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you as much as possible, but your grades are your responsibility.n help SENSATION & PERCEPTION CHAPTER 5 4
The Basics 4
Visual System 6
Taste and Smell 10
Skin and Body 11
SLEEP CHAPTER 6 13
The Basics 13
Circadian Rhythms 14
Sleep and Dreaming 15
Why do we sleep? 16
Sleep Disorders 17
The Nature of Dreams 18
LEARNING CHAPTER 7 22
Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning 23
Operant Conditioning 26
Biology and Learning 31
Cognition and Learning 32
MEMORY CHAPTER 8 35
The Basics 35
Three Component Model 35
Memory As Constructive Process 42
Biology of Memory 43 SENSATION & PERCEPTION CHAPTER 5
Sensation - stimulus detection
• Our sense organs translate environmental stimuli into nerve impulses
• Those impulses are then sent to the brain
Perception - Making “sense” of what our senses tell us
• Organizing the stimulus input and giving it meaning
• Perception is heavily influenced by context
Transduction - Characteristics of the stimulus are converted into nerve impulses
• There are more than just 5 senses: balance, temp/pain/pressure & immune system are
all sensory systems
• Sensory systems extract info that we need to survive from the environment
Synesthesia - condition in which the brain mixes up senses (ex. Sounds have colors)
• Theory 1: The pruning of neural connections that occurs in infancy hasn’t happened
• Theory 2: Insufficient neural inhibition in the brain so input overflows to other areas
• The study of the relation between physical stimulus and physiological response
• Fechner: “The father of psychophysics”
Fechner Absolute threshold
• Lowest intensity at which a stimulus can be detected 50% of the time. means better sense!
• Varies depending on fatigue, expectations, etc.
Signal detection theory
• Situational factors can influence sensory judgements
• When the perception is more important, people have lower absolute thresholds
• Perception is essentially a decision
Vision is the most sensitive sense, hearing is second. The rest aren’t very good at all. Diﬀerence threshold
• Smallest difference between two stimuli than can be detected 50% of the time
• The difference threshold is amount of chance necessary for a Just Noticeable
Example: If your hand was on a stove and someone was gradually raising the heat, you
would probably not notice the difference between 50º and 50.1º. But you would most
likely feel the difference between 50º and 60º.
• Whatever the minimum change in temperature you need to feel a change is the JND.
Note: JND’s apply to any kind of sensation, not just temperature.
• States that the difference threshold is proportional to magnitude of stimulus.
• Varies for every stimulus
• Breaks down at extremely high and low intensities
• Most sensitive - pitch, brightness
• Least sensitive - smell, taste. The smaller it is, the
better the sensory
∆I ÷ I = c
I is the original stimulus intensity
∆I is the change in stimulus intensity
c is the stimulus constant for this stimulus
Weber’s Law Example: A sound was playing at 50db. The JND happened at 55db.
When will the JND occur if the sound was playing at 100db?
I = 50db
∆I = 55 - 50 = 5db
c = 5 ÷ 50 = 0.1
c is constant for this stimulus. So even if we raise I, ∆I will always be c × I.
New I = 100db.
New ∆I = c × I = 0.1 * 100 = 10
Important: Don’t forget that the change (∆I) can happen in either direction.
That means, if the stimulus started at 100db, a JND would happen at 90 OR 110.
Lets say that you can barely distinguish 100 grams from 105 grams of cheese. Where
would the JND happen for 300 grams? 315 OR 285. (←Tilt screen to see answer) Fechner’s Law: S = k log(I)
• Sensation increases with the logarithm of intensity
• Unlike Weber’s law, this says that there is not a 1:1 relationship between physical
intensity and psychological intensity
• Generalizes better than Weber’s law
Steven’s Power Law: S = k log(I)
• More predictive across a variety of sensations
• Reducing sensitivity to a constant stimulus
• This is the reason a concert seems painfully loud when you walk in but seems normal
volume by the end of it
• Because of this, your eyes are constantly moving; otherwise images slowly disappear
• This is perception below the absolute threshold
• Can we perceive subliminal stimuli? Is our behavior affected by subliminal stimuli?
