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Psychology 1000

Psych1000 StudyGuide WUCK Personality 3 Stress 11 Psychological Disorders 16 Treatment 29 This guide contains notes on “Psychology: Frontiers and Applications” Fourth Canadian Ed. by Passer, Smith, Atkinson, Mitchell and Muir. This guide is intended for supplementary purposes only. Reading this is no substitute for going to class and reading the book. We hope we can help you as much as possible, but your grades are your responsibility. PERSONALITY CHAPTER 14 • Lets us distinguish people from each other • Behavior that is caused by internal factors, not environmental • Behaviors that fits together in a meaningful fashion PSYCHODYNAMIC PERSPECTIVE • Personality is an energy system • Psychic energy - generated by instinctual drives pressing for release Id Ego •Present at birth • Second to develop. Id has no contact with reality, so it needs the ego •Unconscious • Reality principle - tests reality to decide when the Id can safely •Functions irrationally discharge its impulses •Basic biological urges: eating, drinking & Serves and controls Id • sex • “Executive of personality” - must balance the Superego and the Id •Follows pleasure principle - maximize pleasure, minimize pain. • Seeks immediate gratification, regardless of rational circumstances Superego •Primary Process Theory - if needs can’t be met with reality, fantasy will do • Last to develop (4-5yo). In charge of morals. Ideals internalized from parents and society • • Decides whether ego has been good or bad • Controls ego withpride and guilt Three sources of anxiety in psychodynamic perspective: • Reality anxiety - fear of real world threats • Neurotic anxiety - fear of id’s desires • Moral anxiety - fear of superego’s guilt Defense Mechanisms Deny or distort reality to deal with anxiety Projection - attributing Repression - pushed Sublimation - released in socially impulse to other people. Ex. I to subconscious Denial acceptable/admired behavior hate you because you hate me. Regression - mentally Intellectualization - situation Reaction formation - returning to an earlier, safer state treated as intellectually interesting exaggerated opposite behavior. (thumb-sucking, bed wetting) event Hostility often shows though. Ex. React to hating your sister by always talking about how much you love her. Conversion - conflict converted Displacement - use a into physical symptom. Ex. Develop secondary goal as an outlet ex. blindness so that you will not have to getting angry at something else. Rationalization - “hitting my kids is see situation Displacement is not always for their own good”, or “if I can’t get negative though. what I want it wasn’t good anyways” Isolation - memories allowed back into consciousness but without motives or emotion Q. Jon is mad at his bro, but instead of hitting him, paints a picture of him falling off a building”? Sublimation. (←Tilt screen to see answer) Tapping in the Unconscious Dreams Free Association •Not constrained by reality (ego) and morality • Freud opts for this over hypnosis (superego) • Patient is to say anything, no matter how trivial, • But anxiety can still be aroused in dreams embarrassing or unrelated •Have latent (surface) and manifest (deep) content • Analyst looks for associations and resistance Errors of speech and memory • Freudian slips • Absent-mindedness (forgetting to mail letter) • Freud believes these are motivated Evaluating Psychoanalytic Theory Evidence for Freud • Most propositions have not held up in research • Subconscious processing - semantic priming effect • Repression - memory lapses during therapy • Difficult to make clear cut behavior predictions • Unconscious processes have been proven important but are very different from freud’s suggestions • Limited data: theory based on select population Evidence Against Freud • Bias: psychoanalyst is hardly an objective observer • Conceptual: terms are vague, are they testable? • Dreams - thirsty subjects awoken during REM do not dream of drinking, so dreams don’t necessarily represent desires Freud Will Still Always Be Important • Anthropological evidence - the Oedipus complex is not culturally universal • Gave us the notion of internal unconscious conflict • The scope of the theory is huge. It covers biology, art, humor, family. Thought of as atheory of humanity. NEOANALYSTS • Disagreed with certain aspects of Freud’s thinking Too much focus on infantile sexuality, not enough on cultural and social aspects • Adler Jung : Analytic Psychology • Humans are motivated by social interest: • Humans have personal and desire to advance the welfare of others collective unconscious • Humans strive for superiority, drive to • Memories are represented byarchetypes - compensate for imagined defects(coined inherited tendencies to interpret experiences