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Psychology 1000

PSYCH MIDTERM REVIEW Chapter One - Lecture Notes▯ • Psychology is the brain, the mind, learning, and clinical issues.
 ▯ • “Looking at what goes on inside the brain to help us understand behaviour.”
 ▯ • ‘Psychosurgery’ Moniz (1935)
 ▯ • Radical Prefrontal Lobotomy said to have a “calming effect” on violent, emotional 
 behaviour in chimps (Moniz supervised about 100 prefrontal lobotomies) 
 ▯ • Simple “ice-pick” procedure. Pre-frontal lobe controls emotion.
 ▯ • Patients of this surgery become more docile, apathetic, severe blunting of emission, intellectual problems. This surgery can be terminal. 
 ▯ • Clinical issues is just ONE part of psychology. 
 ▯ • Explanation of behaviour: 3 Primary ways
 1. Biological Factors
 (e.g. Neural, Hormonal)
 -Chemical Neurotransmitters
 -Biology of the human system and whats going on
 -Different chemicals and neuro structures (to explain behaviour)
 2. Individual/Psychological Factors
 (e.g. learning, cognitive processes)
 -What causes aggression? The persons past learning history. (Witnessing violence as a child is the main way. ---> Learning Aspect)
 -How do you think about this? How do you interpret this?
 3. Cultural/Environmental Factors
 (e.g. Value system)
 -Where this individual lives?
 -Most western societies favor aggression. Aggression is rewarded in Western culture.
 -Depending where the individual growing up. (Cultural influences)▯ ▯ • All of these factors influence each other
 Schools of Psychology
 1. Functionalism
 -Focuses on the function or significance of behaviour.
 -How does a behaviour (or mental process) help us to adapt?
 -Primarily biological (& environmental)
 PSYCH MIDTERM REVIEW -What is the survival value?
 -Why do people help one another?▯ -Example: Psychobiology
 Ethology - animal behaviour in its natural environment. 
 2. Psychodynamic 
 -Focus on unconscious experience... the “mind”
 -Look for unresolved conflict
 -Importance of personality
 -Freud (Personality Psychologist)
 -Example: -Brief Psychodynamic Therapy
 -Unconscious Processing
 3. Behaviourism
 -Focus on behaviour ... forget the “mind”
 -discuss how behaviour changes under various conditions
 -primarily environmental
 -Rewards/Punishment (Consequences to actions related to how you learn things)
 -How the environment shapes who you are and what you are doing.
 -Example: Learning Theories
 Behaviour Modification
 4. Gestalt Tradition
 -Focus on perception and experience
 -Look at how people think and remember
 -Consider everything in context
 -Both biological and environmental
 -Example: Cognition
 Information Processing 
 5. Humanistic Tradition
 -Focus on values and choice
 -Help people fulfill potential
 -Both biological and environmental
 -”Everyone has potential”
 6. Biological Tradition
 -Focuses on neural and chemical basis of brain
 -Mind is constructed by brain
 PSYCH MIDTERM REVIEW -Biological (and environmental)
 Example: Neuroscience and Brain imaging 
 7. Sociocultural Tradition
 -Humans embedded in culture
 -Norms, group process
 Example: cross cultural psychology & issues in development, disorders, thinking
 ▯ • Pioneers of Psychology:
 Rene Descartes
 -Interested in how the body works
 -Ex: If you put your hand in fire you realize its hot
 -The Reflex Arch** 
 1. How the nervous system works
 2. You have to look at the brain to know whats going on
 Gustav Fechner
 -”God and religion aren’t infinite”
 -Came up with a way t measure sensory experience
 -Sensation and Perception 
 Wilhelm Wundt
 -Founder of psychology
 -Created the first psych lab in 1879 in Germany
 -Experience and how people might explain it
 William James
 -Harvard grad
 -Wrote the first textbook in psychology
 -Did a lot of work on learning, he was a bit of a functionalist
 Mary Calkins
 -wanted to study with James at harvard (1890)
 -Mary got into med school at harvard to study with james because he argued on her behalf
 -Developmental psychologist
 -First female president of APA
 Sigmund Freud
 -Not a psychologist, he was a doctor
 -”Glove Anesthesia”
 -Unconscious conflict
 PSYCH MIDTERM REVIEW -Huge impact on psychology
 Carl Jung
 -Student of Freud’s
 -Didn’t like Freud’s psycho-sexual theories
 Carl Rogers
 -Against psychodynamic approaches
 -Concepts of personality
 Ivan Pavlov
 -Dogs salivating when given food* 
 -Dogs salivated when they saw him because they associated him with food
 -Classical conditioning
 B.F Skinner
 -Consequences of behaviour
 -Reward and punishment
