Study Guides (238,124)
Canada (114,941)
Psychology (1,578)
Dr.Mike (229)

Sociology 1020 February Exam Material.pdf

35 Pages
Unlock Document

Western University
Psychology 1000

Sociology February Test Review
 Teevan and Hewitt Chapters:
 Chapter 7 - Gender Relations
 ▯ • Gender differences in the context of nurture and nature positions introduced in Chapter 4, so- cialization.▯ • This chapter looks at explanations offered for the differential treatment of men and women and at fender socialization, the process by which one learns how to be male or female. ▯ • This chapter also examines three important areas in gender research: body image, work and pay issues, and abuse. There is also a discussion of the future of gender differences. 
 Biological and Social Determinism
 ▯ • Nurture implies a possibility of change whereas nature is more fixed ▯ • Social variables affect the gender gap ▯ • Life expectancy changes between male and female = biological explanation, not social
 Numeracy and Literary Differences
 ▯ • Gender imbalances in post-secondary education are well documented. For example, most women are in the humanities/social science strands and the majority of men are in mathemat- ics, technology, and sciences. ▯ • Women earn less than men and it is noted that above average mathematics skills are linked to higher wages ▯ • There are differences in brain structures between females and males; A problem occurs when these biological explanations exaggerate what we call between variation and ignore the greater within variation, a situation compounded when lower expectations in mathematics for women lead to their lessened abilities in a self-fulfilling prophecy. 
 Sex and Gender: Some Definitions
 ▯ • Sex: A persons biological trait characterized by the XX (estrogen) chromosomes for a girl and XY (testosterone) chromosomes for a boy ▯ • Gender: A social construction based, in part, on definitions of masculinity and femininity and consisting largely of the norms and expectations that encourage people to behave in a “sex- appropriate” manner ▯ • Learning these masculine and feminine roles occurs early in the socialization process and the specific content of learning these varies across cultures and over time ▯ • Gender Identity: The perception, developed probably by age 3, of oneself as male or female. It is not to be confused with sexual orientation and is not necessarily consistent with a person’s sex. ▯ • Gendered Order: A macro-level concept and this refers not to individuals but to social struc- ture. This includes gendered norms, gendered roles, and a gendered ideology, which together make social life gathered, directing how males and females should act. ▯ • Gendered Division of Labour: Males and females, in both the unpaid and paid labour areas, tend to act “gender appropriately”.
 Ex: Men take on more demanding jobs and less housework whereas women do the opposite
 Major Theoretical Perspectives on Gender
 Structural Functionalism
 ▯ • The main functionalist position is that social practices, such as gendered division of labour, persist because they benefit society in some way. ▯ • Gender, then, is just another of the social conventions, such as family and law, that maintain order and promote social stability. ▯ • Because of the need for reproduction, female become vulnerable and less mobile in later stages of pregnancy, causing them to need ‘protection’ (page. 157, bottom paragraph) ▯ • The temporary vulnerability (form above note) can cause broader gender stereotypes, for ex- ample, making the wife take full responsibility for all housework and child care, thus leaving her husband as the ‘breadwinner’ ▯ • Breadwinners have access to the public realm of paid labour and perform the instrumental tasks needed for survival. In competitive work they must be strong, even aggressive, and smart. Rationality is preferred over emotionality. ▯ • On the other hand, in the traditional functionalist argument, women are relegated to the pri- vate realm of the home, providing unpaid domestic labour and being responsible for expres- sive tasks, such as nurturing and providing emotional support. ▯ • The private sphere is less valued than the public realm and its inhabitants are generally very dependent on the inhabitants of the public realm. ▯ • In the private/public division of labour, partners are seen as complementing each other (Mak- ing social order possible) ▯ • Gender differences are relative, not absolute
 The Symbolic Interactionist Perspective
 ▯ • Symbolic interactionists see the world as socially contracted and changeable. Unlike function- alists they do not see the gendered division of labour as a natural outcome of the need to re- produce, and are especially critical of any extensions of this position that generalize to a fe- male dependency and a male dominance ▯ • Definitions of masculinity, femininity, gender roles, and gender norms are all negotiable (even gender identity is not fixed) ▯ • Although men are more emotional and affectionate now than they were in previous genera- tions, there are still limits they abide by to avoid being considered “homosexual” ▯ • Main contribution of symbolic interactionist thought in the current context is in the area of so- cialization ▯ • Children learn gendered behaviour through a variety of processes such as imitating others (especially significant others) and receiving rewards or punishments (including shame and name calling) for behaviour defined as gender-appropriate or gender-inappropriate. ▯ • They saw gender as more of a product of social and cultural, rather than biological, influences ▯ • Parents, siblings, work, school, religion, peers, mass media, and the workplace all play roles in continuing the gendered order. ▯ • Most behaviour is affected by what is defined as gender appropriate: the clothes worn, the amount of food eaten, issues of safety, choice of occupation, and parental responsibilities. ▯ • Gender is a continuum rather than a duality, from very masculine, through androgyny (blend- ing both masculine and feminine), to very feminine.