inferiority complex) in certain ways Object Relations Klien, Kernberg, Haler, Kohl • Focus on mental representations people form of themselves and others in early life • Mother as kind or malevolent, father as protective or abusive • Become models for later relationships • Early attachment with parents has a big impact on later life • This theory is used more than classical psychoanalytic theory, as it is easier to define and measure HUMANISTIC PERSPECTIVE Carl Rogers’ Self Theory Self-verification - need to preserve self concept •Behavior is a response to one’s immediate conscious experience of oneself by maintaining self-consistency and congruence • People are more likely to recall adjectives that and the environment • Internal forces are not distorted or blocked, they direct us toward self- are consistent with their self concept actualization • People with negative images prefer spouses with negative images of them •Self - organized, consistent set of perceptions and beliefs about oneself •Self-consistency - absence of conflict among self-perceptions •Congruence - consistency between self-perceptions and experience Self-enhancement - need to regard themselves • Anxiety comes from experiences that are inconsistent with self-concept • Can modify self-concept, or deny the inconsistency positively • It’s more difficult for people with negative self-concept to accept • Attributing successes to personal factors, failures to environmental factors success, than unrealistically positive people to accept failure •Need for positive regard - acceptance, sympathy • People rate themselves better than average on •Unconditional positive regard - to children from parents socially desirable traits • If you don’t get this in childhood, you develop conditions of worth •Need for positive self regard Culture •Conditions of worth - dictate when we approve of ourselves, similar to superego • Americans more likely to identify themselves •Fully functioning persons - have achieved self-actualization, don’t hide with personal attribute (I am honest) • Chinese more likely to identify with social behind masks or artificial roles identity (I am the oldest son, I am a student) Self-esteem - how positively or negatively we feel about ourselves • Only minor differences in adulthood, but in teen years men have Evaluating Humanistic Perspective more self esteem than women • Humanistic view relies too much on individual reports of • People with high self esteem are less susceptible to pressure, experiences achieve higher, have better love lives, and are happier • Impossible to define actualization in terms of behavior • People with low self esteem have anxiety, depression, illness, poor without using circular reasoning social relationships, underachievement • Difficult to define or predict what will be a self-actualizing • Unstable/unrealistically high self esteem is even worse tendency - no matter what you’re doing you’re trying to be • When your goal is increasing self esteem, failure is even worse the best you can be TRAIT/BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE Use factor analysis, which allows researchers to find out which behaviors are correlated with each other. Cattell’s Sixteen Personality Factors Eysenck • Asked thousands of people to rate themselves • Started with just two basic traintroversion-extroversion • Found 16 basic behavior clusters & stability-instability(he called it instability-neuroticism) • Developed profiles for individuals, and distinct • These two are uncorrelated groups (athletes, artists) • Later added a thirdpsychoticism-self control • Psychoticism is creativity, tendency towards nonconformity, impulsivity, social deviance Five Factor Model • Five universal factors •Openness, conscientiousness, Biology extraversion, agreeableness and • Eysenck believed extreme introverts were chronically neuroticism (OCEAN) overaroused, and that extreme extroverts were chronically • The big 5 seldom show correlations to behavior underaroused beyond 0.2-0.3, so they added 6 sub-categories • Stability-instability is related to autonomic nervous system under each factor calledfacets • Novelty-seeking is related to dopamine • NEO-PI test measures these Stability of Personality Evaluating Trait Approach • Introversion/extraversion, Optimism/pessimism, • Researchers try to make specific predictions based on one trait emotionality & activity level tend to be stable • There is a difference between description of personality (traits) • Things like honesty/conscientiousness are and explanation of why things are that way different depending on the situation • Trait theories focus on describing and predicting (except •Self-monitoring - one’s tendency to tailor Eysenck’s brain arousal explanation) behavior the situation SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORISTS • Social cognitive theorists focus on both internal and external causes of personality • Reciprocal determinism - person, behavior and environment all influence each other • These theories have a strong scientific base and explain apparent contradictions of consistency Rotter Whether we will do something is determined by: •Expectancy - what we expect the behavior to cause •Reinforcement value - how much we desire/dread this expected outcome Internal/external locus of control - called a generalized expectancy • People with an internal locus believe life outcomes are largely under personal control • People with external locus believe their fate has to do with luck, chance, others • Internal locus people’s behavior is more self determined, they do better in school, are independent but cooperative, resistant to social influence, and healthier Bandura •Human agency - humans are active agents in their own lives • We are self-reflective and self-regulatory Four processes (not traits) Key factor isself-efficacy - beliefs concerning one’s •Intentionality - we plan, modify plans, act with intention ability to perform what is needed. Four determinants: •Forethought - we anticipate outcomes, set goals, actively • Previous performance attainments - in similar situations choose behaviors • Observational learning - if he can do it so can I •Self-reactiveness - motivating and regulating our own actions • Verbal persuasion - inspiration from others •Self-reflectiveness - evaluate our own actions • Emotional arousal - our ability to control it Mischel • We need to consider individual ways of perceiving and understanding events • Consistency paradox - we expect and perceive high consistency of personality, but in reality it varies greatly with situations Cognitive-affective personality system - both the person and the situation matter • •If-then behavior consistencies - there is consistency in behavior in similar situations PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT Projective Tests • Psychodynamic theorists say we can’t use interviews/questions because Interviews the things we want to know are unconscious • Structured interviews - standardized situation • Objective measures of personality have better reliability and validity than • Must look at more than what they’re saying: projective appearance, speech patterns, posture • Limitations: interviewer themselves affect result, Rorschach inkblots Thematic Apperception Test also depends on how honest the interviewee is • What does this inkblot look like? • Less ambiguous than rorschach What feature made you say that? • What is going on in this scene? • Unreliably between examiners What are the people feeling? • Scoring system was developed to Personality Scales • Useful if scoring is standardized • Objective: standard set of questions increase reliability • Easy to score • People may lie, but you can test their tendency to lie to protect their image by using validity scales Remote Behavior Sampling • Rational approach - try to determine what • Using a pager to randomly ask respondents about their current feelings introverts would say about themselves (I like spending time alone) (NEO-PI test is this) • Empirical approach - find out what introverts • Psychodynamic theorists prefer projective tests tend to say yes to empirically, whether it makes • Humanists prefer self-report • Social cognitive theorists prefer behavior assessments/sampling sense intuitively or not (MMPI test is this) • Trait theorists/behavior geneticists prefer personality scales • Biological personality researchers use emotional reactivity/brain processes STRESS CHAPTER 15 Stressors Life event scales - gauge the Microstressors - daily hassles and annoyances Catastrophic events - natural disasters, war severity of a stressor by measuring Major negative events - victim of major crime/ intensity, duration, predictability, controllability, chronicity abuse, loss of loved one, academic failure STRESS RESPONSE 1.Primary appraisal 2.Secondary appraisal 3.Judgements of what 4.Appraisal of the appraisal of the demand appraisal of resources the consequences personal meaning - what of the situation available to cope with it could be outcome might imply to us General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) Physiological response pattern to strong & prolonged stressors Alarm Reaction Resistance • Rapid increase in physiological arousal Body is resisting the • “Fight or flight” response parasympathetic • Adrenal medulla produces epinephrine nervous system that is • Adrenal cortex producecortisol (AKA glucocortisoids) trying to calm it down Exhaustion • Effects similar to epinephrine as it continues to fight After the stressor, there is an • Triggers an increase in blood sugars, suppresses the stressor increased vulnerability to disease immune system, anti-inflammatory (or even death). This is why you get • Constant secretion of cortisol causes depression/ sick after exams. anxiety disorder STRESS & HEALTH • Physiological responses don’t work for modern age psychological stresses. • Does physical stress cause emotional distress? • Is there a third factorNeuroticism : heightened tendency to experience negative emotions and get into negative situations because of it. • Psychosomatic disorders - physical symptoms caused by psychological factors (hypertension) Anxiety PTSD • Subjective distress • Caused by specific event: torture, rape, accident, war • Physiological activation • Onset immediate or months later • Avoidance/escape behavior towards the • Severe anxiety, physiological arousal and distress perceived cause • Painful, uncontrollable reliving of the event in flashbacks, dreams and fantasies • • Interference/restriction in daily routine, Emotional numbing and avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma occupational or social functioning • Intense “survivor guilt” in instances where others were killed by the individual • Various anxiety disorders survived • Panic attack; Panic disorder • Some show self destructive/impulsive behavior - try to self medicate with drugs • Phobic disorders • People with no PTSD show brain • OCD activity in the left hemisphere when • PTSD thinking of a traumatic event Treating PTSD • People with PTSD show activity in the • Remove from the traumatic situation right hemisphere • Educate survivors and family • Medication (Zoloft) • Exposure therapy is common Stress and Illness • Training in coping • Stress increases risk of heart attack, cancer and death after death of a loved one • Also arthritis, rheumatism, bronchitis, ulcers, earth disease, asthma, migraines • Stress reduces fat metabolism, increasing artery blockage • Reduces immune system • Makes people more likely to behave unhealthily - diabetics don’t take medication, people exercise less, take drugs • Cortisol destroys the hippocampus - important in memory STRESS PROTECTIVE FACTORS Physiological toughness Social Support A relationship between two classes of hormones secreted by adrenal • Ability to rely on and talk to others glands in response to stress. • People without social support are more likely to die earlier • Catecholamines - epinephrine and NE (boosts immune system) • Talking about a traumatic event in a study makes you less likely to visit the campus hospital later in the year • Corticosteroids - mainly cortisol (damages it) • Makes immune system stronger People with high physiological toughness respond to stress wlow • Feel like you’re part of something meaningful • Increases feeling of control over stressors levels of cortisoland quick strongjump in catecholamines . The levels of both hormones quickly returns to baseline after the stressor • Prevents you from coping badly (drugs) is dealt with. Cognitive Protective Factors Hardiness . Three parts trait: Coping self-efficacy - the Finding meaning in 1. Commitment to work/family conviction that we can cope stressful life events - religion successfully can increase or decrease stress 2. Perception of control over situation (biggest factor) 3. Viewing the situation as a challenge In ratsperception of control is the difference Optimism - optimism makes you between getting ulcers from stress and not. healthier, increases immune system Personality Type Problem-focussed coping - confront & •Type A - live under great pressure, demanding of themselves and others deal directly with demands of stressor •Type B - more relaxed and agreeable, far less time urgency Type A’s have 2x risk of heart disease due to aggressive feelings, less social Emotion-focussed coping - manage support due to hostility and an increased likelihood of behind in stressful the emotional response (much worse than situations. problem-focused) BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION Transtheoretical Model Aerobic Exercise Exercise that elevates the heart rate and Pre-contemplation - problem unrecognized increases the body's need for oxygen. Heart beats slowly and efficiently, oxygen is better Contemplation - problem recognized used. Preparation - Preparing to change behavior Moderate exercise is better than extreme Action - implementing change strategy exercise (3 times a week, 20-60 mins), Maintenance - behavior change maintained Termination - permanent change; no maintenance required Dropping Out Of Exercise People move back and forth between stages. It takes many tries Attitude towards exercise is not a factor. to succeed, 3-5 cycles for smokers. • Low self efficacy • Type A Personality Yo-yo Dieting • Inflated estimate of current fitness Big up-and-down weight fluctuations • Inactive leisure-time pursuits • Increase abdominal fat • Lack of social support • Increases risk of