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Psychology1000 Full notes.doc

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 1000
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Spring

Description
PsychologyNotes31102011171600Chapter1ApproachestoPsychologyPsychologyasadistinctdisciplinewasestablishedwhenWilhelmWundt1879builtalaboratoryinLeipzigGermanyPsychologyasaScienceoWhatweknowisbasedonObservationTheoryResearchMethodologyoTobeascienceitmustbetestableoPsychologyisthescientificstudyofbehaviorinnerandouterandthefactorsthatinfluenceitoGoalsofPsychologyDescriptionofmammalbehaviorExplanationandunderstandingofbehaviorPredictionofbehaviorundercertainconditionsInfluencingofbehaviorusingknowledgeandcontroloftherootcausesoBasicResearchdsearchforknowledgeforthesakeofitRobbersCaveoAppliedResearchdesignedtosolvespecificproblemsderivedfromfindingsofbasicresearchJigsawProgramApproachestoBehaviorSixPerspectivesoBiologicalBMindBodyProblem2ViewsDualismMindisaspiritualentitynotsubjecttothephysicallawsthatgovernthebodyImpossibletoscientificallystudyBodyworkslikeamachineDescartesReflexArcReneDescartesMonismMentaleventsaresimplyaproductofphysicaleventsmindandbodyareonePossibletoscientificallystudynervousenergyelectricpulsesDarwinismEvolutionNaturalSelectionspecieswithcharacteristicsbeneficialtosurvivallivetoreproduceandnegativecharacteristicsdieEvolutionaryPsychologyDisciplinethatfocusesonroleofevolutioninthedevelopmentofbehaviorandmentalmechanismsSociobiologyPredominanceofcertaingenesinhumansIemalescompetitiveanddominantFemalesnurturingStressestheimportanceofkeepingyourpersonalgenesalivealtruisticbehaviorBehaviorGeneticsHowbehavioraltendenciesareinfluencedbygeneticfactorsoCognitivePHumansareinformationprocessorswhoseactionsaregovernedbythoughtsandplanningCognitivePerspectivesStructuralismtheanalysisofthemindintermsofitsbasicelementsbreakingitdownlikeachemicalcompoundphysicallybiologicallyWundtTitchenerFunctionalisminterestedinwhatpurposeabehaviorservesnotstructureinvolvesDarwinistprinciplesJamesGestaltPsychologythewholeisgreaterthanadifferentfromthesumofthepartsattemptstounderstandprocesstogetherKohlerOpposesstructuralismPiagetCognitiveDevelopmentinChildrenNewandspecificstagesofcognitivedevelopmentunfoldnaturallyaschildrenmatureandtheseabilitiescannotbeexplainedbytheaccumulationofpastexperiencesHebbCellAssemblyAgroupofbraincellsstrengthenswithrepeateduseplayingpianoSocialConstructivismrealityisourmentalcreationworldistobigtounderstandpseudoenvironmentsoPsychodynamicPSearchesforcausesofbehaviorwithintheworkingsofourpersonalitywithanemphasisontheunconsciousFreudPsychoanalysisTheanalysisofinternalunconsciousforcesHysteriaadiseasedefinedbytheonsetofunexplainedblindnesspainparalysisSocialnormscauseustodeveloppsychologicaldefensemechanismssuchasRepressionkeepinganxietyarousingfeelingsintheunconsciouspartsofourmindsBehaviorisamirroringofthebalancebetweenimpulsesandpsychologicaldefensesPersonalityisshapedbyourunconsciousoBehavioralEFocusesontheroleoftheexternalenvironmentandrewardpunishmentinshapingandgoverningouractionsBritishEmpiricismallknowledgeisgainedthroughthesensesasthemindstartsblankPavlovInvoluntaryLearningDogsSalivateBehavioristsrejecttheconceptofthemindandbelievethatthestudyofbehaviormustbelimitedtothosethingsobservableWatsonPavlovSkinnerWatsonfounderBehaviorcanbecompletelycontrolledwiththealteringofonesenvironmentBehaviorModificationalteringproblembehaviorandincreasingpositivebehaviorthroughalterationsinenvironmentalfactorsCognitiveBehaviorismbridgingbehaviorismwithpsychodynamicpsychologyBanduraExternalenvironmentsalterourinternalthoughtsandfeelingsIfwecancontrolourbehaviorwecaninfluenceourenvironmentoHumanisticPEmphasisonfreewillinnatetendenciestowardgrowthandtheattempttofindultimatemeaninginlifeMayRogersActiondrivenbyselfactualizationthereachingofonesindividualpotentialHumansarenotruledbysubconsciousdynamicsorexternalstimuliwealonehavethepowertodecideourbehavior
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