old has a mental age of 10) − William stern provided a relative score for people of different chronological ages o Intelligence quotient (IQ) – the ratio of mental age to chronological age; multiplied by 100 (if you perform at your actual age, have an IQ of 100) − Today’s tests don’t use the concept of mental age o Provide an IQ score that isn’t a quotient at all o Based on one’s performance relative to the scores of other people the same age (score of 100 corresponding to the average performance of that age group) Binet’s Legacy: An Intelligence-Testing Industry Emerges − Standford-Binet (revised test by Lewis Terman) o Became the gold standard for measuring mental aptitude o Yielded a single IQ score − Army Alpha – verbally oriented test used to screen large numbers of US army recruits for intellectual fitness − Army-Beta – for those recruits that couldn’t read − Lorge-Thorndike Intelligence Test and Otis-Lennon School Ability Test used in schools − David Wechsler made another test that relied on both verbal and non-verbal abilities o Wechsler tests are the most popular individually administered intelligence tests in North America The Nature of Intelligence − 2 major approaches in the study of intelligence o Psychometric approach – attempts to map the structure of intellect and to discover the kinds of mental competencies that underlie test performance o Cognitive processes approach – studies the specific thought processes that underlie those mental competencies The Psychometric Approach: The Structure of Intellect − Psychometrics – statistical study of psychological tests − Tries to identify and measures the abilities that underlie individual differences in performance − Tries to provide a measurement-based map of the mind Factor Analysis − To identify the mental abilities of the human mind, researchers administer diverse measures of mental abilities and correlate them with one another o If certain tests are correlated highly with one another – then performance on these tests probably reflects the same underlying mental skill o If the tests in a cluster correlate highly with one another but not with other tests, then the various clusters probably reflect different mental abilities o Researchers hope to determine the number of test clusters and infer the nature of the underlying abilities − Factor analysis – statistical technique reduces a large number of measures to a smaller number of clusters/factors, with each cluster containing variables that correlate highly with one another but less highly with variables in other clusters − a factor allows us to infer the underlying characteristic that presumably accounts for the links among the variables in the cluster − factor analysis can’t say what the tests are measuring, just identify the clusters − even though the factors are distinct from each other, they also share something in common The g factor: Intelligence as General Mental Capacity − Charles Spearmen − Found that grades in school were generally correlated positively − Regarded the correlations as evidence that a more basic/general mental capacity contributed to the specific clusters − Concluded that intellectual performance is determined partly by a g factor – general intelligence; and partly by whatever special abilities may be required to perform a particular task o Because the g factor cuts across all tasks, it constitutes the core of intelligence − Many theorists still believe this, and that it is a predictor of academic and job performance Intelligence as Specific Mental Abilities − L.L. Thurstone − Concluded that human mental performance depends on 7 distinct abilities (called “primary mental abilities” o Space – reasoning about visual scenes o Verbal comprehension – understanding verbal statements o Word fluency – producing verbal statements o Number facility – dealing with numbers o Perceptual speed – recognizing visual patterns o Rote memory – memorizing o Reasoning – dealing with novel problems − Educators find the specific –abilities notion of intelligence more attractive/useful than the general mental ability model − More interested in identifying the specific mental skills involved in learning subjects (e.g. math) Crystallized and Fluid Intelligence − Raymond Cattell and John Horn proposed a new model of intelligence − Broke down general intelligence into 2 distinct but related subtypes of g (w/ a correlation of about 0.50) o Crystallized intelligence – the ability to apply previously acquired knowledge to current problems  Basis for expertise  Depends on the ability to retrieve previously learned info and problem- solving schemas from long-term memory  Long –term memory contributes srongly o Fluid intelligence – the ability to deal with novel problem-solving situations for which personal experience does not provide a solution  Involves inductive reasoning and creative problem –solving skills  Dependent primarily on the efficient functioning of the CNS rather than on prior experience  High fluid intelligence = can perceive relations among stimulus patterns and draw inferences from relationships  Requires the ability to reason abstractly, think logically, manage info in working (short-term) memory o Over our lifespan we progress from using fluid intelligence to depending more on crystallized intelligence  Encounter new problems earlier in life so we need fluid  As experience makes us more knowledgeable, have less need for fluid o Performance on crystallized improves into