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psych review.docx

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Psychology 1000

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PSYCHOLOGY’S GOALS 1. Describes how people and animals behave 2. Explain and understand causes of these behaviors 3. Predict how people and animals will behave under certain conditions 4. Influence or control human behavior through knowledge & control of its causes to enhance how humans live. PSYCHODYNAMIC PERSPECTIVE • Psychodynamic perspective searches for causes of behavior within the inner workings of our personality Psychoanalysis- Analysis of internal and primarily unconscious psych forces • Freud’s theory suggests, past experiences can lead to psychological issues later in life Being punished for sexual behavior as a child can lead to sexual anxiety/awkwardness around women, etc. BEHAVIOURAL PERSPECTIVE • B.P focuses on role of environment in governing out actions. • We learn from past experiences and current environment COGNITIVE BEHAVIOURISM • Environment effects our THOUGHTS, environment tells us how to behave effectively The Humanistic Perspective: Self-Actualization and positive psych Humanistic Perspective: emphasized free will, personal growth, and the attempt to find meaning in one’s existence • Rather than being controlled by unconscious thoughts or environment , we have an inborn force towards self-actualization 5. Gestalt Psychology : mind organizes elements of experience into a unified or whole perception SOCIALCULTURALPERSPECTIVE • Examines how social environment and cultural learning influence our behavior, thoughts, and feelings The Social Psychological Component • How other people influence our behavior thoughts and feelings THE BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE: THE BRAIN,GENES,& EVOLUTION • Biological perspective examines how brain processes and other bodily functions regulate behavior. 6. Behavior Genetics - the study of how behavior tendencies are influenced by genetic factors STEPS IN SCIENTIFIC PROCESS Step 1: Identify a question of interest Step 2: Gather information and form a hypothesis Step 3: Test Hypothesis by conducting research Step 4:Analyze Data, Draw tentative conclusion and Report findings Step 5: Build a body of Knowledge law of parsimony: if 2 theories can explain and predict the same phenomena equally well; simpler one is better reliable- consistent observations • Unobtrusive measures – recording behavior whilst keeping participants unaware that certain responses are being measured. • Independent & Dependent Variables • Independent variable – factor manipulated or controlled by experimenter (cellphone use) • Dependent variable – factor measured by experimenter (breaking response time) • Validity – how well an experiment tests what its designed to test Placebo effect – people receiving treatment show change in behaviour because of their expectations, not because of treatment itself. Each Neuron has: a cell body(soma), dendrites, and an axon Dendrites – collect messages form neighboring neurons and send them to the cell body Axon – conducts electrical impulses away from the cell body to other neurons, muscles, or glands • axon branches out to form axon terminals Glial Cells – surround neurons and hold them in place. make nutrient chemicals neuron needs, form myelin sheath around some axons, and absorb toxic and waste, and prevents toxins from entering brain -70mv is the resting potential, at rest neuron is polarized • When neuron is stimulated, nearby sodium channels open up, positive Na are attracted to proteins, and thus are brought inside of neuron , making state of depolarization • Neurons release neurotransmitters that travel across synaptic cleft – space b/w axon terminal of one neuron and dendrite of the next 7. chemical rxn will stimulate channels to let potassium ions flow out and Cl- to flow in, causing a state of hyperpolarization, from -70mV to -72mV THE PERIPHRIALNERVOUS SYSTEM 8. All neural structures outside CNS - Helps us respond and sense stimuli Divided into the somatic nervous system AND the autonomic ns The Somatic Nervous System (voluntary muscle activation)(acts as unit) Consists of sensory neurons and the motor neurons ANS: controls glands and the smooth (involuntary) muscles of the heart, blood vessels and the lining of the stomach and intestine ANS has 2 subdivisions: The sympathetic & the parasympathetic NS Sympathetic nervous system: arouses the body and speeds up body processes (Dilates pupils, faster heart beat, contracts vessels)(fight or flight response) Parasympathetic ns – slows down body processes and maintains or returns you to state of rest (slows down heart rate after ans speeds it up) -speeds of digestive system, contracts pupils, constricts pupils Medulla- plays important role in vital body functions, such as heart rate and respiration – allows them to occur involuntarily Damage to medulla results in death or need of life support Pons (bridge) – lies above the medulla and acts as a bridge, carrying nerve impulses b/w higher and lower levels of the nervous system (damage=death) Cerebellum – concerned primarily with muscular movement coordination// also plays role in certain types of learning and memory…….. Damage to the cerebellum results in