 A Marxist Conflict Perspective
 ▯ • Marxists put primary emphasis on economic forces. They may view the economy as the dri- ving force in society, influencing such things as religion, the law, and communications. ▯ • This position implies that concentrating on ethnic, racial, and gender inequalities instead of social class inequalities can lead to divisions and infighting within those groups (ex: men against women) that will delay the ultimate revolution of the workers against the ruling class ▯ • Gender inequality was not an issue for Marx, today he would be considered sexist ▯ • “Male dominance has to be more than just a parallel to the divide between capitalists and pro- letariat.” (page 159) ▯ • Men are linked to the factory and women are linked to the men. Everyone is a worker ▯ • Factories took workers away from their homes, resulting in a need for someone to stay at home and care for children, resulting in a gender inequality greater than had existed in the farm economy that preceded industrialism. ▯ • “The Cult of Domesticity” reinforced the earlier biologically constructed beliefs about pregnan- cy and child-bearing, strengthening the position that men and women have different innate interests and capabilities. The culture of the Victorian age then solidified - perhaps worsened - the division. 
 Feminist Perspectives
 ▯ • There is no one single feminist perspective, that being because heterosexual and homosexual feminists don’t agree ▯ • However, they do generally concur that the main force behind women’s oppression, in Canada and elsewhere, is patriarchy. ▯ • Patriarchy: A system in which the traits associated with men are valued more than those as- sociated with women. This gives men the unearned privilege relative to women ▯ • Liberal Feminism: Argues that gender inequalities can be remedied by giving women greater opportunity. Legislation for pay equity and employment equity policies, free universal daycare, and ending sexism in our high schools and universities. According to liberal feminists, gender inequality is the main problem in today’s society, bigger than race, age, region, and social class. ▯ • Social Feminism: Agrees that patriarchy must be eradicated, but methodologically speaking, seeks a longer causal chain. Capitalism is the real issue, they say. An end to capitalism will lead to the end of patriarchy. 
 -From a male viewpoint, one can see another link between capitalism and patriarchy. Men must subordinate themselves, sometimes in ways they would prefer not to, to their employers and one way to maintain their dignity is to control others, starting with their wives and children.
 -Patriarchy is sustained by mens fear of other men, with fear of their male capitalist bosses a major component. By increasing a workers sense of control at work, you can reduce this fear, thus lessening men’s need to control their families ▯ • Radical Feminism: has one goal, the abolition of male supremacy, and two connected focus- es- biological reproduction and paid labour
 -This says, as long as women have full responsibility at home, they cannot be equal in the workplace. Some radical feminists argue for alternative reproduction strategies, such as in vit- ro fertilization, to permanently eliminate men’s domination of women’s bodies.
 -Control over one’s body is thus the key to ending women’s oppression, and it must not in- volved pills or patches with side effects, inserts that can damage ones internal organs, or awkward devices that lessen a women’s sexual pleasure. 
 Three Areas of Difference
 Body Image
 ▯ • Weight is the largest factor in determining satisfaction with one’s appearance. ▯ • The Cult of Thinness: the never-ending fight to become extremely slim ▯ • Some girls smoke to suppress their appetites, some cigarettes are even advertised as “slim” to attract the attention of these girls ▯ • Anorexia: a voluntary starvation that is a very serious illness ▯ • Bulimia: a pattern of over-eating and then purging through the use of emetics, it is less often fatal but can still have damaging effects (ex: teeth loss) ▯ • More girls than boys have eating disorders however boys fail to admit it because it is seen as a “girl disorder” ▯ • A girl’s poor concept of herself can lead to depression and then obesity whereas a boys poor self concept can lead to inactivity then obesity ▯ • Typically boys are trying to gain weight (muscle) and adolescent male steroid use is increas- ing ▯ • Adolescent male steroid use increasing ▯ • Boys feel inadequate / ashamed of penis size whereas girls feel ashamed of excess body weight ▯ • Fashion industry can take part of the blame for the body image dissatisfaction in both males and females ▯ • Objectification: a deeper problem and involves viewing a person as an object, usually a sexual object. ▯ • More importance is placed on women’s appearance rather than men. 
