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Western University
Psychology 1000

Psych1 000 StudyGuide2 WUCK This guide is from WUCK Questions? Love letters? Talk to us at [email protected] This guide is intended for supplementary purposes only. Reading this is no you as much as possible, but your grades are your responsibility.n help SENSATION & PERCEPTION CHAPTER 5 4 The Basics 4 Psychophysics 4 Visual System 6 Hearing 9 Taste and Smell 10 Skin and Body 11 Perception 11 SLEEP CHAPTER 6 13 The Basics 13 Circadian Rhythms 14 Sleep and Dreaming 15 Why do we sleep? 16 Sleep Disorders 17 The Nature of Dreams 18 Drugs 19 Hypnosis 21 LEARNING CHAPTER 7 22 Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning 23 Fear 25 Operant Conditioning 26 Biology and Learning 31 Cognition and Learning 32 MEMORY CHAPTER 8 35 The Basics 35 Three Component Model 35 Encoding 37 Retrieval 39 Forgetting 40 Memory As Constructive Process 42 Biology of Memory 43 SENSATION & PERCEPTION CHAPTER 5 THE BASICS Sensation - stimulus detection • Our sense organs translate environmental stimuli into nerve impulses • Those impulses are then sent to the brain Perception - Making “sense” of what our senses tell us • Organizing the stimulus input and giving it meaning • Perception is heavily influenced by context Transduction - Characteristics of the stimulus are converted into nerve impulses • There are more than just 5 senses: balance, temp/pain/pressure & immune system are all sensory systems • Sensory systems extract info that we need to survive from the environment Synesthesia - condition in which the brain mixes up senses (ex. Sounds have colors) • Theory 1: The pruning of neural connections that occurs in infancy hasn’t happened • Theory 2: Insufficient neural inhibition in the brain so input overflows to other areas PSYCHOPHYSICS Psychophysics • The study of the relation between physical stimulus and physiological response • Fechner: “The father of psychophysics” Fechner Absolute threshold Lower threshold • Lowest intensity at which a stimulus can be detected 50% of the time. means better sense! • Varies depending on fatigue, expectations, etc. Signal detection theory • Situational factors can influence sensory judgements • When the perception is more important, people have lower absolute thresholds • Perception is essentially a decision Vision is the most sensitive sense, hearing is second. The rest aren’t very good at all. Difference threshold • Smallest difference between two stimuli than can be detected 50% of the time • The difference threshold is amount of chance necessary for a Just Noticeable Difference (JND) Example: If your hand was on a stove and someone was gradually raising the heat, you would probably not notice the difference between 50º and 50.1º. But you would most likely feel the difference between 50º and 60º. • Whatever the minimum change in temperature you need to feel a change is the JND. Note: JND’s apply to any kind of sensation, not just temperature. Weber’s law • States that the difference threshold is proportional to magnitude of stimulus. • Varies for every stimulus • Breaks down at extremely high and low intensities • Most sensitive - pitch, brightness • Least sensitive - smell, taste. The smaller it is, the better the sensory system) ∆I ÷ I = c I is the original stimulus intensity ∆I is the change in stimulus intensity c is the stimulus constant for this stimulus Weber’s Law Example: A sound was playing at 50db. The JND happened at 55db. When will the JND occur if the sound was playing at 100db? I = 50db ∆I = 55 - 50 = 5db c = 5 ÷ 50 = 0.1 c is constant for this stimulus. So even if we raise I, ∆I will always be c × I. New I = 100db. New ∆I = c × I = 0.1 * 100 = 10 Important: Don’t forget that the change (∆I) can happen in either direction. That means, if the stimulus started at 100db, a JND would happen at 90 OR 110. Lets say that you can barely distinguish 100 grams from 105 grams of cheese. Where would the JND happen for 300 grams? 