jerky/uncoordinated movements (trouble walking) Reticular formation= Has central role in consciousness, sleep, and attention (Severe damage to the reticular formation can produce a permanent coma) Thalamus – important sensory relay station (organizes input from sense organs and routes them to appropriate areas of brain) • the b.g plays important role in deliberate and voluntary control of movement(especially in initiating voluntary movements) (reaching for coffee mug) Hippocampus: involved in forming and retrieving memories// damage to h.c results in memory impairment, and struggle to connect short term memory to long term memory Frontal- speech and skeletal motor functions Parietal – governs bodies sensations (sensory info processed here) Occipital – main processing unit for vision Temporal – Auditory processing (and some visual) corpus callosum. Acts as a communication device between hemispheres Heritability- how much of the variation in a characteristic within a population can be attributed to genetic differences Some evolved biological mechanisms allow broad adaptations(learning a language) while other are domain-specific adaptations – designed to solve a particular problem like choosing a suitable mate, choosing safe foods to eat, avoids environmental hazard and knowing who your allies are • - Sensation : is the stimulus detection process by which our sense organs respond to and translate environmental stimuli into nerve impulses and are sent to the brain • Perception is when we actively sort the information and make sense of it - Its an active and creative process, the same stimuli can give rise to different perceptions • - People set their own decision criterion, which is standard of how certain they must be that a stimulus is present before they say they detect it Subliminal Stimulus - stimulus so weak or brief that, although it is received by the senses, it cannot be perceived consciously- the stimulus is well below the absolute threshold difference threshold is directly proportional to the magnitude of the stimulus with which the comparison is being made and is known as weber’s fraction (1/50) ­ sensory adaptation Eg. Not feeling a watch on wrist of a long time • The human eye • - Light enters the eye through the cornea, a transparent protective structure • - Then it passes by the pupil, which can dilate or constrict to control the amount of light entering • The size of the pupil is controlled by the colored iris that surrounds the pupil • - Behind the pupil is the lens which can get thicker or thinner to focus the light on the retina, at the rear wall of the fluid filled eyeball • - The original image is flipped left to right and up to down when its project onto the retina, but the brain reconstructs the input to make it normal • Rods are found throughout retina except in the fovea, a small area in the center of the retina that contains only cones Rods and cones synapse with bipolar cells, bipolar cells then synapse with ganglion cells (axons of ganglion cells make up the optic nerve) • Trichromatic theory claims that the eye perceived red, green, and blue in different intensities and mixes them together to generate a color • Cones are sensitive to all wavelengths, but specific ones are most sensitive to one of the 3 colors • - Theory inconsistent because it claims that yellow is made by red and green receptors, but people who are red green color blind are able to experience yellow • Opponent process theory • Each of the 3 different types of cones respond to 2 different wavelengths • 1. Red or green • 2. Blue or yellow • 3. Black and white • - Explains after image, because the afterimage is opposite the color of the original Dual process theory - combines the trichromatic and opponent-process theories to account for the colour transduction process • • visual association cortex It combines the information with our knowledge and memories to give the object meaning Frequency is the number of sound waves per second Amplitude: vertical size of the waves, the amount of compression and expansion; how loud • - Sound waves  vibrates eardrum of the mid ear, which houses 3 bones called the hammer, anvil, and stirrup(THE OSSICLES) – vibrate collectively to amplify sound waves more than 30 times of their original. • Oval Window – boundary between middle ear and the inner ear • Inner ear contains cochlea- (liquid filled tube) which contains basilar membrane, a sheet of tissue spread across cochlea. Inside basilar membrane is organ of Corti – contains many tiny hair cells that are sound receptors pheromones chemical signals found in natural body scents, may affect human behavior in subtle ways • Kinesthesis- provides us with feedback about our muscles and joints’positions and movements • Bottom up processing: the system takes in individual elements of the stimulus and combines it into a unified perception Top Down Processing : sensory info interpreted in light of existing knowledge, concepts, ideas, and expectations • Similarity: objects considered similar will be grouped together • Proximity: elements close to each other are likely to be perceived as a part of the same configuration • Law of closure: people complete open edges and fill gaps so that an incomplete figure appears more complete • Continuity: people link individual elements together so