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Psychology 1000
Bradley Miller

Psychology Final Exam Guide Chapter 14:Personality - People differ in how they think feel, and act - Concept of personality rests on observation that people behave consistently over time FREUD - Phenomena known as conversion hysteria convinced Freud of the power of the unconscious mind - Instinctual drives generate psychic energy that powers the mind and constantly presses for direct/indirect release - Mental events can be: Conscious – aware-immediate awareness of current environment Preconscious – unaware, but can be called into consciousness (name of friends) Unconscious – lie beyond our awareness (biggest in size & importance)- infantile memories Id – contained entirely in unconscious, Source of all psychic energy, Present at birth - Operates according to the pleasure principle: seeks immediate gratification/release, regardless of rational considerations - No direct contact with reality  irrational - Indirectly influences reality through the ego Ego – primarily in conscious, Develops after birth; direct contact with reality - Operates according to the reality principle: takes reality into account in order to act in a rational fashion in satisfying needs - Tries to delay gratification until conditions are safe and appropriate - “Executive of the personality”: balances demands of the Id, demands of reality, and constraints of the superego Superego – all areas of the mind • Last structure to develop (4 - 5 years of age) • Moral arm of personality – contains values and ideals of society, which are internalized through parents • Operates under the aspect of self-control: morality over reality • Always trying to block/hinder gratification – can result in guilt, shame, embarrassment, pride Never-ending struggle: • Id trying to discharge instinctive energy • The opposing forces generated by the ego and the superego • Confrontation results in anxiety – motivates the ego to act DEFENSE MECHANISMS: Realistic strategies may be ineffective at reducing anxiety In these cases, the ego resorts to defense mechanisms: unconsciously denies or distorts reality Table 14.1, p. 547 • Repression: ego pushes anxiety-arousing impulses from the conscious to the unconscious mind • Sublimation: a repressed impulse is released in the form of a socially acceptable behaviour Psychosocial Development: CHILDREN GO THROUGH THESE ZONES: *Deprivation during a stage of psychosexual development results in fixation- state of arrested development in which instincts are focused on a particular psychic theme Opponents of Freud Neoanalytic: Disagreed with Freud on certain aspects: • role of social & cultural factors • too much emphasis on infantile sexuality and childhood events Erikson – personality develops over the lifespan Adler – personality is motivated by social interest Carl Jung – Analytic Psychology • Expanded on Freud’s notion of unconscious • Humans possess both a: – personal unconscious: based on life experiences – collective unconscious: memories accumulated throughout the history of the human race • Memories are represented by archetypes: innate tendencies to interpret experiences – symbols, myths, beliefs Object Relations Theorists • Focus on the images or mental representations that people form of themselves and others as a result of early experiences with caregivers • Images become lenses through which all later social interactions are viewed • Relational themes exert an unconscious influence on our relationships (self- fulfilling prophesies) Humanistic Theories: emphasize central role of conscious experience as well as creative potential Self-actualization: the need to fulfill our potential;our ultimate human motive Carl Rogers: Our behaviour is a response to our immediate conscious experience of self & environment Central concept is the Self: • Organized, consistent set of perceptions of and beliefs about oneself • Not distinguishable at birth • Developed as children interact with their environment • Begin to understand “me” and “not me” Once our self-concept is established, we try our best to maintain it 1. Self-consistency: having no conflicts in how we view ourselves 2. Congruence: consistency between self-perceptions & experience Inconsistencies in self-concept evokes threat & anxiety – Well-adjusted: modify self-concept so that experiences are in agreement with the self – Problems in living: deny/distort experiences – Just as difficult for people with negative self-concepts to accept success as it is for people with unrealistic positive self-concepts to accept failure – We tend to interpret situations in self-congruent ways, & behave in ways that lead others to respond in a self-confirming way (self-fulfilling prophecy) Positive Regard: Unconditional positive regard: child is worthy of love independent of how he/she behaves Conditional positive regard: child is worthy of love depending on how he/she behaves Need for positive self -regard- Need to feel good about ourselves • Lack of unconditional positive regard: – Fosters conditions of worth: dictate when we approve/disapprove of ourselves • Fully functioning persons – Achieved self-actualization – Free to be themselves at all times Self-esteem How positively or negatively we feel about ourselves • Related to positive behaviours & life outcomes • Levels of self-esteem tend to be stable across the lifespan; little to no differences between men & women • (+) happier, > achievement, < interpersonal problems • (–) > psychological problems, > illnesses • Unstable or unrealistically high self-esteem can also be problematic – aggression, violence, etc. Self-Verification: Need to preserve our self-concept by maintaining self-consistency and congruence • We selectively attend to & recall self-consistent information (e.g., confirmation bias) • We seek out self-confirming relationships • Self-enhancement: strong and pervasive tendency to gain & preserve a positive self-image (e.g., self-serving bias) • N. America place an importance on independence and personal attachment where collectivistic cultures emphasize connection between people and achievement of group goals • Evaluation of Humanism: Studies show that self-growth is possible through psychotherapy – notions of ideal self and perceived self are brought closer together Testability – concepts of self can be measured BUT critics point out that: • Relies too much on self-report of personal experiences • Circular reasoning: “Why was he successful? Self-actualization.” “Was self- actualization achieved? Yes, we can tell due to the person’s great success.” Trait Theories: 1. Describe the basic classes of behaviour that define personality 2. Measure individual differences in personality 3. Use measures to predict a person’s behaviour • Propose traits (e.g., friendliness) on the basis of intuition or a theory of personality • Use factor analysis – e.g., introversion vs. extraversion Cattell’s 16 Factor Model: 16 basic behaviour clusters • Profiles for individuals & groups of people • With large number of traits, more likely to capture nuances of behaviour  better predictor Eysenck’s Extraversion-Stability Model: • 2, independent dimensions • Introversion-Extraversion • Stability-Instability • Knowing one dimension tells us nothing of the other Personality & Biology: • Nature and nurture both influence personality • Contributions differ depending on the trait • Hans Eysenck – linked dimensions of his model to patterns of arousal within the brain Stability of Traits:Research is mixed – evidence of both stability and change It is difficult to predict behaviour on the basis of personality traits: 1. Traits interact with other traits 2. Consistency is based on importance of trait 3. Self-monitoring – people differ in their tendency to tailor their behaviour to what is called for by the situation Evaluation of Trait Theories: Good at describing the structure of personality, measuring traits, & predicting behaviour BUT • Lack of concern with understanding psychological processes underlying traits • More attention needs to be paid to how traits interact with each other Personality Lecture Freud Video • Disconnected memories and dreams • He recalled a nightmare about his mother from which he awakened in tears screaming • It was very vivid, mother had calm expression lying there with men holding sticks • Freud could never forget it • For Freud, dreams were riddles, sometimes hiding their secrets by playing with WORDS • Vogelin – german word for sex • He awoke in anxiety, woke his parents up • Anxiety traced to obscure sexual craving • Freud found explanation of sexual craving in a wish – he lusted for his mother in violation of taboo against incest common to every religion and culture • Freud was in love with his mother and jealous of his father • He thinks this is a universal event in early childhood • Freud put together rudiments of the ettibus complex – cornerstone of his thinking • Critical to formation of character and personality in everyone • Freud says all children have these incestuous feelings, inevitable and universal aspect for a boy to develop it • Freud universalizes his own personal experiences, paradoxically reflects his desire to develop theory of human nature – scientifically reckless and scientifically inspire • Very controversial – little support Demonstration of Questions do you agree or not • Much of my mental life including thoughts, feelings and motives is unconscious • Events that occurred in childhood still affect me today • I sometimes experience a struggle within myself, such as when tempted to eat a high calorie dessert • Sometimes I am not aware of my own motivations and desires • I sometimes have conflicting feelings towards the same person or situation • The ways that I think about myself, others and relationships guides my interactions with others • An important part of personality development is learning to deal with and control sexual feelings • MOST people are agreeing more than they are disagreeing • What they have in common is that they are consistent with Freud’s theory of personality – Freud wasn’t that weird and crazy, modern spin is kind of true • Difficult to measure and ambiguous concepts, but gets too much criticism Social Cognitive Theories: Stress the interaction of thinking/perceiving/planning and a social environment that provides learning experiences Reciprocal determinism: person, behaviour, and environment all influence each other Rotter: Likelihood that we will engage in a particular behaviour in a given situation is influenced by: 1. Expectancy – our perception that certain consequences will occur 2. Reinforcement value – how much we desire or dread the outcome that we expect the behaviour to produce Internal-External Locus of Control: Expectancy concerning the degree of personal control we have in our lives Internal: life outcomes are largely under our personal control & depend on our behaviour (+) achievement, > self-esteem, > health, < maladjustment External: our fate has less to do with our own efforts than with the influence of external factors Bandura – Human Agency Humans are active agents in their own lives • We are not just at the mercy of the environment • We are self-reflective & self-regulatory • Human agency is a process (not a trait): 1. Intentionality – we plan; act with intention 2. Forethought – we anticipate outcomes, set goals 3. Self-reactiveness – we motivate/regulate our actions 4. Self-reflectiveness – we think about & evaluate our motivations, values, & goals Self-efficacy- Beliefs concerning our ability to perform behaviours needed to achieve desired outcomes Mischel – Consistency Paradox: We expect & perceive a high level of consistency in people’s behaviour, but the actual level of consistency