adulthood and remains stable into late adulthood o Performance on fluid decreases as people enter late adulthood o Fact that aging affects the 2 forms of intelligence acts as evidence that they represent different classes of mental abilities Carroll’s Three-Stratum Model: A Modern Synthesis − Carroll’s integrative model of intelligence contained elements of Spearman’s, Thurstone’s, and Cattell-Horn’s models − 3-stratum theory of cognitive abilities – established 3 levels of mental skills arranged in hierarchical order o General – a g factor thought to underlie most mental activity o Broad – 8 broad intellectual factors: fluid intelligence, crystallized intelligence, general memory and learning, broad visual perception, broad auditory perception, broad retrieval ability, broad cognitive speediness, processing speed (reaction time/decision speed) – arranged from most to least influenced by or correlated with g o Narrow – 70 highly specific cognitive abilities that feed into the broader second- stratum factors (these abilities tend to correlate around 0.30 with one another Cognitive Process Approaches: The Nature of Intelligent Thinking − Psychometric theories are statistically sophisticated ways of providing a map of the mind and describing how people differ from one another o Can’t explain why people vary in these mental skills − Cognitive process theories – explore the specific info-processing and cognitive processes that underlie intellectual ability Robert Sternberg − leading guy of cognitive processes approach to intelligence − Triarchic theory of intelligence – addresses the psychological processes involved in intelligent behaviour and the forms that intelligence can take − Divides the cognitive processes into 3 components − 1) Metacomponents – higher-order processes used to plan and regulate task performance o Include problem-solving skills o Metacomponents said to be the fundamental sources of individual differences in fluid intelligence o Found that intelligent people spend more time framing problems and developing strategies than less intelligent people do − 2) Performance components – actual mental processes used to perform the task o Include perceptual processing, retrieving appropriate memories and schemas from long-term memory, generating responses − 3) Knowledge acquisition components – allow us to learn from our experiences, store info in memory and combine new insights with previously acquired info o underlie individual differences in crystallized intelligence − believed there was more than one kind of intelligence o suggested that environmental demands may call for 3 different classes of adaptive problem solving and that people differ in their intellectual strengths in these areas  analytical intelligence - involves the kinds of academically oriented problem-solving skills measured by traditional intelligence tests  practical intelligence – skills needed to cope with everyday demands and to manage oneself and other people effectively  creative intelligence – mental skills needed to deal adaptively with novel problems o shown that the above forms of intelligences have an underlying g factor and are also distinct from each other Broader Conceptions of Intelligence: Beyond Mental Competencies − believe that intelligence can be conceived as relatively independent intelligences that relate to different adaptive demands Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences − defines 8 distinct varieties of adaptive abilities, and possible 9 1. linguistic intelligence – the ability to use language well, as writers do 2. logical-mathematical intelligence – the ability to reason mathematically and logically 3. visuospatial intelligence – the ability to solve spatial problems or to succeed in a field such as architecture 4. musical intelligence – the ability to perceive pitch and rhythm and to understand and procedure music 5. bodily-kinesthetic intelligence – the ability to control body movements and skilfully manipulate objects, as demonstrated by a highly skilled dancer, athlete, or surgeon 6. interpersonal intelligence – the ability to understand and relate well to others 7. intrapersonal intelligence – the ability to understand oneself 8. naturalistic intelligence – the ability to detect and understand phenomena in the natural world, as a zoologist or meteorologist might 9. existential intelligence – a philosophically oriented ability to ponder questions about the meaning of one’s existence, life, and death − the first 3 are measured by existing intelligence tests, other’s aren’t − the form of intelligence that is most highly valued with in a given culture depends on the adaptive requirements of that culture − different classes of abilities require the functioning of separate but interacting modules in the brain − this view remains controversial Emotional Intelligence − some theorists believe that emotional competence is a form of intelligence − emotional intelligence – involves the abilities to read other’s emotions accurately, to respond to them appropriately, to motivate oneself, to be aware of one’s own emotions, and to regulate and control one’s own emotional response − emotional intelligence includes 4 components o perceiving emotions o using emotions to facilitate thought o understanding emotions o managing emotions − measure ‘perceiving emotions’ by people’s accuracy in judging emotional expressions in facial photos and emotional tones conveyed by landscapes/designs − ‘using emotions to facilitate thought’ measured by asking people to identify the emotions that would best enhance a particular type of thinking − ‘understanding emotions’ measured by asking people to specify the conditions under which their emotions change in intensity or type − ‘managing emotions’ measured by asking respondents to indicate how they can change their own or other’s emotions to facilitate success or increase interpersonal harmony − Suggested that emotionally intelligent people form strong emotional bonds with others, enjoy greater success in careers, marriage, childbearing etc. o Tend to use more effective coping strategies − Some people prefer ‘emotional competence’ to ‘mental intelligence’ The Measurement of Intelligence − Weschler tests most popular testing in North America (WAIS-II and WISC-IV) − The WAIS-II consists of subtests that fall into 2 categories – verbal and performance − A psychologist can plot a profile based on each subtest to assess a person’s pattern of intellectual strengths and weaknesses − Tests yield 3 summary scores o Verbal IQ – based on the sum of the verbal subtests o Performance IQ – based on the performance subtests o Full-Scale IQ – based on all the subtests Increasing the Informational Yield from Intelligence Tests − Used to have only 1 IQ score − Now have separate scores for verbal reasoning, abstract/visual reasoning, quantitative reasoning, short-term memory − WSC-IV used for children between 6 and 11 has separate scores for verbal comprehension, perceptual organization, freedom from distractibility and processing speed o Easier to determine strengths and weaknesses − As children age, their general intelligence remains stable but specific abilities become more differentiated Theory-Based Intelligence Tests − Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test and Woodcock-Johnson Psycho- Educational Battery designed to measure fluid and crystallized abilities separately o Popular in educational, job-screening and clinical settings o Inspired by cattell-horn distinction between fluid and crystallized intelligence − Sternberg Triarchic Ability Test (STAT) measures the 3 forms of intelligence identified in his model (analytic, practical, creative) o Inspired by Sternberg’s Triarchic model of intelligence Should we test for aptitude or achievement? − Achievement test – find out how much you’ve learned so far in your life o PRO: Usually a good predictor of future performance in a similar situation o CON: assumes that everyone has had the same opportunity to learn the material being tested − Aptitude test – go beyond prior learning, thought to measure the applicant’s potential for future learning/performance o PRO: more fair, depends less on prior knowledge than on a person’s ability to react to the problems presented on the test o CON: difficult to construct a test that is independent of prior learning  Test may require an ability to deal with puzzles that is not relevant to success in situations other than the test itself − Most intelligence tests measure both Psychometric Standards for intelligence tests − Psychological test – method for measuring individual differences related to some psychological concept/construct based on a sample of relevant behaviour in a scientifically designed/controlled situation − In intelligence testing, intelligence is the construct and scores are its operational definition 1. Need to know which behaviours serve as indicators of intellectual abilities 2. Devise test items that allow us to assess the individual differences in those behaviours 3. Need evidence that sample actually measures the abilities we are assessing 4. Collect a sample of relevant behaviour under standardized conditions to control other factors that could influences responses to the items − Key measurement concepts − Reliability – consistency of measurement o Can refer to consistency of measurement over time (intelligence is known as a stable trait)  Test-retest reliability – assessed by administering the measure to the same group of participants on separate occasions and correlating the sets of scores o Consistency of measurement by items within the test itself  Internal consistency – all the items are measuring the same skill o Consistency in scores assigned by different examiners  Interjudge reliability – 2 people score the same event with the same score − Validity – how well a test actually measures what it is designed to measure o Construct validity – when a test successfully measures the psychological construct it is designed to measure o Content validity – whether the items on a test measure all the knowledge/skills that are assumed to underlie the construct of interest o Criterion-related validity – ability of test scores to correlate with meaningful criterion measures o Intelligence and academic performance  Intelligence tests have positive correlations with academic success o Job performance, income, and longevity  Intelligence tests also predict military and job performance  Intelligence correlates positively with the level of socioeconomic status people attain in adulthood  Highly intelligent people show better recovery from brain injuries  Intelligent people are more likely to engage in healthy behaviours allowing them to live longer and healthier lives − Standardization – the development of norms and rigorously controlled testing procedures o Collection of norms (test scores derived from a large sample that represents particular age segments of the population) o Scores provide a basis for interpreting a given individual’s score o Normative data allows us to recalibrate the distribution of test scores so that an IQ of 100 remains the “average” o Normal distribution – a bell-shaped curve with most scores clustering around the centre of the curve o The Flynn effect: are we getting smarter?  