315 OR 285. (←Tilt screen to see answer) Fechner’s Law: S = k log(I) • Sensation increases with the logarithm of intensity • Unlike Weber’s law, this says that there is not a 1:1 relationship between physical intensity and psychological intensity • Generalizes better than Weber’s law n Steven’s Power Law: S = k log(I) • More predictive across a variety of sensations Sensory adaptation • Reducing sensitivity to a constant stimulus • This is the reason a concert seems painfully loud when you walk in but seems normal volume by the end of it • Because of this, your eyes are constantly moving; otherwise images slowly disappear Subliminal Perception • This is perception below the absolute threshold • Can we perceive subliminal stimuli? Is our behavior affected by subliminal stimuli? James Vicary: claimed 50% increase in popcorn sales due to subliminal “cuts” in a movie. This isn’t true. He made it up. • No evidence whatsoever what subliminal cuts influence consumer behavior But, consider Bruce & Valentine (1986); priming • If you are subliminally shown a relevant image, you are 100 milliseconds faster at identifying someone as famous Fitzsimons (2008); 30 millisecond flash of an Apple or IBM logo before simple identifying task • Afterwards you are more creative VISUAL SYSTEM Cornea - outer layer that focuses the light Pupil - contracted by the Iris Lens - fine tuning • Lens too long = Myopia (nearsightedness) • Lens too short = Hyperopia (farsightedness) Vitreous humor - keeps the shape of the eye LAYERS of THE RETINA Ganglion Cells Retina - Lines the back of the INHIBITORY eye. Many layers. Amacrine Cells Bipolar Cells Fovea - small area in the back center of your eye with no rods Horizontal Cells INHIBITORY • It is the most sensitive part • Visual acuity (clearness) is best on the fovea because each cone Rods Cones has its own bipolar cell • You can’t look directly at stars at • Best in the dark. • Best in the light. night cause theres no rods in the • Most common in peripherals • Color receptors • Sensitive to blue ↑ • Sensitive to fovea (and you need rods to see in • Can’t see red ↓ greenish-yellow the dark) How do rods and cones work? • Turn light into action potentials though the breakdown of photopigments (chemicals) • Rods: Rhodopsin. If you extract Rhodopsin and expose it to light, it gets “bleached”. When you see a flash of light your retina is bleached. • Cones: Erythrolabe (R), Chlorolabe (G), Cyanolabe (B). Optic nerve - bunch of axons of ganglion cells that take info from retina to the brain Blind spot - portion of eye with no photoreceptors Dark adaptation - progressive improvement to light sensitivity under low illumination • Photopigments are depleted by light and it takes time from them to regenerate • Cones reach max adaptation in 10 mins • Rods regenerate slower but get much more sensitive • Pilots sit in red light because rods are not stimulated by red so dark vision is ready for use when the pilots need Rods and Red When pilots are waiting to fly at night, they sit in a room with red light. This is because rods, which are needed to see in the dark, are insensitive to red. As a result, unlike other colors, red light won’t bleach their rods, and they’ll be ready to see in the dark when they need to fly. Color-deficient Vision • Dichromat - color blind to one of RG or BY • Monochromat - sensitive only to BW Trichromatic theory • Every color can be made of Red, Green and Blue (RGB), so there are three color receptors in the retina •Problems with theory: why can red-green colorblind people can still see yellow? What’s an •Also, why is the afterimage a different colour afterimage? image for 20 Opponent-process theory seconds without blinking and •There are three different cones and each one has two colors (R-G, B-Y, B-W) then look away •So there would be one chemical for green, and an “opponent process” for red •This explains the afterimage as the opponent process rebounding Dual process theory • Says that both trichromatic and opponent-process theories were right • Trichromatic was right about the cones • Opponent process was right about the ganglion cells Lateral Inhibition Lateral Inhibition These circles are retinal ganglion cells. In this scenario, there is ambient light A shining on all the cells, so they are equally stimulated. They are all firing at the same rate. Now, we focus a beam of light right A on Cell A. Cell A is firing at a very fast rate, and the cells around it are firing at a lower rate. If we move the beam to a cell next to Cell A’s receptive field. Cell A is now firing at an even lower rate than it does under ambient light. A This is called lateral inhibition. It is caused by horizontal cells. The cell above has an on-centre and an off-surround. Some cells are the opposite. Other cells have different shaped receptive fields. This explains contrast effects & optical illusions like this one. That strip in the middle is not a gradient. Lateral inhibition increases the perceived contrast and makes it look like there is a gradient. Phantom Spots In the middle of the crosshairs, there is more intensity in the off surround than the on centre. As a result, the cell in the middle shuts down and you see a black smudge. Single Cell Recordings Retinal ganglion cells - respond to spots Cortex cells - respond to slits/bars of light, not spots Simple cell - respond to a slit at a particular orientation on a specific retinal location Complex cell - responds to moving slits/bars of light Hypercomplex cell - respond to combination of stimulus features (objects, angles) A cell shows maximum firing to a spot of light at particular area on the screen. A slit of light decreases the firing rate. Where is the researcher recording from? Retinal ganglion cell. (←Tilt screen to see answer) HEARING Frequency - number of sound waves per second (Hz) • Frequency determines pitch. 