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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 1000
Professor
Dr.Mike
Semester
Fall

Description
Psych1000 StudyGuide WUCK Language 3 Intelligence 9 Motivation & Emotion 20 Development 31 Social thinking & Perception 39 This guide contains notes on “Psychology: Frontiers and Applications” Fourth Canadian Ed. by Passer, Smith, Atkinson, Mitchell and Muir. This guide is intended for supplementary purposes only. Reading this is no substitute for going to class and reading the book. We hope we can help you as much as possible, but your grades are your responsibility. LANGUAGE CHAPTER 9 Language - system of symbols and rules to generate infinite possible meanings Psycholinguistics - study of psychological aspects of language COMPONENTS OF LANGUAGE Noam Chomsky’s Transformation Grammar Grammar Rules of how symbols can be combined Syntax Rules that govern order of words Semanticity Conveys meaning Surface structure Deep structure Generatively Finite symbols can be combined to an infinite Symbols and the Underlying meaning, number of messages their order semantics Displacement Allows us to communicate things that aren’t physically present (imaginary, past, future) Phoneme Morpheme Words Phrases Sentences Discourse No meaning on Smallest unit of Almost anything in Sentences their own. About meaning. Letter “s” english can be said combined into pronunciation. conveys pluralness with a vocabulary paragraphs, so it is a morpheme. of 850 words. articles, books, Ex. Letter L or D conversations. Ex. Dog, pre-, “s” PSYCH WITH MIKE Q. How many morphemes in “crosswords”? Humor •Phonological ambiguity - confusion of Two. (←Tilt screen to see answer) sounds (Knock knock jokes) •Lexical ambiguity - double meaning (a Explanation: “Crossword” is one and “s” is baker kneads the dough) another. “Cross” and “word” aren’t conveying •Syntactic ambiguity - confusion in separate meaning so they are one morpheme. “S” conveys separate meaning than the rest of the structure (man eating salmon vs man- word, pluralness, so it is also its own morpheme. eating salmon) •Semantic ambiguity - meaning (Call me a cab. Okay you’re a cab.) Bottom up processing: patterns ➡ syllables ➡ meaning Top down processing : interpreting things based on expectations THE BRAIN (Reading “The Bead Store” as “The Bread Store”) Broca's Area Speech Wernicke's Area Comprehension Speech segmentation - how do we know when words end? • We learn certain sequences are more likely to be at the end of words •Women have language in both hemispheres, • Context also makes it easier to tell when words end men have it in the left •If you acquire a language earlier in life, both languages use the same neural network •If you learn a language later in life, it gets its Pragmatics - knowledge of the practical aspects of using language own neural network and you use a different • Using language requires more than vocabulary and grammar • You must know not only what people are saying but what they mean part of the brain when you use that language •Even if you learn early and fluently, the and want you to do (Social context) inferior frontal gyrus goes off when you use a second language, indicating it requires more effort LANGUAGE LEARNING Motherese • High pitch, slow rate, •Infants vocalize (cry, babble) from the first moments of life - even deaf infants exaggerated tone mothers use •Show phoneme discrimination by 2 months (PA vs BA) when talking to babies •Babies are equally sensitive to phonemes from foreign languages - we’re hard • Adults shift “automatically” wired to acquire languages • Infants prefer this speech to •At 6-12 months, they can only discriminate between sounds in their native tongue normal adult speech •Language Acquisition Device (LAD) - humans are born with an innate biological • Learning about pausing, pitch, mechanism that contains general grammar rules (nouns, verbs) characteristics of speech •A huge electrical “switchboard” that is calibrated to your language •Is language learned as a result of imitation and reinforcement (Skinner’s idea)? Bilingualism •Not really. Parents don’t correct kids’ grammar but they still learn it. •Language Acquisition Support System (LASS) - social environment that •Children mixing two language when facilitates language learning. Mutually supportive with LAD they learn is not an issue, they can discriminate by age 2 Bilingual children have Superior cognitive processing The One-Word Speaker The Two-Word Speaker • • 5-8 months of age - respond to • Around 2 years old - telegraphic speech •Better understanding even before parents words • Vocabulary of several hundred words they read • 10 to 20 months - talking begins • Speech shows proper organization: •Better symbolic understanding of • The early vocabulary simple. The #1 “throw ball” not “ball throw” the nature of print • word is “no”. By 