James Vicary: claimed 50% increase in popcorn sales due to subliminal “cuts” in a
movie. This isn’t true. He made it up.
• No evidence whatsoever what subliminal cuts influence consumer behavior
But, consider Bruce & Valentine (1986); priming
• If you are subliminally shown a relevant image, you are 100 milliseconds faster at
identifying someone as famous
Fitzsimons (2008); 30 millisecond flash of an Apple or IBM logo before simple
• Afterwards you are more creative
Cornea - outer layer that focuses the light
Pupil - contracted by the Iris
Lens - fine tuning
• Lens too long = Myopia (nearsightedness)
• Lens too short = Hyperopia (farsightedness)
Vitreous humor - keeps the shape of the eye LAYERS of THE RETINA
Retina - Lines the back of the INHIBITORY
eye. Many layers. Amacrine Cells
Fovea - small area in the back
center of your eye with no rods Horizontal Cells INHIBITORY
• It is the most sensitive part
• Visual acuity (clearness) is best
on the fovea because each cone Rods Cones
has its own bipolar cell
• You can’t look directly at stars at • Best in the dark. • Best in the light.
night cause theres no rods in the • Most common in peripherals • Color receptors
• Sensitive to blue ↑ • Sensitive to
fovea (and you need rods to see in • Can’t see red ↓ greenish-yellow
How do rods and cones work?
• Turn light into action potentials though the breakdown of photopigments (chemicals)
• Rods: Rhodopsin. If you extract Rhodopsin and expose it to light, it gets “bleached”.
When you see a flash of light your retina is bleached.
• Cones: Erythrolabe (R), Chlorolabe (G), Cyanolabe (B).
Optic nerve - bunch of axons of ganglion cells that take info from retina to the brain
Blind spot - portion of eye with no photoreceptors
Dark adaptation - progressive improvement to light sensitivity under low
• Photopigments are depleted by light and it takes time from them to regenerate
• Cones reach max adaptation in 10 mins
• Rods regenerate slower but get much more sensitive
• Pilots sit in red light because rods are not stimulated by red so dark vision is ready for
use when the pilots need
Rods and Red
When pilots are waiting to fly at
night, they sit in a room with red
light. This is because rods, which are
needed to see in the dark, are
insensitive to red. As a result, unlike
other colors, red light won’t bleach
their rods, and they’ll be ready to see
in the dark when they need to fly. Color-deﬁcient Vision
• Dichromat - color blind to one of RG or BY
• Monochromat - sensitive only to BW
• Every color can be made of Red, Green and Blue (RGB), so there are three color
receptors in the retina
•Problems with theory: why can red-green colorblind people can still see yellow?
What’s an •Also, why is the afterimage a different colour
image for 20 Opponent-process theory
blinking and •There are three different cones and each one has two colors (R-G, B-Y, B-W)
then look away •So there would be one chemical for green, and an “opponent process” for red
•This explains the afterimage as the opponent process rebounding
Dual process theory
• Says that both trichromatic and opponent-process theories were right
• Trichromatic was right about the cones
• Opponent process was right about the ganglion cells
These circles are retinal ganglion cells.
In this scenario, there is ambient light
A shining on all the cells, so they are equally
stimulated. They are all firing at the same
Now, we focus a beam of light right
A on Cell A. Cell A is firing at a very fast
rate, and the cells around it are firing
at a lower rate.
If we move the beam to a cell next to Cell A’s
receptive ﬁeld. Cell A is now firing at an even
lower rate than it does under ambient light.
This is called lateral inhibition. It is caused by
horizontal cells. The cell above has an on-centre and an off-surround. Some cells
are the opposite. Other cells have different shaped receptive fields.
This explains contrast effects & optical illusions like this one. That
strip in the middle is not a gradient. Lateral inhibition increases the
perceived contrast and makes it look like there is a gradient.