 The Gendered Wage Gap
 ▯ • Increase of paid women in the work force over the last 50 years ▯ • Majority of women majoring in education, fine arts, humanities , and nursing (this was true in the past but now it is unlikely they choose one of these paths) ▯ • Women receive 58% and men receive 42% of all university degrees ▯ • Gender gap is greater in math, engineering, and physical sciences ▯ • Gendered Division of Labour: 
 -Paid work VS Unpaid work
 -Still persists at home
 -wifework VS fatherwork ▯ • The unequal division of labour reinforces the tendency for women to take a “second job” in the family. One that is necessary but also flexible to accommodate the unexpected. (done as an economic decision) ▯ • When men and women do the same job men are generally paid more ▯ • Another variable to consider is starting salary, women have a lower starting salary than men ▯ • 11 cent wage gap
 Experiencing Violence
 ▯ • Spousal abuse ▯ • Generally the females are the victims but however it is known that females do abuse their husbands. (more common for females to be the victim) ▯ • Some found that abuse is an equal-opportunity problem ▯ • In the workplace women are much more likely to experience problems of sexism (ex: sexist jokes, threats, etc) ▯ • Female bosses with similar power are less likely to harass their workers as opposed to male bosses dealing with female workers ▯ • Before claiming sexism there must be a variable ▯ • Pornography in the workplace, for example depictions of nudity and sexual activity in either hard cope of virtual form (is it allowed? is it sexually discriminating?) ▯ • Men who commit a sexual assault often watch violent porn. This could stem from their own abuse as a child. ▯ • Spurious: the link is artificial and that eliminating pornography will not reduce sexual assault, because childhood sexual abuse is the cause ▯ • Crime victimization ▯ • Homicides are committed against men twice as often as against women
 ▯ • The gender gap is closing with respect to things such as pay, job tenure, and household re- sponsibilities (this is known as convergence) ▯ • In some areas, removing gender imbalances may not be high priority (ex: ballet dancers, syn- chronized swimmers, sky-divers, race car drivers) ▯ • Convergence can also occur with men decreasing and women increasing ▯ • Male fatality rate has gone down due to males becoming more careful 
 Chapter 10 - Family
 ▯ • Families are the social arena in which most people spend most of their lives ▯ • As one of the institutions of society, families affect and are affected by other social institutions ▯ • Marriage, Family Terms, Differences and Uniformities ▯ • Socialization for marriage, child-bearing and childrearing, marital dissolution ▯ • General change and continuity in family patterns in the recent past and immediate future
 Definitions of Marriage and Family
 ▯ • Marriage: A commitment and an ongoing exchange. A commitment involves a more or less explicit contract that spells out the rights and obligations between partners and can be defined at the personal or the social level.
 -Personal Level: marriage is undertaken with considerable seriousness
 -Social Level: certain customs and laws govern entering or leaving a marriage ▯ • Expressive Exchanges: the emotional dimension of marriage - including love, sexual gratifica- tion, companionship, and empathy. ▯ • Instrumental Exchanges: the task oriented dimension - include earning a living, spending money, and maintaining a household. ▯ • In almost all marriages both are important but some marriages take one exchange more seri- ously than the other ▯ • Marriage = ongoing exchanges. One partner may do something and the other does something else in return. Sharing continues if equity is seen and then marriage is rewarding. ▯ • Family: two or more people who are related by blood, adoption, or some other form of extend- ed commitment, and who reside together. ▯ • Two crucial aspects in this definition
 1. the persons must be related in some way
 2. they must customary maintain a common residence ▯ • If they individuals involved are not related they share a household, not a family. ▯ • Kin: Individuals who are related but do not live together. Kin often live in close proximity and are socially and economically integrated with other kin, but are not considered a family unless they share a dwelling.
 -Exception: a couple that lives apart for job-related reasons are still considered to be a family
 Variability in Family Patterns
 ▯ • To demonstrate variability we consider three aspects of families: number of partners in the marriage, sex codes, and emphasis on a nuclear family versus a kinship network. 