2.5 years child moves beyond 2 words, •Preform better on attention • Vocab more likely to include objects and sentences become more complex they can manipulate (ball vs ceiling) • The 4 or 5 year old makes mistakes in inhibition tasks (flexibility of thinking) • Difficult to tell what kids mean when tense (runned not ran, eated or ate) they use single words, they tend to •Child now overgeneralizesrules undergeneralize • Formal schooling takes over Teaching immigrants both English and their native language in school causes better English fluency, academic performance & self-esteem. PSYCH WITH MIKE Critical Periods Will language develop on its own? • The white crowned sparrow must be A. “Feral children” (Amala and Kamala) did not learn language on exposed to an adult song between day their own. 7 and 60 or it will never be able to sing B. Isolated children might learn language depending on how early • Humans must be exposed to language they are introduced to it. 6yo is fine, 14yo is too late. C. Children with no models may be able to learn language. Ex. Deaf between 3 months to around puberty children with hearing parents who don’t sign. (early teens) or they will not be able to D. Can other animals learn language? No. Languages have been learn to speak taught to chimps but they have no real syntax or propositional thought. Second language critical periods: You definitely learn the language better if you learn it earlier, but a biological critical period is debated. Linguistic Influences on Thinking • Linguistic relativity hypothesis - language determines what we are capable of thinking • For example: would a culture with fewer words for colors actually be less able to tell colors apart? Studies testing this are inconsistent. THINKING • Language doesn’t determine what you think, it influences it • Chinese language uses ten-one, ten-two instead of eleven and twelve so Thought and language are closely related. children learn math easier in Asian countries Telling people to talk out loud can be used to study thinking patterns (calledirected thinking ). Propositional thought - inner speech Organization of • Concepts - basic units of semantic memory (objects, abstractions, activities) TYPES OF • Some concepts are defined by prototypes (most typical members of the class) Thought THOUGHT • Propositions are statements about concepts that may be true or false • Hierarchical structure • Goal-direct Imaginal thought - images we see, hear or feel in our mind • Schema driven Motoric thought - mental representations of motor movements REASONING Obstacles to Reasoning • Distraction from relevant info Deductive reasoning - reasoning Inductive reasoning - reasoning from the top down, based on logic from the bottom up • Belief bias - abandoning logical and premises • Evaluating facts to from general rules to favor your opinions • Emotions and framing - same info • If X, then Y principles • Syllogism - classical deductive • Inductions are less certain - they presented in a different way (50% argument form likelihoods, not certainties success rate vs 50% failure rate) PROBLEM SOLVING • Framing the problem - looking at it the right Problem Solving Schemas - mental blueprints way can make the answer seem obvious Algorithms - procedures that auto generate correct solutions • Testing solutions mental sets are tendencies to stick with solutions that worked Heuristics - general problem solving strategies that apply to certain classes of situations (shortcuts) in the past and can cause inefficiencies Representativeness heuristic - infer how Availability heuristic - we Confirmation bias - looking closely something fits into our prototype of a think things that are easier to for evidence to confirm your concept. think of are more likely to beliefs happen. •You can be sure you are ex. Which coin toss sequence is more likely, •This is why we think murder wrong, but its hard to be HHHTTT or HTHTTH? They are equally likely, is more likely than suicide sure you are right HTHTTH is just more representative of our (its not) •Best to look for evidence to heuristic of randomness. disprove your hypothesis Means-ends analysis - Framing effect - the phrasing of the identify difference between Subgoal analysis - situation affects how you interpret it, even if present state and goal and formulate intermediate make chances to get to goal steps to the solution the information is identical KNOWLEDGE, EXPERTISE AND WISDOM •Schema - mental framework (concepts, categories) •Scripts - type of schema concerning sequence of events (going shopping, going to the movies) Wisdom - system of knowledge about the meaning and conduct of life Experts - rely on many schemas and 1. Rich factual knowledge about life. knowing of when to apply them • Schemas are enhanced by experience 2. Rich procedural knowledge about life (strategies, handling conflict) 3. Understanding of lifespan contexts: life involves many contexts • Once you become an expert, you use (family, friends, work) long term memory instead of working 4. Awareness of the relativism of values and priorities memory, which is much more efficient. 