20 - 20,000Hz is hearable. Amplitude - vertical size of the waves (db) • Amplitude determines loudness. Eardrum - moveable membrane that vibrates in response to sound waves Parts of Middle ear - three tiny bones (the smallest in body). Amplifies sound 30x. There are 3 m•Hammer, anvil & stirrup Inner Ear Inner ear Eardrum •Cochlea - coiled snail shaped tube filled with fluid, contains the...haped tube filled with fluid • Basilar membrane - sheet of tissue, on it is the... moveable (the smallest in the body) Basilar membrane - sheet of tissue membrane that •Organthat amplify sound 30× hair cells; they are the sound receptors. vibrates in Organ of Corti - 16000 tiny response to sound waves Hammer Anvil Stirrup hair cells; they are the sound receptors of the ear. Coding for Pitch and Loudness Loudness • Rate of firing of hair cells • Specific hairs have higher threshold so they only fire with louder sounds Pitch • Frequency theory - nerve pluses match the frequency of the sound Both are true. For low Problem: neurons can’t fire fast enough to produce sounds sounds, frequency theory over 1000Hz holds true. For high sounds, place theory •Place theory - the specific point in the cochlea where the fluid wave does. peaks indicates the frequency (discovered by von Bekesy) •The cochlea is essentially “mapped” to the auditory cortex, just like the retina is mapped to the visual cortex Sound localization - ears are on either side of head so we can tell where a sound is coming from depending on which ear hears it first Hearing Loss Conductive deafness - problems with the mechanical system that transmits waves to the cochlea (hearing aid can help) Nerve deafness - damaged hair cell receptors within the inner ear (hearing aid can’t) TASTE AND SMELL These are chemical senses, instead of energy senses like sound and sight. Taste buds - chemical receptors concentrated along the edges and back of the tongue • Each is more responsive to one or two basic taste qualities, weakly to others • Umami increases the sensitivity to other taste qualities • Poisons are bitter; hard-wired into us Olfactory bulb - forebrain structure above the nasal cavity, specific odors excite specific portions of it Pheromones - chemical signals in natural body scent, no evidence to support they effect behavior Menstrual synchrony - The effect can be caused when a woman smells another woman’s sweat - their menstrual cycles will sync up. Doesn’t happen with prolonged exposure though. SKIN AND BODY Tactile senses - pressure, pain, warmth cold Gate control theory - pain results from the opening and closing of gating mechanisms in the nervous system. These gates can be closed by physical or brain activity. Glial cells are responsible for the ache all over feeling when you’re sick. Endorphins - natural painkillers, inhibit pain neurotransmitters Kinesthesis - info about position of muscles, joints and movements Vestibular sense - body orientation or equilibrium (inner ear fluid) PERCEPTION bottom-up processing - individual elements of the stimulus are then combined into unified perception top-down processing - sensory info is interpreted in the light of existing knowledge, concepts, ideas (pioneered by Gestalt) Processing depends on attention • Attention involves 1) focusing on a certain stimuli and 2) filtering out other incoming info • Shadowing - playing a different message in either ear. It’s easy to repeat the words of one (shadow them), but only at the expense of paying attention to the other. • Inattention blindness - You can look right at something without “seeing” it if your attention is on something else (like this video) • Our motives and experiences affect what we pay attention to. We are also quicker to respond to threatening stimuli, and are very precise at discerning between threatening and non-threatening stimuli. Figure-Ground Relations - we organize stimuli into foreground and background • Central figure (foreground) has a