World’s population is scoring progressively higher on intelligence tests (rising curve phenomenon – also called the Flynn effect)  MAYBE due to better nutrition fueling the IQ increase (increased brain functioning)  MAYBE More complex environments that require more complex coping have increased mental abilities  MAYBE technological advances shape our skills o Testing conditions: static and dynamic testing  Static testing – make sure all the testees are responding to as similar a stimulus situation as possible so that their scores will be solely a reflection of their ability  Dynamic testing – standard test followed by interaction where examiner gives feedback to respondent on how to improve performance and observes how the person utilizes the info • May disclose cognitive capacities not revealed by static testing • Useful when people haven’t had equal learning opportunities • Tends to improve testing scores • Useful in cultures not used to taking western-style tests Assessing Intelligence in Non-Western Cultures − Standard western tests aren’t useful in non-western cultures where smart is defined in diff ways − Sternberg’s Theory of Successful Intelligence – intelligences is whatever is required to meet the adaptive demands of a given culture o Believes that fundamental mental skills (metacomponents) are required for successful behaviour in any culture o People from diff cultures may think about the same problem in different ways o Choose reasoning problems not tied to the knowledge base of any culture BUT reflect the ability to process and evaluate stimulus patterns o Create measures that are tailored to the kinds of knowledge and skills that are valued in the particular culture o If intelligence is defined as the ability to engage in culture-specific adaptive behaviour, then a culture-specific measure is a valid measure of intelligence in that context Brain Size and Intelligence − Over time, brain size increased in humans (especially growth in areas of higher functioning – cerebral and frontal cortex) − Neanderthals had slightly larger brains than us − Women’s brains are generally smaller although men and women have equal IQ’s − Different amounts of white and grey matter are devoted to intelligence in men and women (men have more grey matter – related to general intelligence; women have more white matter – have superior connectivity) − Areas related to general intelligence more centralized in women than in men Galton resurrected: Intelligence and Neural Efficiency − Galton attempted to develop measures of NS efficiency that might underlie mental skills o Fell to disfavour − Favouring Galton: Relations shown between traditionally measured IQ and the nature and speed of the brain’s electrical response to stimuli o Electrical responses may reflect speed and efficiency of info processing in the brain − Favouring Galton: PET scans show people of high intelligence show lower levels of glucose consumption (suggests that their brains are working more efficiently and expending less energy) − Brain plasticity – the ability of the brain to change by forming new connections among neurons in response to environmental input (may be a key neural factor underlying differences in intelligence) o Plasticity would increase speed and efficiency − May be a critical period for growth of new neural circuits that ends at 16ish, the same age period by which crystallized intelligence seems to achieve stability Heredity, Environment, and Intelligence − Genes and environment play role in intelligence − Strong genetic component, more than ½, maybe 2/3 of the within-group variation in IQ is attributable to genetic factors − More genes people have in common, more similar the IQ − Genetic factors become even more important as we age o New genes come online to affect intelligence as more-advanced cognitive processes emerge during development − Not a single “intelligence gene − Environment accounts for 30-50% of the IQ variation among people − Shared environmental factors (the family environment) o Children who are removed from deprived environments and placed in middle/upper class environment show a gradual increase in IQ, about 10-12 points o Children who remain in deprived environments have deteriorating IQ’s − Flynn effect probably due to better/longer schooling and stimulating environments and technological advances and better nutrition − School attendance can raise IQ (opportunity to practice mental skills) − Changing the learning environment early in life is more effective than later Group Differences in Intelligence Ethnic Group Differences − National comparisons show that Japanese children have the highest mean IQ scores in the world (mean of 111) − In US, Asian-Americans place below white American norms on verbal skills but somewhat higher in tests related to spatial and mathematical reasoning − African-Americans score on average about 12-15 points below the White American average Are the Tests Biased? − Said that the tests are based on Euro-American White culture, so they are culturally biased − Outcome bias – the extent that a test underestimates