5. The ability to recognize and manage uncertainty Mental Imagery Metacognition - knowing your own cognitive • Mental rotation - asking people if two shapes are the same • Mental images involve spatial representation - if you abilities imagine a map, it takes longer to mentally “go” from two • If you have goodmetacomprehension , you are good at knowing what you do and don’t places that are further apart • Some argue that mental imagery is more like language: understand when you think of a brick wall it is represented by various • Metamemory is your knowledge of what you do and don’t remember linguistic concepts (brick, mortar, spread) • Metacognition is very important for a student • Is mental imagery a perception? • Hemispatial neglect also affects your ability to form • Writing summaries of chapters helps you find mental images out what you truly know and don’t know • There is a lot of brain overlap between visual and mental perception Q. How many deep and surface structures does the phrase “smoking volcanoes can be bad for your health” have? 2 deep and 1 surface. (←Tilt screen to see answer) INTELLIGENCE CHAPTER 10 Intelligence - ability to acquire knowledge, to reason effectively, and to deal adaptively with the environment. Intelligence is a socially constructed concept. People that live in farming communities in different countries don’t solve logical problems the same way as others but it doesn’t mean they’re less intelligent. SIR FRANCIS GALTON ALFRED BINET •Believed thatintelligence was inherited •French government asked him to find out and that smart people were “more fit” for why certain kids didn’t learn in school as well thinking than dumb people •Believed that intelligence was a “collection • Measured reaction speed, hand strength, and of higher-order abilities” meaning there sensory acuity to test intelligence would be no correlation between each of the • Believed intelligence wasunitary (based on abilities that make up intelligence mental quickness) Assumed that a) mental abilities develop with • • Thought skull size was related to intelligence age and b) rate of development is constant • Turned out to be totallywrong about •Developed a standardized test measuring intelligence but he did create interest in the memory, math, vocabulary etc. field. •Also correlated his test with the teachers’ • He also developed the correlation ratings of the children to make sure the results coefficient so he wasn’t totally useless were meaningful (criterion validity) •Developed a testing score called “mental age” BINET’S LEGACY WILLIAM STERN A prof at Stanford developed an IQ test for •Built on Binet’s idea of mental age and american culture. Initially verbal based, now includes Verbal Reasoning, Abstract/Visual came up with IQ Stanford-Binet •IQ = mental age ÷ actual age Reasoning, Quantitative Reasoning, and Short- Term Memory. •Today’s IQ tests are no longer based on mental age because: IQ test for army recruits • It only really works with children Army Alpha • Mental age of 80 isn’t actually 2x better than a mental age of 40 IQ test for army recruits that couldn’t read Army Beta •So Weshler comes up with deviation IQ based on z-score Lorge-Thorndike •IQs have a mean of 100 and a standard Still used by school districts today Intelligence Test & deviation of 15 Otis-Lennon School Ability Test Measure verbal and non-verbal abilities, most Wechsler Adult popular intelligence tests in North America. Correlation between IQ & Academics Intelligence Scale (WAIS-IV) • IQ and high school grades: 0.6 • University grades: 0.3 - 0.5 • US university entrance examinations: 0.5 •Separate scores for Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Organization, Freedom from • Correlation high enough to justify using it but not Wechsler Distractibility, and Processing Speed just it alone Intelligence Scale •As kids mature, general intelligence remains for Children (WISC - stable but specific abilities become more Correlation between IQ & Other Things IV) differentiated • IQ and socioeconomic status: 0.4 - 0.7 • IQ and achievement: 0.3 - 0.7 • People with higher intelligence perform better on their jobs, especially during training • IQ predicts job performance better than experience, specific abilities, or personality • People high in intelligence show better recovery from brain injuries • Higher childhood IQ = significantly greater survival to age 76 TEST CONCERNS Validity - does test measure what it s supposed to? •Construct validity - To what extent is the test actually measuring the thing of interest? •Content validity - Do the test questions relate to all Reliability - consistency of measurement aspects of the