more distinct shape and is more striking in perception and memory • Same with music (melody, chords) Gestalt Laws of Perceptual Organization (Max Wertheimer) Similarity Proximity Closure Continuity We group similar objects.We group close objects. We close gaps. We follow paths. Patterns in how we perceive things. Illustrates the importance of context in perception. Perceptual schema • A mental image to compare a perception with so we can recognize it • Every perception is a “hypothesis” and the perceptual system searches a giant library of schemas to find the best interpretation. Perceptual set •Readiness to perceive stimuli in a particular way •If I tell you someone is a jerk, when you meet them you are more likely to interpret what they do as jerk stuff Perceptual constancies - allow us to recognize familiar stimuli in different conditions • Shape constancy - recognize things at different angles • Brightness constancy - relative brightness remains the same • Size constancy - size of objects remains relatively constant at different distances These must be learned - small kids don’t do this. Depth, Distance and Movement Monocular Depth Cues - allow you to detect depth with one eye • Light and shadow • Linear perspective • Interposition/overlap • Height in horizontal plane • Texture gradient • Clarity • Relative size • Motion parallax - nearby objects move faster than far ones Binocular Depth Cues - require two eyes • Binocular/retinal disparity - each eye sees a very slightly different image because they are on different sides of your head. The brain processes them together. • Convergence - feedback from muscles that turn your eyes inward Stroboscopic movement - illusion of movement when lights are flashed nearby each other milliseconds apart. • This is the effect you see on theater marquees. Critical period - certain experiences must happen in this time for the brain to develop normally  eaer Deprivation experiment - test critical periods maruee • Cats raised in an environment with no vertical lines could not see vertical patterns • Culture and experience plays a huge part on perception: People that don’t live in societies with square buildings and rooms don’t see certain illusions • Blind people who get their sight back later in life have lots of trouble identifying objects, and judging distances Perceptual Problem Solving • How do we recognize and make sense of patterns? • Constructionists: believe that we create meaning from basic elements or features (bottom up) • Register small components and build into larger, meaningful units • Geons - Biederman believes these are the elementary shapes of perception (cylinders, rectangles, etc) SLEEP CHAPTER 6 THE BASICS Consciousness - moment-to-moment awareness of ourselves and our environment • Subjective and private • Dynamic • Self-reflective and central to our sense of self • Intimately connected with the process of selective attention - consciousness reflects what is spotlighted at the moment Psychodynamic Perspective • Conscious - thoughts, perceptions • Preconscious - not currently available but could be (memories) • Subconscious - unaccessible, unacceptable urges and desires; may “leak” out Daydreaming • Happens every 90 mins • Topics: Failure/success, aggression, sex, guilt, problem solving (in order of frequency) • Alters mood in positive direction • Low risk way to deal with problems • Increases arousal Cognitive • Unconscious works in harmony with conscious • Controlled (effortful) processing - voluntary use of attention. Aware. • Automatic processing - little or no conscious effort (type, drive, eat). Unaware. • Divided attention - perform more than one activity at the same time Stroop effect - Saying the colors instead of the words is hard because reading is an automatic process. CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS • These are your daily temperature, hormone and body function rhythms • Late afternoon is best for physical tasks. Everything in your body is optimized - even taste! • Suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) - The Brain’s clock. In the hypothalamus. It regular circadian rhythms. • Melatonin - secreted by pineal gland, relaxing effect on body. • When SCN neurons are stimulated by daylight, they inhibit melatonin. This raises body temperature and alertness. This is why daylight makes you feel awake. • Free-running circadian rhythm - without day/night cues to guide you, your body would drift into a longer 24.2 - 24.8 hour cycle. This happens to blind people. Disruptions of Circadian Rhythms Seasonal affective disorder - tendency to become