In the middle of the crosshairs, there is more intensity
in the off surround than the on centre. As a result, the
cell in the middle shuts down and you see a black
Single Cell Recordings
Retinal ganglion cells - respond to spots
Cortex cells - respond to slits/bars of light, not spots
Simple cell - respond to a slit at a particular orientation on a specific retinal location
Complex cell - responds to moving slits/bars of light
Hypercomplex cell - respond to combination of stimulus features (objects, angles)
A cell shows maximum firing to a spot of light at particular area on the screen. A slit of
light decreases the firing rate. Where is the researcher recording from?
Retinal ganglion cell. (←Tilt screen to see answer)
Frequency - number of sound waves per second (Hz)
• Frequency determines pitch. 20 - 20,000Hz is hearable.
Amplitude - vertical size of the waves (db)
• Amplitude determines loudness.
Eardrum - moveable membrane that vibrates in response to sound waves
Parts of Middle ear - three tiny bones (the smallest in body). Amplifies sound 30x.
There are 3 m•Hammer, anvil & stirrup Inner Ear
Eardrum •Cochlea - coiled snail shaped tube filled with fluid, contains the...haped tube filled with fluid
• Basilar membrane - sheet of tissue, on it is the...
moveable (the smallest in the body) Basilar membrane - sheet of tissue
membrane that •Organthat amplify sound 30× hair cells; they are the sound receptors.
vibrates in Organ of Corti - 16000 tiny
sound waves Hammer Anvil Stirrup hair cells; they are the sound
receptors of the ear. Coding for Pitch and Loudness
• Rate of firing of hair cells
• Specific hairs have higher threshold so they only fire with louder sounds
• Frequency theory - nerve pluses match the frequency of the sound Both are true. For low
Problem: neurons can’t fire fast enough to produce sounds sounds, frequency theory
over 1000Hz holds true. For high
sounds, place theory
•Place theory - the specific point in the cochlea where the fluid wave does.
peaks indicates the frequency (discovered by von Bekesy)
•The cochlea is essentially “mapped” to the auditory cortex,
just like the retina is mapped to the visual cortex
Sound localization - ears are on either side of head so we can tell where a sound is
coming from depending on which ear hears it first
Conductive deafness - problems with the mechanical system that transmits waves to
the cochlea (hearing aid can help)
Nerve deafness - damaged hair cell receptors within the inner ear (hearing aid can’t)
TASTE AND SMELL
These are chemical senses, instead of energy senses like sound and sight.
Taste buds - chemical receptors concentrated along the edges and back of the tongue
• Each is more responsive to one or two basic taste qualities, weakly to others
• Umami increases the sensitivity to other taste qualities
• Poisons are bitter; hard-wired into us
Olfactory bulb - forebrain structure above the nasal cavity, specific odors excite specific
portions of it
Pheromones - chemical signals in natural body scent, no evidence to support they effect
Menstrual synchrony - The effect can be caused when a woman smells another woman’s
sweat - their menstrual cycles will sync up. Doesn’t happen with prolonged exposure
though. SKIN AND BODY
Tactile senses - pressure, pain, warmth cold
Gate control theory - pain results from the opening and closing of gating mechanisms in
the nervous system. These gates can be closed by physical or brain activity.
Glial cells are responsible for the ache all over feeling when you’re sick.
Endorphins - natural painkillers, inhibit pain neurotransmitters
Kinesthesis - info about position of muscles, joints and movements
Vestibular sense - body orientation or equilibrium (inner ear ﬂuid)
bottom-up processing - individual elements of the stimulus are then combined into
top-down processing - sensory info is interpreted in the light of existing knowledge,
concepts, ideas (pioneered by Gestalt)
Processing depends on attention
• Attention involves 1) focusing on a certain stimuli and 2) filtering out other incoming
• Shadowing - playing a different message in either ear. It’s easy to repeat the words of
one (shadow them), but only at the expense of paying attention to the other.
• Inattention blindness - You can look right at something without “seeing” it if your
attention is on something else (like this video)
• Our motives and experiences affect what we pay attention to. We are also quicker to
respond to threatening stimuli, and are very precise at discerning between threatening
and non-threatening stimuli.