thing being measured? (Can’t just test addition if you’re testing math) • Test-retest reliability- are scores stable over time? •Criterion-related validity - Do scores on the test predict • Internal consistency - do all items seem to be some present or future behavior related to what its measuring the same thing? Interjudge reliability- do different raters/scorers supposed to measure? (Like what Binet did with the • teacher’s ratings) agree on their scoring? Culture Fairness Standardization Is the teculture-fair or doesit require knowledge only The development of norms - test scores from a large available to specific culture.e. asking an urban community sample that represent particular age segments of the farming related IQ questions. population •Chitterling test is bias to ople in Southern US states THE NATURE OF INTELLIGENCE Psychometric Approach SPEARMAN • Psychometrics - statistical study of psychological tests •Modern Galton - believed intelligence is a based • What are the mental abilities of the human mind? on one general skill • Is intelligence a general mental capacity, or several •Called this general skill theg-factor specific mental abilities? •The g-factor is what most people call “intelligence” today • Uses factor analysis to see if there are clusters of •G-factor predicts job success even better than measures abilities that are correlated with each other (ex. if reading, of specific ability tailored to specific jobs writing and speaking are correlated maybe there is an underlying skill that makes you good at all of them) Thurstone' 7 CATTELL & HORN THURSTONE • Spacial ability Modern Binet - believed intelligence is more • Verbal • Believed there are two subtypes of the g-factor: • comprehension crystalized and fluid intelligence complex than just a g-factor • Word fluency • Number facility • Crystallized intelligence (g ) c - ability to apply •Believed there are 7 independent primary • Perceptual speed previous knowledge to current problems mental abilities • Rote memory Believed not all tests are necessarily • Reasoning •Vocab, info tests • •Based on long term memory correlated because they are measuring • Fluid intelligence (g )f - ability to solve new problems different primary mental abilities Reasoning, creative problem solving •These types of measures are much more • •Towers of hanoi, 9 dot problem useful for education, because you can help children succeed in specific subjects •Based on working • We use more fluid intelligence when we’re children, and more crystallized when we’re adults CARROLL The Three Stratum Model Cognitive Approach • Attempt to explain why people vary in mental skill • Stratum III - General intelligence (g) • Stratum II - Eight broad intellectual factors, in • Explore specific info-processing that underlies intellect order of their correlation with g Fluid, Crystalized, Memory/learning, Visual, • STERNBERG Auditory, Cognitive speediness, Processing speed Triarchic theory of intelligence • Stratum I - 70 highly specific cognitive abilities •These correlate on average 0.3 with one another, •Metacomponents - higher order processes used to plan and regulate task performance (Smart people spend more indicating the influence of g time framing problems and developing strategies) •Performance components - actual mental processes used to perform task (Perception, memory, schema retrieval) •Knowledge-acquisition components - learn from experience, story info in memory, combine new insights with old info Beyond Mental Competencies Sternberg’s Classes Of Intelligence •Analytical intelligence - academic style problem solving •Practical intelligence - skills to cope with everyday GARDNER demands, manage oneself and others Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences •Creative intelligence - skills needed to deal adaptively with novel problems •Intelligence is made up of independent intelligences that relate to different adaptive demands •These classes also have an underlying g-factor but sometimes they are completely distinct •Linguistic intelligence - the ability to use language well •Logical-mathematic intelligence - ability to reason mathematically and logically •Visuospatial intelligence - the ability to solve spatial problems •Musical intelligence - the ability to perceive pitch and rhythm Emotional Intelligence •Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence - the ability to control body • Perceiving emotions movements and skillfully manipulate objects • Using emotions to facilitate thought •Interpersonal intelligence - the ability to understand and • Understanding emotions relate well to others • Managing emotions •Intrapersonal intelligence - the ability to understand oneself • Measured by the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test •Naturalistic intelligence - the ability to detect and understand phenomena in the natural world •Existential