 Number of Partners in the Marriage
 ▯ • Nuclear Family: a ‘traditional’ family consisting of at most two generations, including a couple and their unmarried children ▯ • Lone Parent Family: One parent and one or more children ▯ • Common Law Union: a nuclear family consisting of partners who are not formally married, with or without children ▯ • Reconstituted Family: a nuclear family with children from prior union of one of the spouses ▯ • Blended Family: a nuclear family that includes children from more than one marriage or union ▯ • Extended Family: A family that includes more than spouses and unmarried children (ex: grandparents, married children, other relatives) living in the same place ▯ • Kin: People related by blood, adoption, or marriage
 ▯ • Monogamy: Marriage involving only two partners ▯ • Polygamy: Marriage involving more than two partners ▯ • Polygyny: One man married to two or more women; husband-sharing ▯ • Polyandry: One women married to two or more men; wife-sharing ▯ • Group Marriage: Marriage involving multiple partners not specified above
 ▯ • Heterosexual: Male and Female partner ▯ • Same Sex: two men or two women (homosexual)
 ▯ • Exogamy: partner must be chosen from outside a defined group ▯ • Endogamy: Partners must be members of the same group
 ▯ • Patrilineal: Descent traced through male line; children are not related to mothers relatives ▯ • Matrilineal: Descent traced through female line; children are not related to fathers relatives ▯ • Bilateral: Descent that follows both lines; children are related to both parents relatives
 ▯ • Patrilocal: Couple takes up residence with the husband’s parents ▯ • Matrilocal: Couple takes up residence with the wide’s parents ▯ • Neolocal: Couples reside alone
 ▯ • Patriarchal: Males are the formal head and have ruling power ▯ • Matriarchal: Females are the formal head and having ruling power ▯ • Egalitarian: Equal dominance of partners
 Sex Codes
 ▯ • Pre-marital sex ▯ • Extramarital sex ▯ • Adultery
 Consanguine Versus Nuclear Bonds
 ▯ • Consanguine Bonds: seen in tribal societies, kinship may be pre-dominate in all spheres of life. Networks of relatives are important in these societies. These networks provide economic security, attend family ceremonies, and are valued political allies. Arranged marriages. ▯ • Nuclear Bonds: the kin network is less important. There is a huge emphasis on spousal bond, and the spouses choose each other rather than accept a parentally arranged marriage. Small number of children. ▯ • Three elements of diversity
 1. Spouses
 2. Sex Codes
 3. Consanguine VS Nuclear
 ▯ • Elements of uniformity in this diversity
 (1) Although polygyny is accepted in many societies, most marriages are in fact monogamous
 (2) Although there are different orientations toward premarital and extramarital sex, reproduc- tion and sex generally controlled for the benefit of families
 (3) Although some societies emphasize consanguinity and others a nuclear family, both are aways in existence. 
 Uniformity and Family Patterns
 Importance of Marriage
 ▯ • Most societies place a high premium on marriage, at least for reproduction and socialization of the young, and the majority of adults are expected to fulfill these roles. ▯ • Preferred cultural norm in North America is a lifelong heterosexual marriage with children
 Incest Taboo
 ▯ • Incest taboo prohibits sex and marriage for close biological relatives. This is almost a uniform feature across many societies. ▯ • This taboo reinforces family in two ways
 (1) Restricting legitimate sexual activity to spouse regents sexual rivalry from breaking up the family
 (2) The requirement to marry outside of the nuclear family enlarges the kinship network through alliances with other families.
 Importance of Inheritance
 ▯ • Families can be joined across generations by the passing on of property ▯ • The inheritance that links generations produces social relationships that will continue ▯ • Intergenerational transfers in families perpetuate inequality ▯ • While inheritance along family lines is the general rule, this practice can be interrupted in times of revolutionary change.
 Family Change
 ▯ • The first transition brought about smaller families and involved a change in the economic costs and benefits of children, along with a new cultural environment that made it more appro- priate to control family size. This transition changed family dynamics surrounding fertility from an emphasis on child quantity to a focus on child quality. ▯ • The second transition proposed that it is useful to consider three sub-stages. 
 (1) The end of the baby boom, the end of the trend of marrying at a younger age, and the be- ginning of the rise in divorce
 (2) The growth of common-law unions and, eventually, of children in cohabiting unions
 (3) Brought a levelling of divorce rates, an increase in post-marital cohabitation (consequently, a decline in remarriage), a plateau in fertility, and higher proportions of births after age 30 ▯ • These changes in births, marriage, cohabitation, and divorce brought fewer children, but also a higher proportion of children who are not living with both biological parents. ▯ • 1950’s “Golden Age of the Family” (everything is family based) ▯ • Lone parent families
 Theoretical Perspectives on Family Change
 ▯ • Macro - considers the relationship of family to other parts of society and tends to see a reduc- tion in the instrumental functions of families. ▯ • Micro - looks within families and observes in particular the greater importance of the expres- sive dimension.
 Macro or Structural Explanations
 ▯ • Structural functionalism maintains that changes in any one part of society affect other parts, and that each part of society serves some function for the whole. ▯ • Family and kin groups had a larger number of functions in pre-industrial societies where be- sides being the chief units of reproduction and socialization of the young, families where also the units of economic production, and sometimes of political action and religious observance. ▯ • Long term changes in the family are related to societal changes, especially changes in eco- nomic structures. ▯ • De-institutionalization: there are fewer constraints on family behaviour. Example: families have less control over the equal behaviour of adolescents are less involved in socializing their chil- dren.