depressed during certain months • Winter has less sunlight so your melatonin isn’t inhibited and you are sleepy all the time. Jet lag - easier to lengthen day (fly west), more compatible with free running cycle • Can you take melatonin pills to solve it? Questionable. • Hydrate, avoid alcohol, stretch, light meals, expose to sunlight Night Shiftwork • Accidents much more likely • Rotating shiftwork - takes advantage of it being easier to increase the day than to compress it • Even Daylight Savings Time causes increased accidental deaths SLEEP AND DREAMING Your body goes from awake to Stage 4 and back again in 60-90 mins. Except, instead of waking up every hour, your body goes into REM sleep before starting the cycle all over. Sleep Stage Brain Waves EEG Tracings Awake/Alert Beta waves High Hz, low amp Relaxed/Drowsy Alpha waves Slower Hz Stage 1 Sleep Theta waves Slower Hz Easily awoken Stage 2 Sleep Sleep Spindles & Fast bursts Most common K-Complexes stage of sleep. Stage 3 Sleep Delta waves Slow AAgain Thhese woo tages are soww wave Stage 4 Sleep Delta waves sleep.Veeryhaardto awaake. REM Theta & Beta High Hz, low amp (discussed below) waves K Complex - most dramatic brain activity change that ever happens to humans • Occurs in Stage 2 sleep • Huge drop in the EEG tracing. • Can be triggered externally. Related to RLS and epilepsy. REM Sleep - Rapid Eye Movements beneath your eyelids as you sleep • Brain waves like an awake person • Over the course of the night, REM gets longer and Stage 4 gets shorter. • If you are woken up here, you always report a dream. • Physiological arousal closer to daytime level Faster heart rate, breathing Erection, vaginal lubrication (even without sex dreams) • Voluntary muscles cannot contract. Called REM sleep paralysis. Paradoxical sleep - highly aroused, cannot move When we get older we need • Non-REM dreams are shorter and less story-like. They less sleep & we have less resemble daytime thoughts - sleep-thoughts. slow-wave sleep. • REM sleep decreases dramatically during infancy and early childhood Sleep Deprivation • Sleep deprivation causes WHY DO WE SLEEP? attention lapse, irritability • Sleep deprived people do worse Restoration Model - sleep recharges our running bodies, on critical-thinking tasks but think they did great recovers us from fatigue • All kinds of sleep deprivation • Some believe cellular waste called ‘adenosine’ accumulates are bad: short term, long term, and slows body down partial Evolutionary/circadian sleep models (Webb) - sleep increases a species chance of survival in relation to environmental demands • Conserve energy and stay inside during dangerous nighttime Learning & Memory - sleep is a time when we store memories • REM deprived subjects show reduced ability to retain information Mood adjustment - speed of cycling into REM is correlated with positive mood on following morning • Depressed people cycle into REM very quickly, perhaps to get a mood increase REM Rebound effect - brain increases REM sleep after it is deprived of it • REM may be related to learning and memory • When learning new tasks, there are more REM’s during sleep • Other sleep states may be involved in specific learning tasks SLEEP DISORDERS Insomnia •Chronic difficulty in falling asleep, staying asleep or having restful sleep • You can fall asleep easily and still have insomnia • Stimulus control - conditioning your body to associate environment with sleep. Do only sleeping in your bedroom, not studying. • Situational insomnia - specific stressor causing it • Chronic insomnia - possibly circadian rhythm problem Thermoregulation problem - failure to lower body temp. Activation remains high and normal sleep cycle fails to develop. REM-Sleep Behavior Disorder Narcolepsy • Extreme daytime sleepiness and sudden, REM sleep paralysis doesn’t uncontrollable sleep attacks happen so you are acting • Sleep goes directly to REM out your REM dreams • Instant muscle weakness • May experience cataplexy - abnormal version of sleep paralysis with laughter, excitement and other strong emotions • Genetic and environmental causes Sleep Apnea • Interruption in breathing during sleep • This is normal… but people with the disorder do not start breathing again unless they wake up • In severe cases may stop for 1 minute, hundreds of times a night Causes insomnia. • Cause? Sometimes obstruction of air passage (snoring) - easy to deal with. Sometimes abnormal brain function. Some think Sudden Infant Death (SID) is caused by this. Parasomnia Sleepwalking Nightmares and Night Terrors • Occurs in stage 3 or 4 - so • Nightmares are just