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Chapter 14 - Personality.docx

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Psychology 1000
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Chapter14PersonalityPeople behave somewhat consistently over time across different situationsMore consistent in adulthoodPersonality distinctive enduring ways of thinkingfeelingacting that characterize persons response to life situationsoThree characteristics1Components of identity that distinguish person from other people 2Behaviours viewed being caused primarily by internal rather than environmental factors3Persons behaviour seem to fit together in meaningful fashion inner personalitydirects behaviourTheory scientifically useful1Provides comprehensive frameworkknown facts can be incorporated2Predict future events with precision3Stimulates discovery of new knowledge PsychodynamicPerspectiveLook for causes of behaviour caused by inner forces conflicting with one anotherFocus on unconscious determinants of behaviourConversion hysteriaphysical symptoms no physical causeoRelated to painful memories repressedoReexperience memoriessymptoms disappearFreud considered personality to be energy system Psychic energy powers mind and constantly presses for directindirect releaseoex Direct releasesexual drives sexual activityoex Indirect releasesexual drives sexual fantasiesmental events1consciousmental events presently aware of2preconscious memories unaware of at the moment but can be recalled3unconscious hidden realm of wishes feelings impulses Id exists within unconscious mindoInnermost core of personalityoStructure present at birthoSource of all psychic energyoNo direct contact with realityooperating according to pleasure principle seeks immediate gratification regardless of rational considerations or realitiesego exists at conscious level derives from idooperates according to reality principle egos tendency to take reality into account and to act in rational fashion in satisfying its needs odecides when and under what conditions id can safely discharge impulses to satisfy needssuperego moral arm of personality developed by 45 oholds values and ideals of societyoselfcontrol takes overexternal controls of reward and punishment pride and guiltostrives to control instincts of idoego delay gratification vs superego blocks gratificationomoralistic goals take precedenceego achieve compromise bw demands of idconstraints of superegoego confronts impulsesthreaten to get out of controlfaced with dangers from environment anxiety results serves as motivation for ego to deal with problem at handoreduced through realistic coping behavioursdefence mechanisms denydistort realityrelease impulses from id in disguised formsRepression ego uses energy to prevent anxietyarousing memories feelings and impulses from entering consciousness
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