Figure-Ground Relations - we organize stimuli into foreground and background
• Central figure (foreground) has a more distinct shape and is more striking in
perception and memory
• Same with music (melody, chords) Gestalt Laws of Perceptual Organization (Max Wertheimer)
Similarity Proximity Closure Continuity
We group similar objects.We group close objects. We close gaps. We follow paths.
Patterns in how we perceive things. Illustrates the importance of context in perception.
• A mental image to compare a perception with so we can recognize it
• Every perception is a “hypothesis” and the perceptual system searches a giant library
of schemas to find the best interpretation.
•Readiness to perceive stimuli in a particular way
•If I tell you someone is a jerk, when you meet them you are more likely to interpret
what they do as jerk stuff
Perceptual constancies - allow us to recognize familiar stimuli in different conditions
• Shape constancy - recognize things at different angles
• Brightness constancy - relative brightness remains the same
• Size constancy - size of objects remains relatively constant at different distances
These must be learned - small kids don’t do this.
Depth, Distance and Movement
Monocular Depth Cues - allow you to detect depth with one eye
• Light and shadow
• Linear perspective
• Height in horizontal plane
• Texture gradient
• Relative size
• Motion parallax - nearby objects move faster than far ones Binocular Depth Cues - require two eyes
• Binocular/retinal disparity - each eye sees a very slightly different image because they
are on different sides of your head. The brain processes them together.
• Convergence - feedback from muscles that turn your eyes inward
Stroboscopic movement - illusion of movement when lights are
flashed nearby each other milliseconds apart.
• This is the effect you see on theater marquees.
Critical period - certain experiences must happen in this time
for the brain to develop normally eaer
Deprivation experiment - test critical periods maruee
• Cats raised in an environment with no vertical lines could not see
• Culture and experience plays a huge part on perception: People that don’t live in
societies with square buildings and rooms don’t see certain illusions
• Blind people who get their sight back later in life have lots of trouble identifying
objects, and judging distances
Perceptual Problem Solving
• How do we recognize and make sense of patterns?
• Constructionists: believe that we create meaning from basic elements or features
• Register small components and build into larger, meaningful units
• Geons - Biederman believes these are the elementary shapes of perception (cylinders,
SLEEP CHAPTER 6
Consciousness - moment-to-moment awareness of ourselves and our environment
• Subjective and private
• Self-reflective and central to our sense of self
• Intimately connected with the process of selective attention - consciousness reflects
what is spotlighted at the moment
• Conscious - thoughts, perceptions • Preconscious - not currently available but could be (memories)
• Subconscious - unaccessible, unacceptable urges and desires; may “leak” out
• Happens every 90 mins
• Topics: Failure/success, aggression, sex, guilt, problem solving (in order of frequency)
• Alters mood in positive direction
• Low risk way to deal with problems
• Increases arousal
• Unconscious works in harmony with conscious
• Controlled (eﬀortful) processing - voluntary use of attention. Aware.
• Automatic processing - little or no conscious effort (type, drive, eat). Unaware.
• Divided attention - perform more than one activity at the same time
Stroop eﬀect - Saying the colors
instead of the words is hard because
reading is an automatic process.
• These are your daily temperature, hormone and body function rhythms
• Late afternoon is best for physical tasks. Everything in your body is optimized - even
• Suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) - The Brain’s clock. In the hypothalamus. It regular
• Melatonin - secreted by pineal gland, relaxing effect on body.
• When SCN neurons are stimulated by daylight, they inhibit melatonin. This raises
body temperature and alertness. This is why daylight makes you feel awake.
• Free-running circadian rhythm - without day/night cues to guide you, your body would
drift into a longer 24.2 - 24.8 hour cycle. This happens to blind people.
Disruptions of Circadian Rhythms
Seasonal aﬀective disorder - tendency to become depressed during certain months
• Winter has less sunlight so your melatonin isn’t inhibited and you are sleepy all the
Jet lag - easier to lengthen day (fly west), more compatible with free running cycle • Can you take melatonin pills to solve it? Questionable.
• Hydrate, avoid alcohol, stretch, light meals, expose to sunlight
• Accidents much more likely
• Rotating shiftwork - takes advantage of it being
easier to increase the day than to compress it
• Even Daylight Savings Time causes increased
SLEEP AND DREAMING
Your body goes from awake to Stage 4 and back
again in 60-90 mins. Except, instead of waking up
every hour, your body goes into REM sleep before
starting the cycle all over.