 Micro or Cultural Explanations
 ▯ • Non-industrial societies obtained much of their emotional gratification through religion and community. These societies were held together by mechanical solidarity (a sense of belonging and immediate identity with the surrounding community) ▯ • In the industrial world, societies are held together by organic solidarity (a division of labour whereby individuals are dependent on each other’s specialized abilities) ▯ • Families are the centres of nurturing and affection and individuals seek emotional support from them as a retreat from the outside world, placing heavy demand on family relationships. ▯ • Marriage changed from an institution to a projet du couple with fewer social constraints ▯ • Children being transformed form duty-bound workers to precious objects ▯ • Greater priority on emotional gratification (family becomes more important) ▯ • Families are quicker to break apart when individual members do not find a particular arrange- ment to be gratifying. 
 Anticipating Marriage and Mate Selection
 Family Behaviour Over the Life Course
 ▯ • General downward trend regarding age at home leaving, first marriage, first birth, last birth, home leaving of the children, etc ▯ • Not only has there been a delay in the life course events of younger generations, but also the transitions themselves are more fluid or less defined, and less standardized, with more vari- ability from case to case. ▯ • Increased life expectancy and decreased family size of today’s societies also present a very different context for family life. 
 Socialization for Marriage
 ▯ • To be properly socialized for any role, one needs the motivation to practice the appropriate behaviour, the ability to perform the requirements of the role, and the knowledge of what is expected. ▯ • In terms of practice and abilities, dating provides relevant experience ▯ • Boys and girls tend to be socialized differently. Mostly through their peer groups, adolescent girls become adept at interpersonal communication and in the language and actions of roman- tic love. ▯ • By late teens and twenties marriage becomes a more important life goal for women than for men. Marriage becomes an important goal for men at a later stage ▯ • Boys train girls to see sex as part of a relationship whereas girls train boys to see love and commitment as part of a relationship
 Dating and Premarital Intercourse
 ▯ • Dating, like marriage, can be seen as involving changes. ▯ • Those who are dating can bargain even harder than those who are married because there is less commitment ▯ • “Principle of least interest” the one with high power (less interest) has more power in bargain- ing ▯ • The less involved person has more power ▯ • Premarital Sexual Standards ▯ • Abstinence Standard: forbids premarital sex ▯ • Double Standard: grants men premarital sexual license but expects premarital virginity of women ▯ • Love Standard: regards sex as a physical expression of love and sees premarital sex as ac- ceptable when love or strong affection is present ▯ • Fun Standard: views sex as primarily a giving and receiving of pleasure and is acceptable as long as the partners are willing ▯ • High school students fall under the fun standard because they find casual sex acceptable ▯ • Premarital sex codes are more permissive when women have greater equality and are subject to less occupational differentiation
 Home Leaving
 ▯ • Some children return home after leaving ▯ • Economic factors at stake, such as Generation X (labour market) ▯ • Younger generations who are staying in school longer, and are trying to get established through a first job are more likely to return home ▯ • Economic factors play a huge role in children leaving or returning home
 ▯ • Initially, cohabitation was a short pre-honeymoon period, later it became a longer period and the normal form of entry into unions for persons who are single, but especially for the previ- ously married. ▯ • Cohabitation is not the same as a formal marriage. It is more similar to single life rather than married life ▯ • People living in cohabitation can be seen as an alternative to being single ▯ • At first cohabitation is a prelude to marriage, and then it is seen as a probationary period where the strength of the relationship may be tested prior to committing the marriage. The third stage is socially acceptable and becoming a parent is no loner restricted to marriage and in the fourth stage cohabitation is a substitute or alternative to marriage, including being a last- ing arrangement in which to raise children. ▯ • Cohabitation is displacing marriage as a form of first union, and its duration is increasing. It signals flexibility in unions, transforming premarital, marital, and postmarital relationships, with significant consequences for children. 
 Homogamy in Mate Selection
 ▯ • “Opposites Attract” & “Like Marries Like” (two contradicting viewpoints on finding a mate) ▯ • Homogamy: the idea that people marry others like themselves. ▯ • The general conclusion is that most people are likely to marry people who are like themselves in most social and economic characteristics, and who has similar things to exchange in the marriage bargain. 
 The Timing and Propensity to Marry
 ▯ • Heterogamy: occurs with respect to age ▯ • On average, women marry at a younger age than men. In some societies, the ideal age gap is a 5-10 year age difference. ▯ • Mating gradient: a younger person is less likely to be responsible, take on leadership roles, or have achieved economic or career goals (an age gap is important) ▯ • For both sexes, marriage has become less central to the transition to adulthood and to the set of roles that define adult status ▯ • Employment today is a prerequisite for marriage, especially for men but also for women. ▯ • In general, later marriage is associated with higher socioeconomic status. 