 -Train individuals to do something
 -Operant conditioning
 Jean Piaget
 -Developmental psychologist
 -Children and adults think radically different
 Karl Lashley & Wilder Penfield
 -Naturalistic observation
 -Lashley worked with rats
 -Penfield was a neurosurgeon, worked with epilepsy 
 -Penfield charted the cortex of the brain
 Wolfgang Kohler
 -Gestaltist (Leader of this tradition)
 -Concept formation with apes and chimpanzees
 Kurt Levin
 -Father of social psychology
 -social behaviour and context
 ▯ Themes
 1. Psychology is empirical
 2. Psychology is theoretically diverse▯ 3. Behaviour is determined by multiple causes
 4. Heredity and environment jointly influence behaviour
 5. Experience is subjective
 PSYCH MIDTERM REVIEW 6. Psych evolves in a socio-cultural historical context
 Chapter Two - Lecture Notes▯ Scientific Method ▯ 1. Identify the problem and formulate hypothesis▯ 2. Design a execute the experiment▯ ▯ Variables and control▯ 3. Determine the “truth”▯ 4. Communicate the results▯ ▯ Identify problem▯ • Hypothesis: tentative statement about a relation between 2 or more events▯ • Theory:▯ ▯ Collection of hypothesis▯ ▯ An organizing system ▯ ▯ More general, elaborate ▯ • Good theories generate good (testable) hypotheses Ex. Theory of relatively▯ • Compare:▯ ▯ Freudian theory ▯ ▯ Behaviour theory ▯ Behaviour theory is better because it can be tested, as it is observable. You cannot test Freudian theory because it is based on the unconscious mind.▯ ▯ Design &Execute Experiment ▯ • Identify Variable▯ ▯ Independent= manipulated by the experimenter▯ ▯ Dependent= measured by the experimenter. You see whether the dependent variable changes depending on the changes in the independent variable (Independent Causes dependent)▯ ***NEED to know this for first test***▯ Be able to distinguish between independent or dependent▯ • Control: We want to say that- Independent Causes dependent▯ • Without proper control, the experiment is confounded ▯ • For example: media violence and aggression as variables. Changes in media violence will cause changes in aggression levels ▯ ▯ Determine the “Truth”▯ • Do your results support the hypothesis?▯ • Are there any real differences? -Statistics▯ ▯ Communicate Results ▯ • Publish a report in journal▯ • Present a verbal description of results at a convention▯ • Discuss several related experiments in book chapter ▯ PSYCH MIDTERM REVIEW ▯ Summary:▯ • Psychologists are interested in explaining the causes of behaviour▯ • To examine casual relations, they use the scientific method ▯ ▯ Form hypothesis▯ ▯ Manipulate independent variables▯ ▯ Measure dependent variables▯ ▯ All extra variables should be controlled▯ ▯ If not, experiment is confounded and experimenter makes a mistake in casual explanation ▯ ▯ Research Methods ▯ ▯ Observational Methods ▯ • Collecting information about behaviour without trying to change it▯ • You are trying to observe what the current situation is without changing what’s being studied (one way glass) ▯ • Non-participant or participant Ex. Festinger’s When Prophesy Fails ▯ ▯ Sur•ey Methods▯ Collecting information about behaviour through surveys and questionnaires, not by observing it▯ • Example: Kinsey report on sexual behaviour- wanted to find out about sexual behaviour but nobody wanted to talk about it so he sent out a questionnaire ▯ ▯ Case Study Method▯ • In depth study of one individual▯ • Ex. Luria’s “S”- could remember everything that happened to him (mnemoist), Breuer’s Anna O. ▯ ▯ Correlational Method▯ • Determining the degree of relationship between two or more variables ▯ • Example: investigating the relation between hours of TV viewing and grade▯ Experimental Methods▯ • Manipulating one or more variables to determine the effect on some behaviour▯ • Example: studying the effect of vitamin B12 deprivation on maze learning ▯ ▯ Does TV violence cause aggression?▯ 1. Observation ▯ ▯ Problem… correlational
 ▯ • Research Methods
 -Case Studies
 Measuring Aggression
 -self report
 -verbal attack
 -physical attack
 -”safe” attack
 ▯ • Threats to Validity
 Internal validity
 -degree to which experiment supports causal conclusion
 External Validity
 -degree to which results can be generalized
 ▯ • Demand Characteristics
 -cues in experiment convey hypothesis to participants
 -they “help” experimentor
 -Geen & Berkowitz (1967)
 Experimenter Expectancy
 -Experimenter “conveys” hypothesis to participants
 -Intons-Peterson (1983)
 ▯ • FAQ’s
 -David Meyers
 What do lab experiments tell us about everyday life?