frightening dreams you’re not acting out a dream • Night terrors are more intense. More common • More common in children during Stage 3 and 4. Person jumps up, may try to • Waking them up is not escape room but doesn’t remember this state of dangerous panic. • Genetic • They’re still asleep and hard to wake up (because they’re in deep sleep) Sleep talking • Stage 1 or 2 • Sometimes in REM • Sensitive to external world THE NATURE OF DREAMS There are many REM periods a night. Thats When do we dream? • 45 seconds into sleep, 25% of people report visual images why its the “sleep cycle” • 15-40% in 6 minutes • More dreams in REM and later in sleep • We remember the dreams from the last REM period of the night • The stronger the emotions, the more likely we are to remember them Nightmares • Vivid, high anxiety dream • Significant stress is correlated with frequency • In adults, correlated with psychopathology (anxiety) • More common with children • Some drugs cause them: antidepressants, beta blockers, antihistamines • Normal people: self reported mean = 9 per year • With a dream log = 25/year What do we dream about? • Most are very normal. Flying is very uncommon. • Women dream equally about women and women. • 80% involve negative emotions • Men dream mostly about men. • Recent experiences shape dream content • Dreams are fleeting and happen in real time Why do we dream? Psychoanalytic theory (Freud) • Wish fulfillment - gratification of our unconscious desires and needs • Manifest content (surface story of our dream) vs latent content (hidden meaning) • The unconscious Id: repressed wishes strive for expression • Ego is conscious control manager • Ego disguises Id’s wishes in dreams (for example sex urges disguised as a train) • Symbols for sex: ladder, staircase, elevator, bridge, tunnel, plane Activation-synthesis theory • Dreams are just the brain making sense of random neural activity. • Dreams serve no function. • Periodic firing of Pons fires other parts of the brain Cognitive approaches • Problem-solving dream models - dreams help us find creative solutions to problems • Cognitive-process dream theories - focus on the process of how we dream: dreaming and waking thought are produced by the same mental systems. • 3 year olds don’t report dreams in REM sleep cause they haven’t developed imagery skills yet. • Rapid content shifts that happen in dreams also happen in everyday thought. DRUGS Agonistic - increase neuron activity (opiates, amphetamines) Antagonistic - inhibits or decreases activity (antipsychotics) Tolerance - decreasing responsivity Compensatory responses - You body tries to get back to a normal state by doing the opposite of the drug. • Physical setting where you take drugs triggers the compensatory responses • So, overdose is more likely caused by unfamiliar setting than dosage Withdrawal - continuing compensatory responses after drug stops Misconceptions • - Drugs don’t always lead to significant withdrawal • Physiological dependence is not the major cause of addiction, psychological dependance is DEPRESSANTS • Decrease nervous system activity • Reduce anxiety, relaxed euphoria Alcohol • Increases GABA, an inhibitory transmitter • Decreases glutamate, an excitatory one • Upper phase followed by downer phase • Alcohol Myopia - “shortsightedness” in thinking, inability to pay attention to as much info Drunk people find drunk driving more favorable than when they are sober because they latch on to one factor i.e. “its a short drive” Barbiturates and Tranquilizers • Sleeping pills and anti-anxiety drugs (valium) • Also increase GABA • Overdoes, esp. with alcohol can cause coma, death • Immediate withdrawal may cause cause STIMULANTS • Increase neural firing and arouse nervous systems • Boost heart rate, alertness, mood, irritability Amphetamines • Reduce fatigue and appetite • Increase dopamine and NE • Repeated use can cause heart failure or stroke • Schizophrenic hallucinations are caused by too much dopamine - these can cause the same thing (amphetamine psychosis) • Meth - insomnia, hyperactivity, anxiety, paranoia, meth mouth, heart attack • MDMA/ecstasy - boosts serotonin Produces longterm cognitive impairment Sleep disturbance, sexual dysfunction, impaired immune responses Depletes serotonin, linked with suicidal depression and death Cocaine • Blocks reuptake of NE and dopamine • Excitation, sense of muscular strength, euphoria •Once used as anesthetic (Novocaine still is) •High doses cause fever, vomiting, hallucinations, delusions OPIATES • Morphine/codeine/heroin/oxycontin • Pain relief and mood changes • Increase