 Marital and Family Interactions
 Models of the Division of Paid and Unpaid Work
 ▯ • Durkheim argued for a division of labour baed on complementary roles for husbands and wives. He did not envisage a collaborative model of shared roles where partners collaborate at both earning a living and caring for the family. ▯ • “Gender display perspective” that prompts men to avoid housework as a means to establish their masculinity, especially men who lack other avenues for recognition - for example, be- cause they are experiencing difficulties in the labour market. ▯ • Complementary Roles Model: the husband spends more time at paid work and the wife spends more time at unpaid work ▯ • Double Burden: typically the wife is doing the same amount of paid work but more unpaid work ▯ • Collaborative or Role-Sharing Model: defined as doing about the same amount of unpaid work ▯ • Family Law Act in Ontario says “ it is necessary to recognize the equal position of spouses as individuals within marriage and to recognize marriage as a form of partnership”
 Lone Parent Families
 ▯ • Most one-parent families were led by a widow (1951) ▯ • In contrast, divorce or separated are now the cause of a lone-parent family (1996) ▯ • Lone-parenthood is quite common, representing a lifetime probability of 34% for women and 23% for men
 Childbearing and Children
 ▯ • Children can be examined in terms of both economic (instrumental) and non-economic (ex- pressive) components. ▯ • At the economic level children are very costly since they are largely dependent on their par- ents and do not contribute to family income ▯ • The non-economic costs and values of children are harder to determine. Children are costly in the sense that parents have less time and energy for themselves. Sometimes children are emotional and psychological burdens (parents worry about them and have to put up with vari- ous inconveniences)
 -On a positive side, having children provides a sense of achievement, of power and influence, and of continuity beyond death. Children provide immediate pleasure in the form of fun, ex- citement, and laughter in the home. ▯ • Children are important for continued relationships and socio-emotional support
 Family Change and Children
 ▯ • Diversity of family trajectories ▯ • Some of the family changes have benefited children. Smaller family sizes, later ages at par- enthood, and greater proportions of two-income families mean that parents are more likely to have the necessary resources to care for the children. ▯ • However, the greater propensity of parents to separate has had a negative consequence. ▯ • Children in love-parent families are more likely to have relative deficiencies on all three levels.
 Marital Dissolution
 ▯ • The most observable ways in which families have changed are in terms of entry into unions and exit from marriages, both of which imply greater flexibility in relationships. ▯ • The risk of divorce in the united states is greater when one’s parents have separated or when parents have higher education. Higher men’s income reduces divorce ▯ • A lower income means that the instrumental exchanges in the marriage are less rewarding, making the prospect of divorce less negative for working-class individuals. ▯ • Those marrying young are more likely to be downwardly mobile, especially if the wife if preg- nant at the time of marriage, because this detracts from the possibility of pursuing further edu- cation. ▯ • Divorce is also higher for couples raising stepchildren and for persons whose parents had separated. Divorce levels are also higher at lower levels of socioeconomic status. 
 Decrease in Instrumental Functions
 ▯ • Families have less to hold them together (this is particularly true in the economic domain, where families now involve considerably less economic interdependence) ▯ • Women with higher incomes have higher divorce prospects ▯ • Divorces are less likely to occur when there are young, dependent children because the family is more economically interdependent at that time.
 Importance of Expressive Dimension
 ▯ • Divorce may be more prevalent today because it represents a natural solution to marriages that do not serve the mutual gratifications of the persons involved ▯ • Persons getting divorced are generally not doing so because they do not want to in a relation- ship; instead they do so because they find exchanges with a particular partner to be unre- warding
 Redefinition of the Marital Commitment
 ▯ • People accept divorce because it happens frequently among the “normal” population ▯ • Adultery used to be the only rule for divorce but now there are fault-related grounds and mar- riage-breakdown grounds. ▯ • Fault-related grounds: include adultery and other sexual behaviours, prolonged alcohol or drug addiction, and physical and mental cruelty ▯ • Marriage Breakdown Grounds: can be for any reason as long as the spouses have lived apart for one year
 Anticipating Future Change and Continuity
 ▯ • No matter what has changed in the past, family remains crucial to the lives of most people ▯ • Level of divorce has gone up significantly but it is best viewed as a form of family reorganiza- tion ▯ • Childbearing has gone down, but only a small minority intend on not having kids ▯ • Biggest change = liberation of gender roles
 ▯ • A family is two or more people related by an enduring commitment, blood, or adoption, or who reside together ▯ • READ SUMMARY page 254 (important)
 Chapter 12 - Media
 ▯ • Media comes from the word ‘median’ which basically means a connection between two things, or a way of conveying something from one place to another ▯ • Radio and television are referred to as ‘mass media
 Perspectives on Media Transformation
 Technological Change and the Information Society
 ▯ • Theorists believe that media are so important today that they have created a new sort of soci- ety, often referred to as the information society or the network society. ▯ • Information Society: the basic idea is that information technologies - machines that transform process, store, and disseminate data - are moving us to a new stage of civilization. (Bell’s no- tion). The most important of these technologies are computers and telecommunications. ▯ • Technological Determinism: the idea that new technologies drive social change ▯ • Problems in the information society could include: technological unemployment, intrusive sur- veillance, and electronic crime. ▯ • The promises include great increases in prosperity, a decrease in manual labour in favour of more creative and interesting jobs, a broader dissemination of knowledge, and the potential for a more democratic and participatory society. 