 -Intended to control situation to achieve a causal effect
 ▯ Doesn’t behaviour depend on one’s culture or gender or personality?
 -Yes it does
 -Aggression is different between males and females
 What do animal experiments tell us about human behaviour?
 Is it ethical to experiment on humans or animals?
 -Have to tell people what is going on
 But how do I determine whether my study worked?
 -Look at the data▯ PSYCH MIDTERM REVIEW 
 Chapter Three - Lecture Notes▯ • The Nervous System
 Descartes: Reflex Arc
 -stimuli transferred from periphery to brain and reflected back.
 How? --> Animal Spirits
 -Importance of pineal gland
 ▯ • Swammerdam’s
 Frog Experiment
 ▯ • Bell
 -types of nerves
 Sensory motor: - afferent fibres
 - efferent fibres (go to effectors) 
 ▯ • Bell & Muller
 -Specific nerve energy
 ▯ • Speed of Impulse
 9000ft/min to 57 billionft/sec - wrong
 ▯ • Helmholtz
 50-100 metres/second - actual speed
 Maskelyne & Kinnebrook
 ▯ • The Neuron
 -what the nervous system is composed of
 -what we need to focus on
 -cell body
 -ganglion cells
 -horizontal cell
 ▯ • All neurons only have one axon
 it will be branched at the end (axon terminals/ synaptic knob)
 ▯ • Myelin sheath (the more myelin the faster the impulse)
 not a continuos straight line (node of ranvier)
 ▯ • Classify by Shape
 1. multipolar
 2. bipolar
 3. unipolar▯ PSYCH MIDTERM REVIEW • A new viral disease has been found that actually destroys the myelin sheath around a neuron. What is the likely result?
 Answer: Slower neural connection
 ▯ • Parts of a Neuron
 Cell body/ dendrites/ nodes of Ranvier/ myelin sheath/ axon/ axon terminals - synaptic knobs
 ▯ • Classify Neurons by Shape:
 ▯ • Classify Neurons by Function
 1. Sensory Neurons
 -Afferent (bring information in)
 2. Motor Neurons
 -Efferent (accomplish things)
 3.Inter Neurons
 -Relay stations
 How do neurons work?
 How does a cell produce an electrical signal?
 -Semipermeable (Cell Membrane) Allows certain things to pass through
 -Extracellular Fluid
 -Different concentrations of ions between inside and outside of cell
 -Build up of electrical charges (negative on inside and positive on outside) They line up along the cell membrane
 -Looks like a battery because of the ionic charges (important electrical charges)
 ▯ • The Action Potential - The Key to Understanding the Nervous System
 -70 millivolts (Resting Potential of Neuron) not being stimulated/not doing anything
 -Stimulate Neuron - electrical charge changes (it becomes more positive when stimulated) due to Depolarization
 -The Neuron is losing polarity
 -Related to sodium inflow (Na+)
 ▯ • When continuing stimulation, at -55 millivolts you reach a threshold. 
 -Lots of sodium pouring into the centre of the neuron
 -Keep going more positive (about +40 millivolts)
 -Changed electrical activity (negative to positive charge)
 -Once you hit the maximum (+40mV) you go back
 PSYCH MIDTERM REVIEW -Kick out the potassium to make the inside have a more negative electrical charge
 -Repolarizing (Potassium outflow) doesn’t stop of -70, it keeps going
 -Eventually it will come back to Resting Potential
 -70 to threshold to +40 to below resting potential (hyperpolarization) and then ultimately it will return to the resting potential. 
 ▯ • Depolarize (Na+ inflow) -> Repolarize (K+ outflow) -> Hyperpolarize (takes 5-7 milliseconds)
 ▯ • Hyperpolarization
 1. Absolute refractory period 
 2. Relative refractory period
 ▯ Neural Communicatio
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