intelligence - oriented ability to ponder questions Proponents suggest that emotionally intelligent people about the meaning of one's existence, life, death • Form stronger emotional bonds with others • Enjoy greater success in careers, marriage, and childrearing The first three are measured by existing tests, the others are • Modulate their own emotions to avoid depression, anger, anxiety • Work more effectively toward long-term goals not. Einstein, Tiger Woods and a street-smart gang leader all exhibit adaptive forms of intelligence says Gardner. • More effective coping strategies PSYCH WITH MIKE In class, Mike gave the example of a sea serpent underwater to explain the multifaceted nature of intelligence. You can only see some parts above the water so you can’t properly tell if its one serpent? or two? four? Aptitude vs Achievement Achievement testing Aptitude testing • Pro: is usually a good predictor of future • Pro: It is fairer performance in a similar situation • Con: It is difficult to construct • Con: it assumes that everyone has had the same a test that is independent of opportunity to learn the material being tested prior learning Static vs Dynamic Testing Static testing Dynamic testing • Dynamic test scores correlate more highly with education outcomes Completely standardizing test Standard testing followed up by the • Very useful when testing people environment so everyone is examiner giving the subject without equal educational responding to the same feedback, and then measuring their opportunities, and people not stimulus and all that is being ability to improve and respond to accustomed to Western-style testing tested is their ability feedback The Flynn Effect Intelligence in Other Cultures • The world’s population is progressively • Sternberg’s Theory Of Successful Intelligence: scoringhigher and higher on intelligence is what is required to meet adaptive intelligence tests demands of the culture • The nature of IQ allows its meaning to be • Raven’s Progressive Matrices - non-verbal preserved even when this happens because the task where one must decipher rules of the mean is always calibrated to be 100 - IQ is a relative pattern and pick the next figure measure • Good example of a non culture-specific • IQ’s increase 3 points per decade in the west measure of intelligence • Why? Better nutrition? Technology? Complex • Other approach is to tailor culture specific learning environments? questions for that culture Raven’s Progressive Matrices INTELLIGENCE & BIOLOGY Brain Size & Intelligence Galton Revived: Intelligence and Neural Efficiency • In some ways, Einstein’s brain was smaller than the average person. His parietal lobes were 15% wider and extremely • Modest relations have been shown between IQ and densely packed brain responses to visual and auditory stimuli • Intelligent people use less glucose when solving • Neanderthals had bigger brains than us • Women’s brains are larger problems, suggesting they work more efficiently • Men have 6.5x more grey matter (related to general intelligence) • Some believe differences in brain plasticity - • Women have 10x more white matter (related to connectivity) brain’s ability to change in response to • So, it would appear men have better info processing and women environment - may be key have better connectivity • There may be a critical period for growth of neural • Women’s general intelligence tends to be more centralized (e.g. circuits that ends around age 16, the same time in frontal lobe) when crystalized intelligence stabilizes Genes, Environment & Intelligence Early Childhood Intervention • Children in early intervention programs have lower • 0.5 to 0.7 heritability coefficient for intelligence crime rates, need less welfare, better grades, and higher • Genetic factors become even more important as incomes we age • These programs only work for disadvantaged children, • 30-50% variation accounted for by environment they do little for children in middle/upper class homes • IQ Scores correlate0.4 with socioeconomic who already have these resources at home status a child is raised in • When deprived children are adopted into Effective Schooling to raise IQ middle/upper class homes, their IQ increase • Teach specific program solving approaches, not general 10-12 points mental ability (focus on specific skills, not g) • Environmental factors explain the Flynn effect • Less repetition, more instruction about how to learn, (better schooling, parenting, tech, etc.) critical thinking and application • Teach memory enhancement strategies first rather than waiting for lower-level skills to be mastered ETHNIC GROUP DIFFERENCES • There are consistent differences in the intelligence test scores of members of different racial/national groups • Asian > White > African-American in terms of average scores • Asians have lower verbal scores but higher spatial/math scores Explanation