 The Political Economy of Media: Power and Wealth
 ▯ • Political Economy of Media: an approach to communication studies that focuses on the power relations governing the production, distribution, and consumption of information. ▯ • In most social systems, the elites or classes that exercise state power regard control over channels of communication as crucial to maintaining their position. ▯ • Media have been centrally involved in conflicts over state power ▯ • Today, the existence of what is sometimes called a public sphere, where opinion and discus- sion can circulate without government interference, is regarded as a central element in liberal democracy. ▯ • The media systems of liberal democracies are often sharply contrasted with the state-con- trolled media of totalitarian or authoritarian regimes. (Hitler’s dramatic use of radio) ▯ • Technologies of Freedom: a phrase suggesting that computers and other digital technologies empower citizens by allowing them to create and circulate information for themselves ▯ • Culture Industry: a term originally used critically to describe the crass, conservative, and con- formist tendencies of commercially organized mass entertainment, now often used approving- ly to refer to business-driven media. ▯ • In many fields of media, there is a high concentration of ownership, as the largest companies control a high proportion of the market. ▯ • Commercial Media | Concentration of Ownership | Conglomeration
 ▯ • The owners of communication companies are members of a class of people (capitalist own- ers) who have a very particular interest in seeing society run in a way that allows them to con- tinue reaping profits and yielding power. They use their direct control over the means of com- munication to direct the flow of news and entertainment to support the social order. ▯ • “Underground or alternative media”
 Media Audiences: From Couch Potato to Co-Creator?
 ▯ • Up to this point we have talked about media as both technologies and instruments of state and market power but neither of these deal with media audiences. ▯ • For a long time the assumption off mass-media theory was that the audience was just a mass - inert and manipulated. It assumed a linear, cause and effect connection between media messages and people’s behaviour ▯ • There is a very direct connection between media content and audience behaviour ▯ • Hypodermic Model: the belief that media shoot powerful messages into weak, passive audi- ences, thus directly controlling their behaviour ▯ • In the above perspective, media tend to be regarded as dangerous and addictive and the au- dience as passive zombies or glassy-eyed dupes (similar to drug use)* ▯ • Cultural Studies School: a school of research that focuses on how people make meanings in everyday life, sometimes in ways that are resistant or alternative to the dominant values pro- moted in major media channels. ▯ • Dominant interpretations VS Oppositional readings
 -Oppositional rejects the dominant interpretation and goes against what the news cast is trying to imply ▯ • Today media analysis rejects the idea of audiences as “couch-potatoes” and views them as more creative co-participants in the construction of meaning ▯ • Active Audience Theory: the idea that audiences play an active role in interpreting or decoding media messages, often contrasted with the hypodermic model ▯ • The above perspective also has limitations. In focusing on the micro structures of media we lose sight of the macro structures that shape the overall agenda. ▯ • There is something empowering about television. It affirms that ordinary people are interesting enough to merit camera attention, and it asserts that our normal activities of self-presentation, such as trying to get date or negotiate am argument, can sometime she performances worthy of any television star. 