Sleep Stage Brain Waves EEG Tracings
Awake/Alert Beta waves High Hz, low amp
Relaxed/Drowsy Alpha waves Slower Hz
Stage 1 Sleep Theta waves Slower Hz Easily awoken
Stage 2 Sleep Sleep Spindles & Fast bursts Most common
K-Complexes stage of sleep.
Stage 3 Sleep Delta waves Slow AAgain Thhese woo tages
are soww wave
Stage 4 Sleep Delta waves sleep.Veeryhaardto
REM Theta & Beta High Hz, low amp (discussed below)
K Complex - most dramatic brain activity change that ever happens to humans
• Occurs in Stage 2 sleep
• Huge drop in the EEG tracing.
• Can be triggered externally. Related to RLS and epilepsy. REM Sleep - Rapid Eye Movements beneath your eyelids as you sleep
• Brain waves like an awake person
• Over the course of the night, REM gets longer and Stage 4 gets shorter.
• If you are woken up here, you always report a dream.
• Physiological arousal closer to daytime level
Faster heart rate, breathing
Erection, vaginal lubrication (even without sex dreams)
• Voluntary muscles cannot contract. Called REM sleep
Paradoxical sleep - highly aroused, cannot move When we get older we need
• Non-REM dreams are shorter and less story-like. They
less sleep & we have less
resemble daytime thoughts - sleep-thoughts. slow-wave sleep.
• REM sleep decreases dramatically during infancy and early
• Sleep deprivation causes
WHY DO WE SLEEP? attention lapse, irritability
• Sleep deprived people do worse
Restoration Model - sleep recharges our running bodies, on critical-thinking tasks but
think they did great
recovers us from fatigue • All kinds of sleep deprivation
• Some believe cellular waste called ‘adenosine’ accumulates are bad: short term, long term,
and slows body down partial
Evolutionary/circadian sleep models (Webb) - sleep increases a
species chance of survival in relation to environmental demands
• Conserve energy and stay inside during dangerous nighttime
Learning & Memory - sleep is a time when we store memories
• REM deprived subjects show reduced ability to retain information
Mood adjustment - speed of cycling into REM is correlated with positive mood on
• Depressed people cycle into REM very quickly, perhaps to get a mood increase
REM Rebound eﬀect - brain increases REM sleep after it is deprived of it
• REM may be related to learning and memory
• When learning new tasks, there are more REM’s during sleep
• Other sleep states may be involved in specific learning tasks SLEEP DISORDERS
•Chronic difficulty in falling asleep, staying asleep or having restful sleep
• You can fall asleep easily and still have insomnia
• Stimulus control - conditioning your body to associate environment with sleep. Do
only sleeping in your bedroom, not studying.
• Situational insomnia - specific stressor causing it
• Chronic insomnia - possibly circadian rhythm problem
Thermoregulation problem - failure to lower body temp. Activation remains
high and normal sleep cycle fails to develop.
REM-Sleep Behavior Disorder
• Extreme daytime sleepiness and sudden, REM sleep paralysis doesn’t
uncontrollable sleep attacks happen so you are acting
• Sleep goes directly to REM out your REM dreams
• Instant muscle weakness
• May experience cataplexy - abnormal version
of sleep paralysis with laughter, excitement and
other strong emotions
• Genetic and environmental causes
• Interruption in breathing during sleep
• This is normal… but people with the disorder do not start breathing again unless
they wake up
• In severe cases may stop for 1 minute, hundreds of times a night Causes insomnia.
Sometimes obstruction of air passage (snoring) - easy to deal with.
Sometimes abnormal brain function.