endorphins and dopamine • Heroin originally a cough suppressant; causes peaceful euphoria at great risk of death HALLUCINOGENS • Mushrooms, LSD (not well understood how it works) • Hearing colors, seeing sounds • Violent outbursts, panic, flashbacks MARIJUANA • Hard to classify (hallucinogen, sedative) • THC - bind to receptors; brain produces its own THC-like things called cannabinoids • Increases GABA and dopamine • Doesn’t cause amotivational syndrome or gateway-drug but still dangerous Determinants of Drug Effects • Genetics plays a role in the strength of drug effects on you • Also learning from parents - although alcohol abuse correlates more with biological parents than adoptive ones • Setting and other people around you affect drug arousal • Cultural learning: in the Camba culture people are not aggressive or promiscuous when drunk • Expectancies influence experiences • Personality: people with little contact with reality are more likely to have bad trip HYPNOSIS • Named after Anton Mesmer (animal magnetism to cure things) • You can’t be hypnotized against your own will • Your ability to be hypnotized can be measured by the hypnotic susceptibility scales Explanations for Hypnosis • Does not cause action against own will - more to do with authority • Many of the special things hypnotized people do can also easily be done by non- hypnotized people • Hypnosis can reduce pain tolerance beyond placebo, but so can mental imagery. • Hypnosis does not increase memory. People make more recall errors and are confident in them. Theories for Hypnosis • Dissociation theory - division of consciousness; one part listening to hypnotist and one part “hidden observer” • Social cognitive theories - “hypnosis” is just caused by the expectations of participants • The bogus suggestion that “hypnosis may cause hand-stiffening” to participants increases its chances of happening by a lot. • People can be made to believe they are drunk by giving smell and taste cues in drinks. We can alter our own mental states. Meditation • Mindfulness - free flowing of thoughts, feelings • Concentrative - focus on a specific sound, sensation (breathing) • Most commonly affects cingulate cortex and and frontal cortex LEARNING CHAPTER 7 Learning - process by experience produces a relatively enduring change in an organisms behavior or capabilities Habituation differs Habituation - decrease in response strength to a repeated stimulus from sensory • Learning to not respond to familiar stimuli saves energy and attention adaptation. It is a • For example, you are not constantly feeling your clothes on your body form of learning and occurs in central • You are unaware of habituated stimuli at the moment but if there is some nervous system, not reason to become aware of it, you can sensory neurons Sensitization - increase in strength response to a repeated stimulus • For example if you get shocked by a door twice, you react more the second time Behaviorism • Focus on stimulus & response • Purely care about observable events • Strict behaviorism is called “black-box psychology”. Stimulus → black box → response. Don’t try to figure out whats in the box. CLASSICAL OR PAVLOVIAN CONDITIONING • Association of a neutral stimulus with one that consistently elicits a response • Acquisition - period during with response is being learned • Each time the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) are paired, it is a learning trial • The more intense the UCS, the quicker the learning 1. Unconditioned stimulus → unconditioned response 2. Pair conditioned stimulus with unconditioned stimulus 3. Conditioned stimulus → conditioned response The UCR and the CR are not the same. The are similar actions but they are caused by different Pavlov’s Dog things. 1. Dog’s see meat powder (UCS) → Dogs salivate (UCR) Central nervous system causes the CR. 2. Pair meat powder with ringing of bell (CS) Sympathetic nervous system causes the UCR. 3. Ringing the bell (CS) → Dogs salivate (CR) Classical conditioning is not response contingent - it doesn’t matter what the dog does when you give him food and ring the bell. Examples of Classical Conditioning Why do students who do well on exams Dentist’s Office 1. Drill (USC) → Fear (UCR) tend to like their profs? 2.Pair dentist with drill 1. Get an A (UCS) → Feel good (UCR) 2. Pair prof with getting an A 3.Dentist (CS) → Fear (CR) 3. Prof (CS) → Feel good (CS) Love • People rate attractiveness of people in 1. Good music (USC) → Positive feelings photos with different music playing (bad (UCR) music, good music
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