 Gender and Media
 ▯ • Our identities as male and female are socially constructed to some degree making the link be- tween media and gender quite important. ▯ • Stereotypes - media portrays men as big tough and masculine whereas females are seen as innocent skinny and pretty. ▯ • Men occupy a majority of the crucial positions in media ownership, management, and produc- tion. Because of this it isn't surprising that media are full of stereotypical images and mes- sages that support masculine control over women. ▯ • Certain programs are seen as ‘feminine’ shows, such as soap operas wheres programs such as sports channels are seen as a masculine form of television. ▯ • When media based advertising came to be, females were the target of choice. This is because women stayed at home and also did the majority of the shopping for the family ▯ • Women were also in charge of using appliances so vacuums and other cleaning appliances were advertised to capture female attention ▯ • “Superwoman ads” are more hurtful than helpful. They imply that women need to be success- ful, professional, mothers, while still stunningly beautiful. ▯ • Advertisements encourage girls and young women to see themselves and be seen as sex ob- jects at very early ages. Promoting unattainable body images help cause serious health disor- ders such as depression and anorexia. It is viewed that TV today is less female-friendly than it was 30 years ago. ▯ • Sex and the City and Baywatch are examples of how media constitutes a public forum for ne- gotiation and discussion of gender codes
 Violence in the Media
 ▯ • Repeated exposure to media representation of violent acts provides models for behaviour that my later, under the right circumstances, be acted out for real. This is especially the case when violent acts are glorified by the media when the criminals get away without any punishment for their actions. Video games sometimes put the player in the role of the killer therefore making the object of the game to get away unscathed. ▯ • Children and adolescents are seen as most vulnerable to the increasingly graphic media vio- lence ▯ • However there is a substitute. It is noted that while vicariously expressing aggression through media we are less likely to act on our aggression in real life. This acts as sort of a safety valve ▯ • Surrogate Theory: the idea that watching media violence, rather than stimulating real life vio- lence, provides a substitute or safety valve for aggressive feelings ▯ • Myths and story telling in the past was a way to come to terms with our ‘dark side’ ▯ • Bobo experiment - children view the doll getting hurt, they proceed to hurt the doll. Children view the doll being treated nicely, they proceed to treat it nicely. They learn their actions by watching what others had previously done. ▯ • Desensitization: making the subject less sensitive to real violence ▯ • Disinhibition: inclining the subject to shed barriers toward physical expression of aggressive feelings ▯ • Variation in responses to violent programs. (Example; cultural variations) ▯ • Watching violent media and behaving violently could be because of a third factor, for example someone could be violent because they are lonely, alienated or depressed. ▯ • Cultivation Effect: the idea that heavy viewing of television leads people to perceive reality in ways consistent with the representations they see on TV
 One World: Media and Globalization
 ▯ • One of McLuhan’s most powerful predictions was that advances in communication technology would create a “global village”, a planetary community united by electronic media. ▯ • Global integration is not the same as global equality ▯ • Information Imbalance: the disparity between the capacities of the developed and less-devel- oped world to produce and distribute information
 -Basically, some people have better opportunities to produce ▯ • Cultural Imperialism: the imposition of one nation’s culture on another, not through direct oc- cupation but by the indirect effects of media influence ▯ • Today it is argued that developed nations exercise a more insidious yet equally effective, long- distance, neo-colonial control through economic and cultural means. ▯ • A major aspect of this neo-colonial regime is that developing nations are swamped by Western cultural imports: film, television programs, music, newspapers, and magazines ▯ • Hybridization: the tendency of international communication flows to create cultural mixes or crossovers between previously distinct national and ethnic groups ▯ • Re read this chapter and focus on different groups and types of news around the world
 Cyberspace: Virtual Community, Virtual Commerce, Virtual Protest
 ▯ • In all developments of media, computer networks have provoked the most interest ▯ • The connection of computers and telecommunication allows messages to be sent with un precedented speed and scope ▯ • Cyberspace: the imaginary space or dimension in which we conceive of computer-mediated communication occurring ▯ • Cyberspace was first constructed in the 60’s by the US department of defence in attempt to build a communications system that could survive a nuclear war ▯ • In 2008 the estimate was there was about 1.6 billion people worldwide ▯ • Virtual Community: a group of computers used to separate geographically but linked together in cyberspace on the basis of shred interests and concerns ▯ • Online relationships - anonymous, cannot be prejudiced against for appearance, age, race, religion, etc ▯ • Because of the online communities and lack of physical presence, it is very easy for deception to occur ▯ • People are trading strong social face-to-face relationships and friendships for “weak” ties of the disembodied online realm ▯ • Virtual Commerce: the use of computer networks such as the Internet for business purposed, primarily by creating direct links between producers and customers ▯ • Many of the net-based businesses were more hyper than substance ▯ • Despite the intensifying corporate dominance of the internet, it continues to provide expres- sion for a diversity of interests. ▯ • Hacking: virtual trespass and theft; destructive computer viruses. There are issues of the in- ternet which are extremely hard to police, this includes invasions of privacy (government or other types) ▯ • Users are most likely to be male and drawn from affluent sections of society
 Predictions for the Future
 ▯ • We can expect to see continuing innovation and applications in media technologies, and huge pressures and incentives to weave these into the fabric
More Less

Related notes for Psychology 1000

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.