a person’s true intellectual ability − Predictive bias – if the tests successfully predicts criterion measures (e.g. school performance) for some groups but not for others What factors underlie the difference? − Nurture side: a higher proportion of white-american’s are raised and schooled in enriched environments (over time the opportunities become more equal resulting in a score gap decrease) − Family environment could account for 2/3’s of the IQ gap − Scientists overemphasizing the difference between racial groups when the actual big gaps are within racial groups Sex differences in Cognitive Abilities − Men out-perform women on some spatial tasks − Men more accurate in target-directed skills e.g. throwing/catching objects − Men perform slightly better on tests of mathematical reasoning − Women perform better on tests of perceptual speed, verbal fluency, and mathematical calculation − Women better at precise manual tasks requiring fine-motor coordination − Environmental factors – tasks men and women are stereotypically steered towards − Hormones alter brain organization and extend to behavioural differences including aggression and problem-solving approaches − As women age (menopause) there are fluctuations in task performance due to hormone change Extremes of Intelligence − Upper end – intellectually gifted − Low end – mentally retarded/cognitively disabled Intellectually Gifted − IQ of 130 or over (top 10% of the population) − Often exceptional in one area but average in others − Not many children maintain giftedness into later life − Eminence is a special variety of giftedness due to: o Highly developed mental abilities (general and specific abilities) o Ability to engage in creative problem solving o Motivation and dedication − Often need special education opportunities Cognitively Disabled − 3-5% of the North American population − Can be mild, moderate, severe, profound (based on IQ scores) − Institutional care usually required for the profound level − Mildly disabled children can still attend school (have problems with learning though) − Caused by genetic, biological and environmental factors − Genetic abnormalities – 28% of all mental retardation cases o Over 100 genetic causes e.g. down syndrome (problem with 21 chromosome pair − Profound retardation does NOT run in families − Can be caused by accidents at birth e.g. oxygen deprivation (anoxia) − Mild Retardation 50-70 IQ o 85% of the retarded population o Often not noticed in childhood − Moderate Retardation 35-50 IQ o 10% of the retarded population o Noticeable delays in development (especially speech) o Usually incapable of self-maintenance − Severe Retardation 20-35 IQ o 4% of the retarded population o Little to no communication skill o Needs supervision in protective environment − Profound Retardation below 20 IQ o 1% of the retarded population o Incapable of self-maintenance (needs nursing care) Chapter 11: Motivation and Emotion − Motivation – a process that influences the direction, persistence, and vigour of goal- directed behaviour Perspectives on Motivation Instinct theory and evolutionary psychology − Instinct – inherited predisposition to behave in a specific and predictable way when exposed to a particular stimulus o Have a genetic basis, don’t depend on learning, have survival value − Lost support because it wasn’t easy to prove − Today scientists examine hereditary contributions to human motivation more productively o Twin/adoption studies (how much heredity accounts for differences among people in aspects of their motivated behaviour) − Many evolutionary psychologists propose that many psychological motives have evolutionary underpinnings that are expressed through the actions of genes o The adaptive significance is the key to understanding motivation Homeostasis and Drive Theory − Homeostatic negative loop (control centre compares with set point, points to response system which changes the internal state which is then compared again) works with behaviours too e.g. if it’s hot you seek shade − Drive theory – disruptions to homeostasis produce drives - states of internal tension that motivate an organism to behave in ways that reduce that tension e.g. thirst − Proposed that reducing drives is the ultimate goal of motivated behaviour Incentive and Expectancy Theories − Incentives – environmental stimuli that “pull” an organism towards a goal − Incentive theories focus on external stimuli that motivate behaviour o Drives and incentives are often linked − Emphasizes that stimuli with high incentive value can motivate behaviour, even in the absence of biological need − Cognitive perspective: expectancy x value theory a.k.a. expectancy theory – goal- directed behaviour is jointly determined by the strength of the person’s expectation that particular behaviour will lead to the goal AND the value the individual places on that goal (incentive value) o Factors are multiplied; motivation = expectancy x incentive value − Cognitive: extrinsic motivation – performing an activity to obtain an external reward/avoid punishment − Cognitive: intrinsic motivation – performing an activity for its own sake − Overjustification hypothesis – giving people extrinsic reward to perform activities that they already intrinsically enjoy may “overjustify” that behaviour and reduce intrinsic motivation Psychodynamic and Humanistic Theories − Freud’s dual-instinct model – behaviour results in a battle between unconscious impulses struggling