for Differences • Black people are less likely to be schooled in enriched environments Outcome bias Predictive bias -if test • As more black people had access to school because of social Extent that a test predicts criterion (e.g. changes over the last 25 years, the IQ gap dropped underestimates a school performance) for • Family environmental factors account for 2/3 of the test person’s true ability some groups but not score gap others • In reality, there is more variation within groups than between them GENDER DIFFERENCES Explanation • Different social experiences (boys catch balls when Men are better at Women are better at Spatial tasks Perceptual speed they grow up) • Evolutionary: men hunt (visuospatial), women raise Target directed skills (throwing) Verbal fluency kids + make tools (verbal + precise manual abilities) Math reasoning Math calculation Precise manual tasks • Hormones affect brain organization • Women 7 days before period have more estrogen and perform better on precise motor tasks Q. A woman should do better than a man at all but: • A game of darts • Tests of mathematical calculation • Tests of fine motor coordination • Tests of perceptual speed • Tests of verbal fluency A game of darts. (←Tilt screen to see answer) MENTAL DISABILITY • 3-5% (10 millions people) of the population is cognitively disabled • 4 forms: Mild, moderate, severe, profound • Mild (85%)Can attend school but difficulty with reading, writing, memory, math • With social support, can function normally in society • Variety of causes (genetic, biological, environmental) • 28% genetic abnormalities • Profound retardation is caused by genetic accidents, so it doesn’t run in families • Mild retardation is much more likely to run in families • Also could be caused by oxygen deprivation, disease/drugs during pregnancy • For 75-80%, no clear biological cause can be identified PSYCH WITH MIKE SAVANT SYNDROME CAUSES? • The term “idiot savant” was coined by J. L. Down, the 1. Eidetic Imaging 2. Heredity guy that discovered Down Syndrome • Perhaps photographic memory? Early studies suggest family • Idiot was an accepted category of mental retardation Unlikely. relationship but recent data (IQ < 25), although savants usually have higher IQ’s • Some can make calculations suggests “no” than that beyond things they have seen • Savants are people with mental disabilities that excel • High % are blind in a very narrow range of abilities 4. Reinforcement • Most common combination: blind and autistic with very high musical skill Social attention serves as • May have multiple skills (usually just one) 3. Sensory Deprivation reward for display of Sensory deprivation resulting talent. • All seem to be right hemisphere based skills from autism promotes intense • All linked with phenomenal (but narrow) memory • Unlikely: many crave concentration. But 90% of autistic attention without • Savants are very rare: less than 100 reports, only 25 kids don’t develop any living developing exceptional • 6x more likely in males exceptional skills so there must talent be something more. • About half of savants have autism Example of Skills Some 5. Lateralization - the most likely cause • Most savants have left hemisphere deficits Savants Have • Right hemisphere develops before the left in the womb • Lightening-fast math • Music • If damage occurs while left is still developing (10 to 18th week), neurons in left die • Calendar calculations • Right hemisphere “recruits” neural connections across the corpus • Art • Mechanical or spatial abilities callosum • Effect can be triggered by testosterone (explains why its more likely • Time estimation • Sensory discrimination in males) • ESP? PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENT DISORDER • Is a form Autism Spectrum Disorder Other forms of Autism •1 in 50 births •Asperger’s disorder - highest functioning • More common in males when IQ > 35 • Rett’s disorder • Universal, in every society in the world • Childhood disintegrative disorder • Symptoms develop before 36 months Symptoms Causes Not poor parenting Impaired social interactions Not vaccines • No friends Dr. Andrew Wakefield • No eye contact, even with mom faked the data for the Has a genetic tag studies linking autism If one child has autism, risk to vaccines increases by a factor of 10,000 Impaired communication • Limited or unusual speech •Echolalia - they repeat what you say Brain damage likely • MRI scans show abnormally small cerebellum (responsible for fine tuned motor behaviors) Restricted behaviors, interests • Only visible around age 3, brain is normal at birth • Like things to “stay the same” • Cortex and white matter overload the cerebellum and • Ritualistic behavior, e.g. destroy Purkinje cells • Spinning around • Looking at hand for hours Treatment • Drugs not really effective • Intense social stimulation and care are the best option • Effectiveness