cardiovascular disease AIDS Women are fasting rising infected group (50%). Gay men are only 5-10%. Bandura’s social cognitive theory - people learn from those they admire • Produce highly engaging “entertainment-education” radio dramas to increase Counteracting Cultural awareness and counteract false beliefs (as was done in Tanzania) Attitudes Against Condoms • Positive role models with positive consequences There are stigmas against condoms in • Negative role models with negative ones many African countries. • Transitional models who start out bad and get better • Viewers of the show reduced sex parters, used condoms more, showed positive attitudes to family planning and desired smaller families SUBSTANCE ABUSE TREATMENT/PREVENTION Cognitive behavioral strategies work best. Motivational Interviewing Multimodal Treatment Approaches Leads people to their own conclusions by Package of multiple approaches: asking questions, revealing their •Biological (nicotine patches) discrepancies between self and ideal-self. •Aversion therapy (pair the drug with shock/nausea) • Relaxation and stress mgmt (mindfulness meditation) • Self monitoring procedures • Coping and social skills to deal with triggers Harm Reduction Approaches • Marital and family counseling to reduce conflict, • Designed not to eliminate a behavior, but increase social support rather to reduce the harmful effects of a • Positive reinforcement to strengthen change behavior when it occurs • Safe needle clinics, methadone for heroin addicts • This approach might be better for Relapse Prevention student drinking because it hard to get • Dropout rates are a big problem for substance abuse them to stop completely treatment • Relapses are caused bylapses - one time slips due to a high stress situation • Not enough self-efficacy to resist temptation • Abstinence violation effect - person becomes upset and self-blaming over failure, reduces self efficacy • Teach people to treat lapses as learning experiences (progress, not perfection) • Relapse prevention is an important part of successful treatment programs PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS CHAPTER 16 WHAT IS ABNORMAL? Abnormal behavior - personally distressing, Distress - to self or others dysfunctional and/or so culturally deviant so that other Dysfunction - for person or society people judge it to be inappropriate or maladaptive. Deviance - violate social norms MAJOR DIAGNOSTIC CATEGORIES Anxiety disorders - intense, Mood (affective) disorders - Somatoform disorders - physical frequent, inappropriate anxiety marked disturbances in mood symptoms such as blindness, but no loss of contact with reality (depression, mania) paralysis or pain with no physical (phobias, panic, OCD, PTSD) basis, also hypochondriasis Dissociative disorders - Schizophrenic and other Substance abuse disorders - problems of consciousness or self- psychotic disorders - disorders of personal and social problems with identification (amnesia, multiple thinking, perception and emotion - psychoactive substances personalities loss of contact with reality Sexual and gender identity Eating disorders - anorexia and Personality disorders - rigid, disorders - sexual dysfunctions, bulimia stable and maladaptive personality deviant sexual behaviors patterns (antisocial, dependent, (molestation, fetishes), desire to be paranoid, narcissistic) opposite sex Rosenhan - “Sane In Insane Places” Study • Had people get admitted into metal hospital just by HISTORY OF DISORDERS • Ancient societies though mental illness was caused by demons walking up and saying “I’m hearing voices” • Not a single person realized they were pretending • Trephination - drill a hole in the skull to release the spirit • Normal behavior was taken as a symptom (writing notes) • Mental illness was not always considered mental or illness • Pythagoras suggests mental disorders are a disease of the mind Until Mid 70’s, there was either... Vulnerability-stress model (AKA diathesis-stress model) - each of us has some degree of vulnerability for Neurosis - anxiety, such Psychosis - thought disturbance, developing a psychological disorder, as a phobia (still in touch or such as schizophrenia (lost touch given sufficient stress with reality) with reality) Then, psychologists shifted from classifying by “cause” to classifying by “observable behavior” (DSM manual). ANXIETY DISORDERS Phobia - strong and irrational fears of certain objects or situations • Onset in young adulthood. • They realize they are irrational but can’t help it • Most prevalent psychological disorder • Most common: Agoraphobia, social phobias (situations where you may in North American be judged/embarrassed), specific phobias (dogs, elevators) • More common in females • Animal fear common in women, heights in men • High occurrence: affects 25% of people