to be released and psychological defenses used to keep them under control o Energy from the unconscious motives is often disguised/ expressed through socially acceptable behaviours − Today, psychodynamic theories say unconscious motives and conscious mental processes guide how we act and feel − Humanistic: deficiency needs – concerned with physical and social survival o Growth needs – uniquely human and motivate us to develop our potential − Humanistic: need hierarchy – progression of needs containing deficiency needs at the bottom and growth needs at the top o Once physiological needs are satisfied we focus on safety and security o Self-actualization represents the need to fulfill our potential (the ultimate human motive) − Humanistic: self-determination theory – focuses on needs: competence, autonomy, relatedness o People are most fulfilled when they are able to satisfy these needs o When they aren’t met, there is consequences for psychological and physical well- being o Competence motivation – need to master new challenges/perfect skills o Autonomy needs – when people experiences their actions as a result of free choice o Relatedness – desire to form meaningful bonds with others Hunger and Weight Regulation The Physiology of Hunger − Metabolism – body’s rate of energy/calorie utilization − 2/3 of energy we use goes to basal metabolism (resting, metabolic work of body cells − “short-term” signals that start meals by producing hunger and stop food intake by producing satiety (when we don’t feel hungry anymore as a result of eating) − “long-term” signals adjust appetite and metabolism to compensate for times when you overeat or not enough in a short term − Hunger isn’t linked to immediate energy needs − Homeostatic mechanisms used to prevent you from running low on energy − Set point – internal physiological standard around which body weight/fat mass is regulated Signals that start and terminate a meal − Glucose – simple sugar that is the body’s major source of immediately usable fuel − After a meal, glucose transported to cells to provide energy, a large part is transferred to liver/fat cells where it’s converted into other nutrients and stored for later − Sensors in hypothalamus/liver monitor blood glucose concentrations − BG low, liver converts stored nutrients back into glucose − Stomach and intestinal distention = satiety signals o Walls of organs stretch as food fills them, sends nerve signals to the brain o Nutritionally rich food produces satiety more quickly than less nutritional food − Intestines respond to food by releasing peptides that help terminate a meal o Cholecystokinin (CCK) is released into bloodstream and travels to the brain where it stimulates receptors in several regions that decrease eating Signals that regulate general appetite and weight − **Fat cells actively regulate food intake and weight by secreting leptin (hormone that decreases appetite) − As we gain fat, more leptin secreted, travels to brain, receptor sites on certain neurons detect it − Leptin signals influence neural pathways to decrease appetite and increase energy expenditure − Leptin doesn’t make you feel full, may increase the potency of satiety signals − As we lose fat, less leptin secretion, takes more food to feel full Brain Mechanisms − Lateral hypothalamus and ventromedial hypothalamus seemed to be “hunger on and off centres” but were found just to play a role in hunger regulation − The paraventricular nucleus (PVN – a cluster of neurons that stimulate/reduce appetite) is involved in many neural circuits − PVN appears to integrate several short-term and long-term signals that influence metabolic and digestive processes o Neuropeptide Y (a transmitter) is an appetite stimulant o When leptin reaches the hypothalamus, it seems to inhibit the activity of neurons that release neuropeptide Y into the PVN (reducing appetite) Excessive Exercise: Activity Anorexia − Eating is increasingly suppressed when exercise becomes excessive − Activity anorexia seen as the animal model of the eating disorder anorexia nervosa Psychological Aspects of Hunger − Behavioural perspective: Eating is positively reinforced by the taste of food and negatively reinforced by hunger reduction − Cognitive perspective: develop an expectation that eating is pleasurable (becomes a motivator to seek/consume food) − Attitudes, habits and psychological needs regulate food intake e.g. “don’t leave food on your plate” − Men’s perceptions serve to keep them satisfied with their figures while women’s perceptions place pressure on them to lose weight − Objectification theory – western culture teaches women to view their bodies as objects, this increases body shame and anxiety  leads to eating restrictions/eating disorders Environmental and Cultural Factors − Portion size, who is present during a meal, how much others eat, variety of food changes − Food variety increases consumption Obesity − BMI between 25-29.9 = overweight, over 30 = obese Genes and Environment − Heredity influences our basal metabolic rate and tendency to store energy as either fat or lean tissue − Genetic factors account for 40-70% of the variation in body mass − Over 200 genes are possible contributors to obesity − Environmental factors: o Lots of inexpensive, high-fat foods o Emphasis on “getting the best value” which contributes to “supersizing” the menu o Technological advances, decreases need for physical activity − High levels of dopamine in the brain’s “reward