that they form a continuous line or pattern that make sense • In vision, shape constancy allows us to recognize people and other objects from many angles (seeing movie perfectly even though your up front and off to the side) • Brightness constancy – relative brightness of objects remain the same under different conditions of illumination such as full sunlight and shade • This is because the ratio of illumination remains the same Size Constancy: size of objects remain relatively the same even though it changes relative to distance • 1)Binocular Disparity is when each eye sees a slightly different image (3D movies) • Freud said there are 3 levels of awareness • 1. Conscious mind : thoughts, perceptions, and other mental events that we are currently aware • 2. Preconscious mental events: outside of current awareness, but can be easily recalled under certain conditions 3. Unconscious events: cannot be brought into conscious awareness under ordinary circumstances • - controlled (effortful) processing – the voluntary use of attention and conscious effort (planning a vacation / studying) • Automatic processing – can be performed with little or no conscious effort • Stage 1 through Stage 4 • As sleep begins, brain pattern becomes more irregular and slower theta waves (3.5- 7.5 cps) increase. – Now in stage 1 (a light sleep from which you can easily be awakened) Spend just a few minutes in stage 1 • As sleep becomes deeper , sleep spindles occur, 1 to 2 second bursts of rapid brain-wave activity, 12-15 cps (highest) Sleep spindles indicate you are in stage 2 • Sleep deepens as you move into stage 3, marked by regular appearance of very slow and large delta waves (0.5 – 2 cps) • As time passes more and more delta waves and when they dominate the EEG pattern you are now in STAGE 4 • Stage 3 and 4 together are referred to as slow-wave sleep. During REM sleep, physiological arousal may increase to daytime levels. Heart rate quickens, breathing becomes rapid and irregular and brain activity resembles that of wakefulness. – Genital arousal also occurs(not due to sexual imagery though) • Sleepwalking typically occurs during a stage 3 or stage 4 period of slow-wave sleep • Nightmares are frightening dreams and virtually everyone has them. Occur most often during REM (like dreams Night terrors are most common in deep sleep: stage 3 and 4 • Habituation – decreased response to stimulus after frequently repeated exposure (when you first put cloth on you feel it and later on you don’t even notice it) • VS • Sensory Adaptation – Neural or sensory receptors change/reduce sensitivity to a continuous, unchanging stimuli (in brain) (EG: eyes adjusting to dark room) (adapting to hot or cold water) (smell of own house) • Classical conditioning : organism learns to associate two stimuli (song(UCS) and a pleasant event(UCR)), such that one stimulus (song)(CS) comes to produce a response (happy feeling)(cr) that originally was produced by the other stimulus ( the pleasurable event) • - Forward short-delay pairing: the CS (tone) appears first, followed by the UCS (food) with the CS still present. – MOST EFFECTIVE • - Forward trace pairing: tone would come on and off, and afterward food is present. (Optimal if CS shown/sounded 2-3 seconds before UCS) • Simultaneous pairing: CS and UCS come together at exact same time • - less rapid conditioning, hard to do Backward pairing – CS presented after UCS (the worst – no learning) HOC- Aneutral stimulus becomes a CS after being paired with an already established CS. (black square shown before sounding tone that makes dog salivate, after some trails, black square alone will cause salivation) Systematic desensitization – patients learn muscle relaxation techniques and then is gradually exposed to the fear-provoking stimulus Aversion Therapy= Patient is given a drug that induces nausea when alcohol is consumed to reduce his attraction to it. • Elicited responses – automatically triggered by some stimulus (salivating) • Emitted responses – voluntary and are learned in a different way (driving) • Operant Conditioning – learning in which behavior is influenced by its consequences • Reinforcement – a response that is strengthened by an outcome that follows it • Punishment – occurs when a response is weakened by outcomes that follow it discriminative stimulus – a signal that a particular response will now produce certain consequences (food on plate is a discriminative stimulus to start eating) • Positive Reinforcement PR – Aresponse is strengthened by the subsequent presentation of a stimulus (Pressing lever makes food appear>> lever pressing increases) • Negative Reinforcement • - a response is strengthened by the subsequent removal or avoidance of a stimulus Take aspirin >> headache goes away >> more likely to take aspirin for headache relief) • Positive Punishment • Positive punishment aka aversive punishment – response is weakened by the subsequent presentation of a stimulus. Child is beat or child touches hot stove • Negative punishment – a response is weakened by the subsequent removal of a stimulus. Aka response cost Shaping is also called the method of successive approximation (ie, rat rewarded for being near the lever, touching it, smelling it, etc) Encoding – refers to getting information into the system by translating it into a