Some think Sudden Infant Death (SID) is caused by this. Parasomnia
Sleepwalking Nightmares and Night Terrors
• Occurs in stage 3 or 4 - so • Nightmares are just frightening dreams
you’re not acting out a dream • Night terrors are more intense. More common
• More common in children during Stage 3 and 4. Person jumps up, may try to
• Waking them up is not escape room but doesn’t remember this state of
• Genetic • They’re still asleep and hard to wake up (because
they’re in deep sleep)
• Stage 1 or 2
• Sometimes in REM
• Sensitive to external world
THE NATURE OF DREAMS There are many REM
periods a night. Thats
When do we dream?
• 45 seconds into sleep, 25% of people report visual images why its the “sleep cycle”
• 15-40% in 6 minutes
• More dreams in REM and later in sleep
• We remember the dreams from the last REM period of the night
• The stronger the emotions, the more likely we are to remember them
• Vivid, high anxiety dream
• Significant stress is correlated with frequency
• In adults, correlated with psychopathology (anxiety)
• More common with children
• Some drugs cause them: antidepressants, beta blockers, antihistamines
• Normal people: self reported mean = 9 per year
• With a dream log = 25/year
What do we dream about?
• Most are very normal. Flying is very uncommon. • Women dream equally about
women and women.
• 80% involve negative emotions • Men dream mostly about men.
• Recent experiences shape dream content
• Dreams are fleeting and happen in real time Why do we dream?
Psychoanalytic theory (Freud)
• Wish fulﬁllment - gratification of our unconscious desires and needs
• Manifest content (surface story of our dream) vs latent content (hidden meaning)
• The unconscious Id: repressed wishes strive for expression
• Ego is conscious control manager
• Ego disguises Id’s wishes in dreams (for example sex urges disguised as a train)
• Symbols for sex: ladder, staircase, elevator, bridge, tunnel, plane
• Dreams are just the brain making sense of random neural activity.
• Dreams serve no function.
• Periodic firing of Pons fires other parts of the brain
• Problem-solving dream models - dreams help us find creative solutions to problems
• Cognitive-process dream theories - focus on the process of how we dream: dreaming
and waking thought are produced by the same mental systems.
• 3 year olds don’t report dreams in REM sleep cause they haven’t developed
imagery skills yet.
• Rapid content shifts that happen in dreams also happen in everyday thought.
Agonistic - increase neuron activity (opiates, amphetamines)
Antagonistic - inhibits or decreases activity (antipsychotics)
Tolerance - decreasing responsivity
Compensatory responses - You body tries to get back to a normal state by doing the
opposite of the drug.
• Physical setting where you take drugs triggers the compensatory responses
• So, overdose is more likely caused by unfamiliar setting than dosage
Withdrawal - continuing compensatory responses after drug stops
• - Drugs don’t always lead to significant withdrawal
• Physiological dependence is not the major cause of addiction, psychological
dependance is DEPRESSANTS
• Decrease nervous system activity
• Reduce anxiety, relaxed euphoria
• Increases GABA, an inhibitory transmitter
• Decreases glutamate, an excitatory one
• Upper phase followed by downer phase
• Alcohol Myopia - “shortsightedness” in thinking, inability to pay attention to as much
Drunk people find drunk driving more favorable than when they are sober
because they latch on to one factor i.e. “its a short drive”
Barbiturates and Tranquilizers
• Sleeping pills and anti-anxiety drugs (valium)
• Also increase GABA
• Overdoes, esp. with alcohol can cause coma, death
• Immediate withdrawal may cause cause
• Increase neural firing and arouse nervous systems
• Boost heart rate, alertness, mood, irritability
• Reduce fatigue and appetite
• Increase dopamine and NE
• Repeated use can cause heart failure or stroke
• Schizophrenic hallucinations are caused by too much dopamine - these can cause the
same thing (amphetamine psychosis)
• Meth - insomnia, hyperactivity, anxiety, paranoia, meth mouth, heart attack
• MDMA/ecstasy - boosts serotonin
Produces longterm cognitive impairment
Sleep disturbance, sexual dysfunction, impaired immune responses
Depletes serotonin, linked with suicidal depression and death
• Blocks reuptake of NE and dopamine
• Excitation, sense of muscular strength, euphoria
•Once used as anesthetic (Novocaine still is)
•High doses cause fever, vomiting, hallucinations, delusions OPIATES