Generalized Anxiety Disorder - chronic “free-floating” anxiety that Characteristics is not attached to specific situations or objects • Subjective-emotional distress • Expect something bad to happen, don’t know what • Avoidance-escape behavior • Sweating, diarrhea also occurs • Interference in daily routine and social functioning Panic Disorder - sudden, unpredictable and OCD intense panic attacks • Obsessions - repetitive and unwelcome thoughts, images, or • No identifiable cause impulses (cognitive) • May develop agoraphobia because they are • Compulsions - repetitive behavioral responses, like cleaning afraid of panic attacks happening in public rituals (behavioral) • Panic disorder is diagnosed when the patient • Doing the compulsions prevents great anxiety and panic attacks has a fear of future attacks • Patients know the compulsions don’t make sense, and wish they could stop • Occurs in 2% of men and women • Has a genetic link to Tourette’s Syndrome • People with this genetic trait will either get Tourette's in childhood or OCD later in life • May be due to decreased serotonin activity Causes of Anxiety Disorders Biological Factors Psychodynamic View - unacceptable impulses • 40% concordance rates for identical twin, only threaten to overwhelm the ego's defenses 4% for fraternal twins • In phobias, neurotic anxiety is displaced onto object • Oversensitive autonomic nervous system of symbolic significance (like a snake) • Too much emotional response neurotransmitters • Obsessions are related to an underlying impulse, • Not enough GABA (inhibitory neurotransmitters) compulsions are ways of “undoing” these thoughts • Overactivity in right hemisphere (PTSD) • GAD and panic attacks are when defenses aren’t • Evolutionary preparedness to fear snakes, dogs strong enough to contain the anxiety Learned Response (Behavioral View) Cognitive View • Classical conditioning - develop phobia after being • Patients expect the worst and feel powerless to cope bitten by snake • Social phobics believe they are more likely to • Observational learning - develop fear from embarrass themselves than others, and believe that watching TV the consequences are worse • Operant conditioning - avoidance (agoraphobia) • Panic attacks are triggered by exaggerated and compulsions are negatively reinforced misinterpretation of normal anxiety symptoms • Teaching people that its just anxiety, not a heart attack, makes them much better Sociocultural - some anxiety disorders are culture specific • Koro - Southeast Asian fear that your penis will retract into stomach and kill you • Taijin Kyofushu - Japanese social phobia of smelling bad, blushing, staring, having improper expression • Windigo - Native American fear of monsters who will turn them into homicidal cannibals • Anorexia is exclusive to developed countries EATING DISORDERS Anorexia Nervosa Bulimia Nervosa • Intense fear of being fat • Vomiting, laxatives to avoid gaining weight • 90% female • Consume thousands of calories during binges • • View themselves as fat despite being tiny Normal body weight but gastric problems, teeth erosion • Bone loss, heart strain, stops menstruation • More prevalent than anorexia Causes of Eating Disorders Personality Physiological Cultural Factors • Anorexics: perfectionists, high standards • Anorexics leptin levels rebound •Objectification of for self and others. Need for control that faster than their weight, so its women stems from their upbringing. hard for them to gain weight •Cultural norms for • Bulimics: depressed and anxious, low • Bulimics lose taste buds which what beauty is impulse control. Binging triggered by stress. makes vomiting more tolerable MOOD DISORDERS • Disturbance in mood (known as affect) rather than in thought • Emotional highs are called “manias”, and lows are called “depression” • Have high comorbidity with anxiety disorders (50% of depressed people have an anxiety disorder) Suicide • Happens Every 40 seconds • More common in Europe than N.A. Depression • In Canada, male suicide rate have increased • What we think of as depression is unipolar depression since the 50s, female rates stayed about the • Frequency, intensity, and duration of depressive symptoms are out of proportion same • to the person's life situation. Minor setback causes major depression. Men are 3x more likely to kill themselves, • 16% of americans, 10% of canadians are affected women are 3x more likely to attempt • Dysthymia - a version of depression with less dramatic effects on personal and • Males choose more lethal weapons (guns) occupational functioning. More chronic depression - lasts years on end with • And are less likely to cry for help week intervals of normal mood. • Women do it about love, men about work • Depression (bipolar and unipolar) is a strong
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