neural code that your brain processes • Sensory Memory – holds incoming sensory info just long enough for it to be recognized. • iconic store (impossible to retain complete info in purely visual form for more than a fraction of a second) • echoic store (echoic memory lasts longer than iconic memory) – complete echoic trace may last 2 seconds and a partial trace may linger for a bit longer than 2 seconds Most people can hold no more than five to nine (7+- 2) meaningful items in short-term memory Combining individual items into larger units of meaning is called chunking • Simple repetition of info is called maintenance rehearsal. • - Focusing on the meaning of info or relating it to other things we already know – elaborative rehearsal • Episodic buffer - provides temporary storage where information from long-term memory and from the phonological loop and// or visuospatial subsystems can be integrated, manipulated, and made available for conscious awareness. (used to recall long term info used to do mental math) Central executive – directs the action, decides how much attention to allocate to mental imagery and auditory rehearsal If given a list of words, it is easiest to remember words in the beginning or at the end. This U shaped pattern is called the serial position effect – recall is influenced by a word’s position in a series of items. • semantic encoding because you have to pay attention to what the word means • Dual coding theory – encoding info using both codes enhances memory, because the odds improve that at least one of the codes will be available later to support recall • Episodic Memory – our store of factual knowledge concerning personal experiences (I ate pizza last night) Semantic Memory – general/factual knowledge about the world and language, including memory for words and concepts (e=mc^2) • Procedural Memory (nondeclarative memory) is reflected in skills and actions. • One component of p.m are skills that are expressed by doing things (riding a bike) • EXPLICIT MEMORY – Involves conscious or intentional memory retrieval (writing a test) • Implicit Memory occurs when memory influences our behavior without conscious awareness (driving / riding a bike) (playing piano) Retrieval cue – any stimulus, whether internal or external, that stimulates the activation of info stored in long-term memory. (Seeing photo of old friend in a yearbook brings back memories of them) Flashbulb memories are recollections that seem so vivid, so clear, that we can picture them as if they were a snapshot of moment in time. Usually not accurate though Encoding specificity principle states that memory is enhanced when conditions present during retrieval match those that were present during encoding. (Jogging women raped in an alley and could not remember it but she got emotionally aroused every time she was in the alley • mood congruent recall : we tend to recall information or events that are congruent with our current mood (more reliable) (when happy we are more likely to remember positive events) - Many memory failures result not from forgetting info but from failing to encode the info into long-term memory in the first place. (maybe because it’s not meaningful enough OR due to our attention being elsewhere) • Proactive interference – occurs when material learned in the past interferes with recall of newer material. (Trying to remember your new phone number, but your old phone numbers digits are coming into your head) • Retroactive interference – occurs in the opposite direction. Newly acquired info interferes with the ability to recall info learned at an earlier time. (Trying to remember old phone # after having new one for few months) • Retrograde amnesia – represents memory loss for events that occurred prior to the onset of amnesia. (football player being hit and forgetting what happened right before he got hit. • Anterograde amnesia - memory loss for events that occur after the initial onset of amnesia. Retrospective memory – memory for past events Prospective memory concerns remembering to perform an activity in the future. (Mail the letter) (Take meds at 4pm) Source confusion (source monitoring error) – our tendency to recall something or recognize it as familiar, but to forget where we encountered it In Review - LANGUAGE • Human languages across the globe share the same underlying features. Language is symbolic and structured, conveys meaning, is generative, and permits displacement. Language has many adaptive functions, such as facilitating cooperative social systems and allowing people to transmit knowledge to one another. Scientists believe that humans have evolved an innate capacity for acquiring language. • The surface structure of a language refers to how symbols are combined; the deep structure refers to the underlying meaning of the symbols. Improving students’awareness of whether they understand text material. • In a study, students were asked to read passages and then rate their comprehension of the passage • Group 1) no- summary group (control) -- they didn’t get to make a summary after reading passages • Group 2) Immediate summary group -- students summarized each passage immediately after they read it. • Group 3) Delayed summary group -- students read all six passages before summarizing each one • Each group rated there level of