• Pain relief and mood changes
• Increase endorphins and dopamine
• Heroin originally a cough suppressant; causes peaceful euphoria at great risk of death
• Mushrooms, LSD (not well understood how it works)
• Hearing colors, seeing sounds
• Violent outbursts, panic, flashbacks
• Hard to classify (hallucinogen, sedative)
• THC - bind to receptors; brain produces its own THC-like things called cannabinoids
• Increases GABA and dopamine
• Doesn’t cause amotivational syndrome or gateway-drug but still dangerous
Determinants of Drug Eﬀects
• Genetics plays a role in the strength of drug effects on you
• Also learning from parents - although alcohol abuse correlates more with biological
parents than adoptive ones
• Setting and other people around you affect drug arousal
• Cultural learning: in the Camba culture people are not aggressive or promiscuous
• Expectancies influence experiences
• Personality: people with little contact with reality are more likely to have bad trip
• Named after Anton Mesmer (animal magnetism to cure things)
• You can’t be hypnotized against your own will
• Your ability to be hypnotized can be measured by the hypnotic susceptibility scales
Explanations for Hypnosis
• Does not cause action against own will - more to do with authority
• Many of the special things hypnotized people do can also easily be done by non-
• Hypnosis can reduce pain tolerance beyond placebo, but so can mental imagery.
• Hypnosis does not increase memory. People make more recall errors and are confident
in them. Theories for Hypnosis
• Dissociation theory - division of consciousness; one part listening to hypnotist and one
part “hidden observer”
• Social cognitive theories - “hypnosis” is just caused by the expectations of participants
• The bogus suggestion that “hypnosis may cause hand-stiffening” to participants
increases its chances of happening by a lot.
• People can be made to believe they are drunk by giving smell and taste cues in
drinks. We can alter our own mental states.
• Mindfulness - free flowing of thoughts, feelings
• Concentrative - focus on a specific sound, sensation (breathing)
• Most commonly affects cingulate cortex and and frontal cortex
LEARNING CHAPTER 7
Learning - process by experience produces a relatively enduring change in an organisms
behavior or capabilities
Habituation - decrease in response strength to a repeated stimulus from sensory
• Learning to not respond to familiar stimuli saves energy and attention adaptation. It is a
• For example, you are not constantly feeling your clothes on your body form of learning and
occurs in central
• You are unaware of habituated stimuli at the moment but if there is some nervous system, not
reason to become aware of it, you can sensory neurons
Sensitization - increase in strength response to a repeated stimulus
• For example if you get shocked by a door twice, you react more the second time
• Focus on stimulus & response
• Purely care about observable events
• Strict behaviorism is called “black-box psychology”.
Stimulus → black box → response. Don’t try to figure out whats in the box. CLASSICAL OR PAVLOVIAN CONDITIONING
• Association of a neutral stimulus with one that consistently elicits a response
• Acquisition - period during with response is being learned
• Each time the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) are
paired, it is a learning trial
• The more intense the UCS, the quicker the learning
1. Unconditioned stimulus → unconditioned response
2. Pair conditioned stimulus with unconditioned stimulus
3. Conditioned stimulus → conditioned response
The UCR and the CR are not the same. The are
similar actions but they are caused by diﬀerent
Pavlov’s Dog things.
1. Dog’s see meat powder (UCS) → Dogs salivate (UCR)
Central nervous system causes the CR.
2. Pair meat powder with ringing of bell (CS) Sympathetic nervous system causes the UCR.
3. Ringing the bell (CS) → Dogs salivate (CR)
Classical conditioning is not response contingent - it doesn’t matter what the dog does
when you give him food and ring the bell.
Examples of Classical Conditioning
Why do students who do well on exams
1. Drill (USC) → Fear (UCR) tend to like their profs?
2.Pair dentist with drill 1. Get an A (UCS) → Feel good (UCR)
2. Pair prof with getting an A
3.Dentist (CS) → Fear (CR)
3. Prof (CS) → Feel good (CS)
• People rate attractiveness of people in 1. Good music (USC) → Positive feelings
photos with different music playing (bad (UCR)
music, good music