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Psychology Test 1 Notes.docx

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Psychology 1000
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Psychology Test 1 NotesChapters 14CHAPTER 1The Nature of Psychology Psychology the scientific study of behaviour and the factors that influence itBehaviour refers to both actions which we can observe directly and mental events such as thoughts feelings images and psychological reactionsCritical thinking involves asking yourself the following questionsoWhat exactly are you asking me to believeoHow do you know Whats the evidenceoAre there other possible explanationsPsychology as a Basic and Applied ScienceBasic research the quest for knowledge purely for its own sakeApplied research designed to solve specific practical problemsRobbers Cave ExperimentA study conducted at a summer camp for 11year old boysBoys are divided into 2 groupsWhen the 2 groups are pitted against each other hostility developedoCompetition breeds hostilityWhen the researchers placed the groups in situations where they were forced to cooperate with each otheroHostility decreases when people are dependent on each otherPsychologist Elliot Aronson and his coworkers applied the Robbers Cave techniques in a classroom procedure called the jigsaw programoThe students learned that the only way to be successful is to work together and help one anotherGoals of Psychology1To describe how people and other animals behave2To explain and understand the causes of these behaviour3To predict how people and animals will behave under certain conditions4To influence or control behaviour through knowledge and control of its causes to enhance human welfareIf we understand the causes of a behaviour and know when the causal factors are present or absent then we should be able to successfully predict when the behaviour will occurThe Importance of PerspectivesPerspectives are vantage points for analyzing behaviour and its biological psychological and environmental causesSix major perspectives characterize psychological thought1Biological2Cognitive3Psychodynamic4Behavioural5Humanistic6SocioculturalThe Biological Perspective Brain Genes and BehaviourThe mindbody problemoIs the mind a spiritual entity separate from the body Or is it part of our bodys activitiesoPythagoras Plato and Hippocrates all believed that the brain is the seat of the mind and the intellectoAristotle believed the min is it the heartMindbody dualismoThe belief that the mind is a spiritual entity not subject to the physical laws that govern the bodyMonismoThe mind is not a separate spiritual entityoMind and body are one and mental events are simply a product of physical eventsoIn the modern view these mental events are the electrical and chemical processes occurring in the brainThe biological perspective focuses on the physical side of human natureEmphasizes the role of our highly developed brainTakes into account the biochemical processes which underlie our every thought emotion and actionStudies the manner in which genetic factors influence the development and behaviour of human organismsFocus on Neuroscience The neuroscience of imaging studiesthoFranz Joseph Gall developed the science of phrenology in the early 19 centuryBelieved that those with pronounced eyes had superior memoryStudied the relationship between various mental conditions and the shape of ones headThe bigger the bumps on your head the more brain tissue underneath and consequently the more processing powerAlthough he was wrong he introduced the idea that different parts of the brain are responsible for different functionsoEarly work on this topic involved examining brain damaged subjectsoShepard Franz and Karl Lashley began a series of experiments in the early 1920s designed to investigate the effects of tissue lossoThey used animal subjects and various brain areas were removedoA great deal of cortex could be removed with very little loss in functionDiscovery of BrainBehaviour RelationsoLuigi Galvani discovered that a severed leg of a frog would move if an electrical current were applied to itDiscovery showed the electrical nature of nerve conductionoOther experiments were conducted and it was found that stimulation of different parts f the brain resulted in the movement of particular muscles in the body
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