comprehension after creating their summaries Multiple choice was then given about passages to see correlation between students beliefs about their with their actual comprehension as measured by the test. Results were as follows : Data also shows that students in the delayed-summary group did not feel that they knew the material better, and in fact they didn’t. Rather, summarizing the passages after a delayed time helped them become more accurate in distinguishing the material they did know from the material they didn’t (summarizing immediately gives you a false sense of security - you think you know it but you do not Language elements are hierarchically arranged: from phoneme to morpheme to words, phrases, and sentences. Discourse involves higher- level combinations of sentences. • Understanding and producing language—including pattern recognition of words and the hierarchical structure of language—involve bottom-up and top-down processing. • In infancy, babies can perceive all the phonemes that exist in all the languages of the world. Between 6 and 12 months of age, their speech discrimination narrows to include only the sounds specific to their native tongue. By ages 4 to 5, most children have learned the basic grammatical rules for combining words into meaningful sentences. • Language development seems to depend heavily on innate mechanisms that permit the learning and production of language, provided that the child is exposed to an appropriate linguistic environment during a sensitive period that extends from early childhood to puberty. • Although research findings are not entirely consistent, it appears that a second language is most easily mastered and fluently spoken if it is learned during a sensitive period that ranges from early childhood possibly through mid-adolescence. Bilingual children tend to perform better than monolingual children on a variety of cognitive tasks. • In general, it appears that when people acquire a second language early in life or learn it to a high degree of proficiency later in life, both languages share a common neural network. • Language influences what people think and how effectively they think. Expansion of vocabulary allows people to encode and process information in more sophisticated ways. • Researchers have attempted to teach apes to use hand signs or keyboard symbols to communicate in language-like fashion.At best, apes are capable of learning, combining, and communicating with symbols at a level similar to that of a human toddler. Skeptics question whether apes can learn syntax and generate novel ideas. In Review - THINKING • At the level of the brain, thoughts are patterns of neural activity. At the level of the mind, thoughts are propositional, imaginal, or motoric mental representations. • Concepts are mental categories, or classes, that share certain characteristics. Many concepts are based on prototypes, the most typical and familiar members of a class. How much something resembles the prototype determines whether the concept is applied to it. Propositional thought involves the use of concepts in the form of statements. • In deductive reasoning, we reason from general principles to a conclusion about a specific case. Inductive reasoning involves reasoning from a set of specific facts or observations to a general principle. Deduction is the strongest and most valid form of reasoning because the conclusion cannot be false if the premises are true. Inductive reasoning cannot yield certainty. • Unsuccessful deductive reasoning can result from (1) failure to select relevant information; (2) failure to apply the appropriate deductive- reasoning rules, particularly in novel situations; (3) belief bias, the tendency to abandon logical rules in favor of personal beliefs; and (4) emotional reactions and framing effects. • Problem solving proceeds through several steps: (1) understanding the nature of the problem, (2) establishing initial hypotheses or potential solutions, (3) testing the solutions against existing evidence, and (4) evaluating the results of these tests. • People use several types of problem-solving schemas.Algorithms are formulas or procedures that guarantee correct solutions. Heuristics are general strategies that may or may not provide correct solutions. Means- ends analysis is a common heuristic. The representativeness heuristic is the tendency to judge evidence according to whether it is consistent with an existing concept or schema. The availability heuristic is the tendency to base conclusions and probability judgments on what is readily available in memory. • Humans exhibit confirmation bias, a tendency to look for facts to support hypotheses rather than to disprove them. They also suffer from overconfidence, a tendency to overestimate their knowledge, beliefs, and decisions. • In some situations, divergent thinking is needed for generating novel ideas or variations on ideas. Functional fixedness can blind us to new ways of using an object or a procedure, thereby interfering with creative problem solving. Sometimes, a period of incubation permits problem solving to proceed on a subconscious level while giving the problem solver psychological distance from the problem. • Knowledge acquisition can be viewed as a process of building schemas, which are mental frameworks. Scripts, which