is low • Cognitive-affective personality system (CAPS): both personality AND the situation are important • Interaction between personality and situation is what accounts for behaviour • If…then…behaviour consistencies: there is consistency in behaviour when we are in similar situations Evaluation of Social Cognitive Theories: Have a strong scientific base – concepts can be tested and measured • Brings together two perspectives – cognitive and behavioural • Have helped to resolve the contradiction between personality and behaviour Draw a circle and fill in what you think will complete the circle= • Draw a square and fill in what you think will complete the square=sperrius (Sperry’s) personality inventory test Interviews: Structured: contain a set of specific questions that are administered to every participant Good interviewers: • Go beyond actual responses • Examine appearance, grooming, speech patterns, facial expressions, posture Limitations: • Interviewer characteristics could affect responses • Interviewee’s honesty & cooperation Behavioural Assessment: Psychologists devise an explicit coding system that contains the behavioural categories of interest • Measure frequency of behaviour • Examine under what conditions behaviour occurs • Remote behaviour sampling: collect samples of behaviour from respondents as they live their daily lives Personality Scales: Objective measures that include standard sets of questions that are scored using an agreed-upon scoring key Rational approach: items are based on the theorist’s conception of the trait to be measured (NEO-PI) Empirical approach: items are based on previous research indicating that people who differ on a trait of interest also answer differently (MMPI) (+) collect data from many people at once; ease of scoring (–) self-report – possibility that people will not be truthful Projective Tests: TAT and Inkblots- Different examiners interpret responses differently- look for underlying themes among responses Evaluation of Personality Assessments: The clinician or researcher always has his/her own favoured theoretical perspective • This will likely influence the selection of a particular assessment approach – Psychoanalytic: projective tests – Humanistic: interview, self-report – Social Cognitive: behavioural assessments Chapter 15: Stress, Coping, Health - Theorists view stress as : a stimulus, a response, organism-environment interaction Lazarus Begins with our appraisal of the situation 1. Demands of the situation – primary appraisal 2. Resources available to cope – secondary appraisal 3. Consequences of failing to cope successfully 4. Personal meaning – what the outcome implies about you (beliefs about yourself/world) • Distortions & mistaken appraisals can occur at any point • As soon as we make an appraisal, our body responds GAS - Rape trauma syndrome- victims feel nervous and fear another attack by the rapist - Psychological distress 1. More negative life events, more symptoms of psychological distress 2. Distressed people tend to evoke negative reactions from others 3. Neuroticism: heighted tendency to experience negative emotions PTSD- Video- Vietnam vet- warren king former high school football player 1. Severe anxiety, physiological arousal, distress 2. Painful reliving of the event (flashbacks, dreams) 3. Emotional numbing & avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma 4. Survivor guilt in instances where others were killed Delayed Effects of Stress: Common cold, - Memory. - Cancer - Psych. disorders (e.g., PTSD) - Diabetes Combat Stress: Vulnerability factors: lack social support, poor coping skills, anxious/pessimistic Protective factors: good social support, good coping skills, optimism Social support- enhances immune system functioning, greater meaning in life=protective factor COGNITIVE PROTECTIVE FACTORS 1. Hardiness: – Commitment (work, families, other involvements) – Control over outcomes – Challenge: see demands as opportunities 2. Coping self-efficacy: belief that we can perform the necessary behaviours to cope successfully 3. Optimism: linked to better health, longer life – pessimists twice as many illnesses & doctor visits Personality Factors: Type A: live under great pressure & are demanding of themselves and others Type B: relaxed, agreeable, & have less sense of time urgency • Type A has double risk for heart disease • Type A likely to alienate others; produce conflict Type C: cancer prone – sense of hopelessness Type D: poor health – cardiac problems Conscientiousness most strongly linked to good health Religious and spiritual beliefs can either decrease or increase stress based on their nature and type of stressor to which they are applied Physiological toughness: In class stress activities judging when you think a minute has passed finding your resting pulse and again after doing a serial subtraction task 1. Low resting level of cortisol ,Low levels of cortisol secretion in response to stressors 2. Low resting level of catecholamine’s but a strong catecholamine response when stressor occurs, then decline in secretion and arousal when the stressor is over Men: Problem-focused coping strategy= attempt to confront and deal directly with the demands of the situation or change it so it’s no longer stressful ex. Studying for a test Women: Emotion focused coping strategy= attempt to manage the emotional responses that result from a stressful situation ex. Deal with stress from an intrapersonal conflict by denying a problem exists Seeking social support strategy= turning to others for assistance and emotional support ex. A man with a terminal illness might join a support group for the terminally ill • Health-enhancing behaviours – maintain or increase health: exercise • Health-compromising behaviours – promote illness: smoking Transtheoretical model: Yo-yo dieting- increases the risk of dying from cardiovascular disease (big