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Psychology Textbook Notes.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
Psychology 1000
Professor
All

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Psychology Text Book NotesMidterm Number 1Chapter 1 Page 2545The Story of PsychologyPopulation All the cases in a group being studied from which samples may be drawn Not a whole countrys populationRandom Sample A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion Naturalistic Observation Observing and recording behaviours in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situationCorrelation A measure of the extent to which two factors vary together and thus of how well either factor predicts the otherCorrelation Coefficient A statistical index of the relationship between two thing from 1 to 1Scatterplots A graphed cluster of dots each of which represents the values of two variables The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation little scatter indicates high correlationIllusory Correlation The perception of a relationship where none existExperiment A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors independent variables to observe the effect on some behaviours or mental process the dependent variable By random assignment of participants the experimenter aims to control other relevant factorsRandom Assignment Assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groupsDoubleBlind Procedure An experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant blind about whether the research participants have received the treatment or the placebo Commonly used in drugevaluation studies Placebo Effect experimental results caused by expectations alone any effect on behaviours caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition which the recipient assumes is an active agentExperimental Group In an experiment the group that is exposed to the treatment that is to one version of the independent variableControl Group In an experiment the group that is not exposed to the treatment contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment Independent Variable The experimental factor that is manipulated the variable whose effect is being studiedDependent Variable The outcome factor the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variableMode The most frequently occurring scoreMean The average of a distribution adding than dividing by the number of scoresMedian The middle score half the scores are above and below itRange The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distributionStandard Deviation A computed measure of how much scores vary around the meanNormal Curve A symmetrical bellshaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data most scores fall near the mean 68 within one standard deviation and fewer and fewer near the extremes Normal DistributionStatistical Significance A statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance
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