are one type of schema, provide a framework for understanding sequences of events that usually unfold in a regular, almost standardized, order. • Experts rely heavily on schemas that they have developed from experience. Compared with novices, experts have more schemas to guide problem solving in their field and are much better at recognizing when each schema should be applied. Schemas also enable experts to take greater advantage of long-term memory. • Wisdom represents a system of knowledge about the meaning and conduct of life.According to one model, wisdom has five major components: rich factual knowledge, rich procedural knowledge, an understanding of lifespan contexts, an awareness of the relativism of values and priorities, and the ability to recognize and manage uncertainty. • Amental image is a representation of a stimulus that originates inside the brain rather than from external sensory input. The objective, quantifiable study of mental imagery received a huge boost from research examining people's ability to mentally rotate objects. • Mental images of objects seem to have properties that are analogous to the properties of actual objects (e.g., you can rotate them, visually scan them). Thus, one viewpoint holds that mental images are basically perceptual in nature.Asecond viewpoint proposes that mental images actually are based on language. Overall, brain research offers more support to the imagery-as- perception view. In Review • Intelligence is the ability to acquire knowledge, to think and reason effectively, and to deal adaptively with the environment. Because cultural environments differ in the skills most important for adaptation, cultural conceptions of intelligence may differ markedly. • Galton's studies of hereditary genius and Binet's methods for measuring differences in children's mental skills were important historical milestones in the study of intelligence. In Review • Most modern intelligence tests, such as the Wechsler scales, measure an array of different mental abilities. In addition to a global, or full-scale, IQ, they provide scores for each subtest and summary scores for broader abilities, such as verbal and performance IQs. Some recent tests are derived directly from theories of intelligence. The Kaufman scale provides separate scores for crystallized and fluid intelligence, and Sternberg's STAT measures analytical, practical, and creative intelligence. • Achievement tests measure what has already been learned, whereas aptitude tests are assumed to measure potential for future learning and performance. Most intelligence tests measure combinations of achievement and aptitude, for it is difficult to separate past learning and future learning potential. • Three important standards for psychological tests are reliability (consistency of measurement over time, within tests, and across scorers), validity (successful measurement of the construct and acceptable relations with relevant criterion measures), and standardization (development of norms and standard testing conditions). • IQ scores successfully predict a range of academic, occupational, and life outcomes, including how long people live. Such findings indicate that intelligence tests are measuring important adaptational skills. • The Flynn effect refers to the notable rise in intelligence test scores over the past century, possibly due to better living conditions, more schooling, or more complex environments. • In dynamic testing, standard test administration is followed by feedback and suggestions from the examiner and a retaking of the test, thus allowing an assessment of how well the person profits from feedback and how intellectual skills might be coached in the future. Dynamic testing provides information that static testing does not, and retest scores sometimes relate more strongly to criterion measures. • Intelligence testing in non-Western cultures is a challenge. One approach is to use tests that are not tied to any culture's knowledge base.Another approach is to devise tests of the abilities that are important to adaptation in that culture. These culture-specific abilities may bear little relation to the mental skills assessed by Western intelligence tests. • Recent physiological evidence suggests that the brains of intelligent people may function more efficiently. Brain size is not significantly related to intelligence, but the neural networks laid down in the process of brain development may be extremely important. One current theory is that differences in brain plasticity may underlie intelligence. In Review • Intelligence is determined by interacting hereditary and environmental factors. Genes account for between 50 and 70 percent of population variation in IQ. Shared family environment accounts for perhaps one-fourth to one-third of the variance during childhood, but its effects seem to dissipate as people age. Educational experiences also influence mental skills. Heredity establishes a reaction range with upper and lower limits for intellectual potential. Environment affects the point within that range that will be reached. • Intervention programs for disadvantaged children have positive effects on later achievement and life outcomes if they begin early in life and are applied intensively. They have little effect when applied after