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Psych Midterm 1 Notes.doc

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Psychology 1000
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Chapter 1Read text tips1Think about background info while you read2Survey titles headings etc before reading3Outline the chapter 4Decide how much you will read5As you start look at the heading and decide what it is about6Look at the layout for clues bold7Look for the big picturehow does this fit into everything8Paraphrase the section and put notes in the margins9Make summary notes10Make up test questionsPsychology the scientific study of behaviour and the factors that influence it psychology is whatever psychologists do Basic Research the quest for knowledge purely for its own sakeApplied Research the quest from information designed to solve specific practical problems Jigsaw Program a program that requires children to cooperate with one another rather than compete against each otherExample Robbers CavePerspectives vantage points for analyzing behaviour and its biological psychological and environmental causes MindBody Dualism the belief that the mind is a spiritual entity not subject to the physical laws of the bodyMonoism holds that the mind is not a separate spiritual entity from the body Most modern scientists hold the view that mind and body are oneRepression mechanism protecting us by keeping anxietyarousing impulses in the unconscious depths of the mind Explanations of BehaviorBehavior can be explained on at least 3 different levelsEach level addresses different mechanisms The levels are not exclusiveNo level is better than the other just a different aspect or focus of studyBiological Factors ex brain mechanisms neurotransmittersEnvironmental Factors ex noise levels heat levels cultural factorsPsychological Factors ex what is is about an individual learning perspective interpretation perspectiveGoals of Psychology1Describe how people and other animals behave2Explain and understand the causes of these behaviours 3Predict how people and animals will behave under certain conditions4Influence or control behaviour through knowledge and control of its causes to enhance human welfareExample of this method Robbers Cave6 Biological PerspectivesBiological focuses on the physical side of human nature It emphasizes the role of our highly developed brain biochemical processes that underly thoughts emotions and actions and genetics Karl LashleySchool Evolutionary Psychology focuses on the role of evolution in the development of behaviour and mental mechanismsSociobiology holds that complex social behaviours are also built into the human species as products of evolutionBehaviour Genetics the study of how behavioural tendencies are influenced by genetic factorsCognitive views humans as information processors and problem solvers whose actions are governed by though and planning It is concerned with ageless questions about how information is perceived and then organized in our minds School Structuralism the analysis of the mind in terms of its basic elements Structuralists believe that sensations are the basic elements of consciousness and use introspection looking withinWundtSchool Functionalism Focus on the function or significance of behavior evolutionary mechanism How does a behavior help us to adapt Functionalism is primarily biological Example psychobiology neuroscience ethologySchool Gestalt PsychologyFocus on perception and experienceLook at how we experience the worldLook at how people think and remember construct our experience from our perceptionsConsider everything in context more than just the separate parts of what things are made up of Both biological and environmentalExamples cognition information processingCognitive development in children Piaget and BaldwinSocial Constructivism proposes that what we consider reality is in large part our own mental creation Example the long standing conflict between Israelis and Arabs reflects radically different conceptions of Gods plan for them These two groups live in different subjective worlds Psychodynamic searches for the causes of behaviour within the workings of our personality emphasizing the role of unconscious processes and unresolved conflicts from the past Key player FREUDFocus on unconscious experience the mindLook for unresolved conflictImportance of personality
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