of treatment depends on IQ loss • The higher IQ is, the more stimulation can help MOTIVATION & EMOTION CHAPTER 11 HOMEOSTASIS AND DRIVE THEORY INSTINCT THEORY Homeostasis - state of internal physiological equilibrium that the body Instinct - inherited predisposition to behave in a specific and predictable way to strives to maintain • Homeostasis requires a sensory mechanism to detect environmental a particular stimulus •Genetic, universal within species and changes, a response system and a control centre to activate the response system doesn’t depend on learning •Human instinct theories are questionable Drive Theory (Clark Hull) - disruptions to homeostasis produce drives and often rely on circular reasoning that motivate the organism to restore the balance (hunger, thirst) •Today scientists examine hereditary •Proposed that reducing drives is the ultimate goal of contributions to motivation by looking at motivated behavior how much specific behaviors are •Problem with the theory: people often do things that hereditary increase arousal like diet or watch horror movies INCENTIVE AND EXPECTANCY THEORIES • Drives are internal push factors, incentives are environmental pull factors Expectancy × value theory • Hull believed incentives are things that reduce biological drives (food reduces (AKA just Expectancy theory) hunger) but nowadays it is believed that stimuli can be incentives in absence •Goal-directed behavior is determined by of biological drive, for example: •Strength of expectation that •Eating desert even if you’re full behavior will lead to goal •People take drugs to make themselves feel good, not to avoid withdrawal (expectancy) Extrinsic motivation - doing something for reward/avoid punishment •Value person places on goal (value) Intrinsic motivation - doing something for its own sake •Motivation = expectancy * value • Over-justification hypothesis - giving extrinsic motivation for something •If you have low expectancy or low you already intrinsically value makes you want to do it less. Once you stop value, you won’t be motivated being rewarded for it, you no longer want to do it. PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORIES H U M A N IS TIC T H E O RsIES •To Freud, unconscious impulses struggling M aslow ’sN eed H irarch y-once thebottom needs are for release motivate our behaviors satified,ten w em ove upto te nextneed e •His theories prompted research into self- esteem and relatedness N s td SELF Fulfilling ACTUALIZATION our potential we o e rn AESTHETIC NEEDS Beauty M O RE H U M A N IST IC TH EO RIE S Gy Self-determ ination the ory -t reefundam entalneeds: c COGNITIVE NEEDS Knowledge n •Com petence -need tom astr new challn ges& perfctskill Approval, •Autono my -peopleexp erence t era cionsou toffre choice i ESTEEM NEEDS Recognition c Acceptance, •Relatedness -desie t f r mean igfulb ondsw it others BELONGINGNESS & LOVE NEEDS Affection •Autonom y andrelatednessare c mplem entaryn ot fi e SAFETY NEEDS Security contraditory.Peoplefeelfreertobe t emselvesaround D thosethey ar connectedto. PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS Food, Drink •W orkersgivenfreedom tod evelp thei own plansfeel m orebon dw ih t eicom pan y. Critics say:Why do prisoners of war endure torture instead of betray their county? Why do women starve themselves to be thin? HUNGER Sig nals tha tS tart/ nd M ea l •H unger pangsan dfulless canbe experiencedeven ifalthe nerves Metabolism - body’s rate of energy utilization • Your body regulates this short-term (hunger) and from the som ach t t ebrainare cut, rift est mach isremo ved. •F ulnessiscaused bothby physicalsinalsan dchem icalsinals long-term (how much fat you have) •G lucose isthebod y’m ainsou re ofuseablefuel • Hunger is not necessarily linked with immediate energy needs. Homeostatic mechanisms are designed •H ypothalamu sand lverm onitorglucoselevel •Intestnes rleasep epti esto hel terminatem eal to prevent you from running low in the first place. •C CK (cho lc ystokini )forexam ple,m akesyou felfull S i na l T ha t Re gu l te A pp etite & W eigh t B rain M e cha nism s • Fatsecretsl pti ,wh ih decreasesa ppetie(the •T helateralh ypo t alam us (LH) appeared tobe theh unger-on centr ftterw eare,the les appetit w ehave) •Stim ulting im akes arat hungry,d esroying im ak estherat sarve iself • Lepti w ouldm ake you feelful s onerb y •T hev entrom ed il hyp othalam us (VM H )app earedto bethe hun ger-ff icreasing your sensiiviy t your body’schem ical/ cen te physical“f lness”signals •B ut i t r edo utthatm any brain nervesfun nelthrough the • Geneticproblem sw it lepti produ cton or h ypothalam us,soitw asproba bl som ethi gelse recepton can causeo besiy •P arave ntriu lr nu cl us- clsterof neurons w ihinh ypothalam us • Secret neuropep tde Yw hich ma kesus veryh ungry • Lepti inhibit t i,so wh enw e aredieti gw eloseleptinan dfeelvery hungry P syc ho