school begins or with middle- or upper-class children. • Heritability estimates of intelligence can vary, depending on sample characteristics. In impoverished families, shared environment was more important than genes, whereas the opposite was found in affluent families. Twin studies also show that heritability effects on intelligence increase in adulthood. • Cultural and ethnic differences in intelligence exist (though they may be narrowing), but the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors are still in question. Evidence exists for both genetic and environmental determinants. Whether intelligence tests exhibit outcome bias in underestimating the mental abilities of minorities is a point of contention, but the tests do not appear to have predictive bias. • Although the differences are not large, men tend as a group to score higher than women on certain spatial and mathematical reasoning tasks. Women perform slightly better than men on tests of perceptual speed, verbal fluency, mathematical calculation, and fine-motor coordination. Both environmental and biological bases of sex differences have been suggested. • Even people with IQs in the 150s often show discrepancies in specific skills. Those who achieve eminence tend to have, in addition to high IQs, high levels of interest and motivation in their chosen activities. • Cognitive disability can be caused by a number of factors. Biological causes are identified in only about 28 percent of cases. Cognitive disability can range from mild to profound. The vast majority of disabled individuals are able to function in the mainstream of society, given appropriate support. Genetic factors seem relatively unimportant in profound mental retardation, but they seem to play an important role in mild retardation, which is more likely to run in families. In Review • Motivation is a process that influences the direction, vigour, and persistence of behaviour. Evolutionary psychologists propose that in our ancestral past, motivational tendencies that had adaptive significance were more likely to be passed from one generation to the next, eventually evolving into genetically based predispositions to act in certain ways. • Homeostatic models view motivation as an attempt to maintain equilibrium in bodily systems. Drive theories propose that tissue deficits create drives, such as hunger, that motivate or “push” an organism from within to reduce the deficit and restore homeostasis. ManipulatingArousal to InfluenceAppraisal •People were told they trying out some drug, however they were either unknowingly given epinephrine, a tranquilizer drug, or a placebo. (three different groups) •Participants were told the suproxine injection (the random drug) would have no effect. •They were then shown a funny film and experiments predicted they would attribute their levels of arousal to the funniness of the film, because they would know of no other reasons to feel as they did. •Results were as expected (see diagram) because the person injected with epinephrine (increases arousal would probably think “ Here I am watching this film and getting all excited, this film’s really funny!” •People were more amused or less amused if they were more or less aroused • Incentive theories emphasize the role of environmental factors that “pull” people toward a goal. The cognitive expectancy × value theory explains why the same incentive may motivate some people but not others. • Psychodynamic theories emphasize that unconscious motives and mental processes guide much of our behaviour. HumanistAbraham Maslow proposed that needs exist in a hierarchy, from basic biological needs to the ultimate need for self-actualization. • Self-determination theory focuses on three psychological needs: competence, autonomy, and relatedness. In Review • The body monitors several chemicals involved in energy utilization. Changing patterns of glucose usage provide one signal that helps to initiate hunger. Upon eating, hormones such as CCK are released into the bloodstream and signal the brain to stop eating. Fat cells release leptin, which acts as a long-term signal that helps to regulate appetite. The hypothalamus and other brain regions play a role in hunger regulation. • The expected good taste of food motivates eating, and the thought of food can trigger hunger. Our memory, attitudes, habits, and psychological needs affect our food intake. • The availability, taste, and variety of food powerfully regulate eating. Through classical conditioning, neutral stimuli can acquire the capacity to trigger hunger. Cultural norms affect our food preferences and eating habits. • Heredity and the environment affect our susceptibility to becoming obese. Homeostatic mechanisms make it difficult to lose substantial weight. In Review • The last half-century has witnessed changing patterns of sexual activity, such as an increase in premarital sex. • During sexual intercourse people often experience a four-stage physiological response pattern consisting of excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution. • Sex hormones have organizational effects that guide the prenatal development of internal and external organs along either a male or female pattern. Sex hormones also have activational effects that influence sexual desire. • Sexual fantasy can