pathway” make some people really sensitive to the rewarding properties of food Dieting and Weight Loss − Obese people generally have higher levels of insulin, increases the conversion of glucose to fat − Substantial weight gain makes it harder to exercise vigorously − Dieting slows basal metabolism as body responds to food deprivation with decreased energy expenditure − Diet + exercise has a better success rate than just dieting The Battle to Control Eating and Weight − Nutritionally rich foods (makes you feel full faster) are lower in fat and calories than nutritionally empty foods − Cues that predict the arrival of food can make us feel hungry e.g. smells o Can stimulate the release of insulin which stimulates the transfer of glucose from the blood into the cells of the body (drop in blood glucose levels) o Secretion of insulin linked with increased hunger − If you eat an appetizer, you’ll eat more in the main course (increases your appetite) o Increases variety which increases consumption o Stimulates insulin secretion = low blood glucose levels = increased hunger − Weight is gained back more slowly if you lose it through exercise than if you had lost it through diet o Dieting loses lean and fat mass while exercise is just fat mass o Exercise leads to increase in basal metabolic rate o Increased basal metabolic rate will help you burn more calories even when not exercising Sexual Motivation − Sex is known as a biological drive (pleasure is the key) − More teens said they have sex more due to peer pressure than due to sexual gratification − Most women viewed sex as an unenjoyable martial duty − Many women find their first sexual intercourse disappointing − 10% of men, 20% of women say sex is not pleasurable Sexual behaviour: patterns and changes − 70% of people between 18-59 have sex with a partner a few times a month − People who live together but aren’t married have the most sex − Single adults who don’t cohabit are least active − Men masturbate and fantasize about sex more than women do − 25% of men, 10% women masturbate one or more times a week − 60%of men, 40% of women masturbate once a year − Men have their first sexual experience 1-2 years before females − People don’t masturbate just because they don’t have a partner o 85% of men, 45% of women masturbate once a year if they have a partner − 23% of guys, 19% of girls in gr 9 had had sexual intercourse − Premarital sex is more common now o Due to social norms, tendency to delay marriage − May be reversing due to cultural emphasis on relationships coming back and more stuff about AIDS − 360,000 people worldwide contract an STD a day, 125 million a year The physiology of sex The sexual Response Cycle − 4 stage sexual response cycle when sexually aroused − 1) Excitement phase – arousal builds rapidly o Blood flow increases to the arteries in/around genitals, nipples, breasts (pooling causes the body parts to swell – called vasocongestion) o The clitoris and penis become erect, the vagina becomes lubricated, muscle tension increases throughout the body − 2) Plateau phase – respiration, HR, vasocongestion, muscle tension continue to build until there is enough muscle tension to trigger orgasm − 3) Orgasm phase o In males, rhythmic contractions of internal organs and muscle tissue surrounding the urethra project semen out the penis o In females, rhythmic contractions of the outer 1/3 of the vagina, surrounding muscles and the uterus − 4) Resolution phase – in males where physiological arousal decreases rapidly and the genital organs and tissues return to their normal condition (then they enter a refractory period where they are temporarily incapable of another orgasm) − Females may have 2 or 3 more successive orgasms before the onset of resolution phase (most women only have 1) Hormonal Influences − Hypothalamus plays role in sexual motivation o Controls the pituitary gland which regulates the secretion of gonadotropin hormones into the bloodstream − These hormones affect the rate at which the gonads (testes and ovaries) secrete androgens (the “masculine” sex hormones such as testosterone and “feminine” sex hormones, the estrogens such as estradiol − Both men and women produce androgens and estrogens − Sex hormones have organizational effects that direct the development of male/female sex characteristics − Male/female embryos form a primitive gonad that has the potential to develop into either testes OR ovaries − If male, the embryo forms testes about 8 weeks after conception o Then the testes release sex hormones during a key period of prenatal development, there is usually enough androgen activity to produce a male pattern of genital, reproductive, brain and other organ development o Years later the hypothalamus stimulates an increased release of sex hormones from the testes when a male reaches puberty − If female, the embryo doesn’t form testes and doesn’t have sufficient androgen activity during the prenatal period, a female pattern of development ensues o At puberty the hypothalamus stimulates the release of sex hormones from the ovaries on a cyclical basis that regulates the female menstruation cycle − Sex hormones have activational effects that stimulate sexual desire and behaviour o Begin at puberty when the individual’s gonads begin to secrete sex hormones o Mature males have a relatively constant secretion of sex hormones and their readiness for sex is governed by the pr
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