up and down weight fluctuations Motivational Interviewing: leads people to their own conclusions by asking questions that focus on discrepancies between current state of affairs and person’s ideal-self image, desired behaviour, and desired outcome Multimodal Treatments: include biological (nicotine patchs) AND psychological measures • Aversion therapy – problem behaviour paired with aversive stimulus • Relaxation – stress management; meditation • Self-monitoring – identify antecedents & consequences • Coping & social skills training – for dealing with high-risk situations • Marital & family counselling – reduce conflicts & increase support • Positive reinforcement – strengthen change Lapse- “one time slip when confronted with a high-risk situation while a relapse is a return to the undesirable behaviour which tends to occur after a person has suffered a lapse - A relapse is an abandonment of an attempt to change - Abstinence violation model- follows a lapse- person becomes upset and self-blaming over the failure, viewing it as proof that change will never happen Harm Reduction: Prevention strategy that is designed not to eliminate a behaviour, but rather to reduce the harmful effects of a behaviour when it occurs • Needle exchange • Methadone clinic Reasoning: if a behaviour cannot be eliminated, it may be possible to modify how often & under what conditions it occurs, thereby lessening the harmful effects Chapter 16: Psychological Disorders Abnormal behaviour: Behaviour that is personally distressing, personally dysfunctional, and/or so culturally deviant that other people judge it to be inappropriate or maladaptive - Historically caused by supernatural forces Vulnerability-stress model: each of us has some degree of vulnerability for developing a psychological disorder, given sufficient stress • Biological basis: genes, neurotransmitters • Personality: low self-esteem • Environment: poverty, trauma MUST BE COMBINED WITH A STESSOR Reliability-clinicians using the system should show high levels of agreement in their diagnostic decisions Validity- categories should capture essential features of various disorders LABELLING IMPACTS Once a diagnostic label is attached to a person, we often accept the label as an accurate description of the person—rather than the behaviour • Difficult to look at the person objectively • Affects how we interact with that person • Labelled person may form self-fulfilling prophecy • “Medical students’ disease” – read or hear about a disorder and think we have it Competency: defendant’s state of mind at the time of a judicial hearing (not at the time of the crime) • “Not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder” (insanity): relates to the presumed state of mind of the defendant at the time the crime was committed GAD= Chronic state of “free-floating” anxiety that is NOT attached to specific situations or objects • May last for months • Constantly feel jittery, tense, and on edge • Expect something bad to happen, but don’t know what it will be • Physically: sweat, upset stomach, diarrhea • Hard to concentrate and make decisions Phobias: strong and irrational fears of certain objects or situations - Agoraphobia: fear of open/public places -Social phobias: fear of evaluative situations – embarrassment -Specific phobias: fear of dogs, snakes, spiders, illness, etc. Panic Disorder: Anxiety occurs suddenly and unpredictably, with great intensity • Can be very terrifying • Victims often feel that they are dying • Occur persistently—but are out of the blue and are not associated with any identifiable stimulus • Many people with panic disorder develop agoraphobia Cognitive (obsessions) and behavioural (compulsions) components, but either can occur alone Obsessions: repetitive and unwelcome thoughts, images, or impulses that the person detests, but are very difficult to dismiss or control Compulsions: repetitive behavioural responses – Can be resisted with great difficulty – Often occur in response to obsessions – Purpose is to reduce anxiety – Women exhibit anxiety disorders more often than men – Genetic factors may create a vulnerability to anxiety disorders – Neurotransmitters in the brain – GABA: reduces neural activity, so low levels may cause increased arousal & anxiety Psychodynamic theories • Neurotic anxiety – unacceptable impulses threaten to overwhelm the ego’s defenses & explode into action • Freud – phobias are the result of displacing neurotic anxiety onto an external, symbolic stimulus Cognitive theories • Stress the role of maladaptive thought patterns & beliefs • People with anxiety disorders “catastrophize” about demands and magnify them into threats – believe that the worst will happen & feel unable to cope Behaviourist theories • Anxiety disorders result from emotional conditioning and observational learning • Operant conditioning: people are motivated to avoid anxiety – tends to prolong problem in the long run Anorexia Nervosa: intense fear of being overweight to the point of self-starvation – Often crave food, but have an eating phobia – 90% of cases are female Bulimia Nervosa: overly concerned with becoming overweight, so they binge eat and then purge the food (vomiting and/or laxatives) Usually have normal body weight, but purging often results in gastric problems & eroded teeth; 90% of cases are female • BIOLOGY: may be genetic predispositions for eating disorders – concordance rates • CULTURE: common in industrialized cultures where beauty is equated with “thinness” (objectification theory) • PERSONALITY – Anorexics report parents as disapproving & stressful – Anorexics are often perfectionists who have high standards – Bulimics, however, tend to be depressed & anxious, have low impulse control, and lack self-sufficiently • Major depression: minor setback or loss results in an inability to function effec
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