log i alA sp ec ts of H un ge r • Food i positvelyreinforcedb ytasteand negati el rei frced by hun gersupp rssion • W om enthink theya r fater t anthey should be, C ultura lan d E nv io nm en talF ac t rs m end on’ asm uch •P eople’seating issen siive t po rton size,# ofp eople presen tand • W om enthink m en want ski nir bodiesthan they a m oun tothers eat actualy do,m en tink w om enw ant bulkir bodies •P eople eatm o reifthere ism o reva rity (buffets) t an tey do •S m els,sightsa nd soun ds clssicallyco nditi ned w ih food sw e lke • W om enrestric eatng torestoreselfesteem ca n m ake us hun grye ven ifw ea lea dy at Obesityisno tcaused bya lackof willow er orem oti naldist r ances. •M aybe obese peoplerea c m orestronglytofood cues? (ch achter19 68) E vien ceforthisism ixed. •G enetis accountsfor 40-0 % ofvariatin inb ody mass •O besit islik edto acom bined effct ofgenes ( otone gene) OBESITY •E nvio nm entm attrs to (USA has m oreob esty) •A bun dance ofcheap faty f od •C ultral emp hasi on “getingthe bestvalue” (up erszing) •T echnology ta tdecreasesph ysiala civiy •Pim a Id in sofA rion aw eregen etcall predisposed t obesitythattheir culturalliestyl prevented.H ow ever,afer W W I,they becam eexp osedto A m ercan food and now they have veryh ih obesit rate. •Being fatprime syou tostayfat • Obese people have mo r insuli w hichincreases conversion ofglucose t fat • Dietng decreases yourm etabo lsm becau seyou hav elessenergy tospe nd •W e don’thav egoo desti ates ofw eih tlosssuccessrates because s m any peop l j s do DIETING iton theirow n without clnicsan dare never heard from •Itisim portantto avoidcu esthatm ake you hun gry •E atng asm allam oun toffood before am ealm ake syou hu ng ri r(appetizer) • I icreases variet w hic increases consum pti n • Stm ulats insuli secretin w hichincreases hung er •W e ih tlost t rough xerc ie isrega ie dm uch slower than weight lstthrou ghd ieti g •E xerciing m akesyou rm etabolim bettr because allyou l s isfat(notlean body m ass too lke with diting) Sexual response cycle SEXUAL MOTIVATION • Peer pressure is more important than sexual gratification when excitement phase predicting who will have sex earliest • Men have sex for the first time 1 or 2 years later than women • 10-20% of women find sex not pleasurable plateau phase • Non-married cohabiting partners have the most sex of all groups Hypothalamus ‎ pituitary gland ‎ gonadotropins ‎ orgasm phase gonads secrete androgens (testosterone) and estrogens refractory period Orgasm not possible for • Sex hormones direct development of male/female characteristics in womb a period. This period is resolution phase shorter for women. (organizational effects) • Males constantly release hormones (always sexually receptive), women follow estrus cycle (only receptive during high periods) • Contrary to popular belief, short term hormonal fluctuations have little • Violent pornography increases aggression • Research shows that giving men info about sexual assault effect on sex drive • Androgens are primary influence of sex desire (in both men and women) reduces rape myths • Removing androgens produces gradual loss of sexual desire, desire • Sexual orientation is a combination of genetics and environment - 50% concordance rates with identical twin does not go up and down like a yo-yo with regular changes ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION Having both is NOT better Motivation for success - outperforming others, mastery goals than just being motivated for Fear of failure- performance avoidance goals success - stress is bad! H igh-ne ed ac hi vers pe rorm be stw he n High a chieve r cho osetasks with med i m diffculty • Doing c alenging/m portn ttsks because outcom e i unce rain. • Perceptin ofpersonalresponsibiit Pe ople w ih fear offailure choose tasksw here • Perceptin ofpossibiiy ofnotsucceeding successise iher assured orn otexp ectd ata l. • Opp orunityforperform ancefeedback High -need fo rach i vem e ntde vel psw hen pare nts encou rageach iv em entbu tdo not punish f iure. MOTIVATIONAL CONFLICT Approach-approach conflict - picking between two desirable things Avoidance-avoidance conflict - two undesirable choices Approach-avoidance conflict - attracted and repelled by the same thing • Avoidance tendency increases faster than approach as we approach the goal Delay discounting - value of a reward decreases the longer you have to wait for it PSYCH WITH MIKE NONVERBAL BEHAVIOR P aralang uag e Interpe rsona ldistance • Non -o ntentaspects ofspeech H alls I t racti n Zon es -t ed itance w euse ininteracti ncon veys • Tone ofv oie the soci lsin iicance ofthe peopleinteracti g • Speed • I tm ate zon e:Tou ch-0.m (closefriends,lovers) • Am plit de • Perso nal zone :0. -1.25m (alking t acqua i tn ces,stan gers) • Risetim e/alltm e • Soc il zone :1.25-3 .m (srang ersina m a
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