trigger arousal, whereas stress and psychological difficulties can interfere with sexual arousal. Cultural norms determine the sexual practices and beliefs that are considered moral, proper, and desirable. • Environmental stimuli affect sexual desire. Viewing sexual violence reinforces men's belief in “rape myths” and increases men's aggression toward women, at least temporarily. In Review • People who have a high motivation for success are attracted to the thrill of victory. They value mastery and social comparison. People who have a high fear of failure experience anxiety in achievement settings. They are motivated by social comparison and a fear of performing poorly. • High-need achievers seek moderately difficult tasks that are challenging but attainable. Low- need achievers are more likely to choose easy tasks in which success is assured or very difficult tasks in which success is not expected. Child-rearing and cultural factors influence our level and expression of achievement motivation. In Review • The primary components of emotion are the eliciting stimuli, cognitive appraisals, physiological arousal, and expressive and instrumental behaviors. Individual differences in personality and motivation affect the experience and expression of emotion, as do cultural factors. • Although innate factors can affect the eliciting properties of certain stimuli, learning can also play an important role in determining the arousal properties of stimuli. • The cognitive component of emotional experience involves the evaluative and personal appraisal of the eliciting stimuli. The ability of thoughts to elicit emotional arousal has been demonstrated clinically and in experimental research. Cross-cultural research indicates considerable agreement across cultures in the appraisals that evoke basic emotions but also some degree of variation in more complex appraisals. • Our physiological responses in emotion are produced by the hypothalamus, the limbic system, and the cortex, and by the autonomic and endocrine systems. There appear to be two systems for emotional behaviour, one involving conscious processing by the cortex, the other unconscious processing by the amygdala. • Recent studies suggest that negative emotions reflect greater relative activation of the right hemisphere, whereas positive emotions are related to relatively greater activation in the left hemisphere. • The validity of the polygraph as a “lie detector” has been questioned largely because of the difficulty of establishing which emotion is being expressed. • The behavioural component of emotion includes expressive and instrumental behaviours. Different parts of the face are important in the expression of various emotions. The accuracy of people's interpretations of these expressions increases when situational cues are also available. Based in part on similarities in facial expression of emotions across widely separate cultures, evolutionary theorists propose that certain fundamental emotional patterns are innate. They agree, however, that cultural learning can influence emotional expression in important ways. • Research on the relation between arousal and performance suggests that there is an optimal level of arousal for the performance of any task. This optimal level varies with the complexity or difficulty of the task; complex tasks have lower optimal arousal levels. In Review • Developmental psychology studies the process of aging. Questions about the influence of nature and nurture, the existence of critical and sensitive periods, continuity versus discontinuity, and stability versus change have played a major role in guiding much developmental research. • Cross-sectional designs compare people of different age groups at a single point in time.A longitudinal design repeatedly tests the same age group as it grows older.Asequential design tests several groups at one point in time and then again when they are older. • Prenatal development involves the zygote, embryonic, and fetal stages. • The 23rd chromosome in a mother's egg cell always is an X chromosome. If the 23rd chromosome in the father's sperm cell is an X, the child will be genetically female (XX); if a Y, the child will be born genetically male (XY). Maternal malnutrition, stress, illness, drug use, and environmental toxins can cause abnormal prenatal development. • Behavioural responses and learning begin during the fetal stage. In Review • Newborns have poor sensory acuity, but they can distinguish between different visual patterns, speech sounds, odours, and tastes. They display perceptual preferences, learn through classical and operant conditioning, and may have a primitive capacity for imitation. • Sensory, perceptual, and motor abilities have several different developmental functions. Most rapidly improve during the first year of life. Some newborn perceptual-motor responses temporarily decline during the first few months after birth and then recover during the first year of life. • The cephalocaudal principle reflects the tendency for development to proceed in a head-to-foot direction. The proximodistal principle states that development begins along the innermost parts of the body and continues toward the outermost parts. • Experience is critical for normal develop
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