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Dr. Laura Fazakas-Dehoog Psych 1000 December Term Notes.docx

47 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
Psychology 1000
Professor
All

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Description
Chapter 5 Sensation and PerceptionLightisbrightnesscolourAirvibrationsassoundsChemicalsasodoursortastesSynesthesiamixingofthesensespeopleexperiencesoundsascolourstastesastouchsensationswithdifferentshapesetcoRussianpsychologistARLuria1968StudiedwritermusicianmediumpitchbrownstripwithrededgessweetsourtasteSTIMULUSmustbetranslatedbySENSORYRECEPTORSintoNERVEIMPULSESunderstoodbynervoussystemThenspecializedneuronsBREAKandANALYZEfeaturesmadetoREPRESENTATINOcomparewithSTOREDINFOoGivesstimulusmeaningifrecognizeStimulusINSTANTLYorganizedtransformedbutoSensationstimulusdetectionprocessbywhichoursenseorgansrespondtoandtranslateenvironmentalstimuliintonerveimpulsesthataresenttothebrainoPerceptionmakingsenseofwhatoursensestellusactiveprocessoforganizingthisstimulusinputandgivingitmeaningActivecreativeprocesssameinputperceiveddifferentlyatdifferenttimesCONTEXTSENSORY PROCESSESSensesoVisionoAuditionhearingoTouchpressurepaintemperatureoGestationtasteoOlfactionsmellBalancebodypositionBrainmonitorschemicalcompositionofbloodImmunesystemdetectsinvadersreceivesstimulationfrombrainPsychophysicsstudiesrelationsbetweenphysicalcharacteristicsofstimuliandsensorycapabilitiesoAbsolutelimitsofsensitivityEgdimmestlightwecanseeoDifferencesbetweenstimuliEgsmallestdifferenceinbrightnesswecandetectStimulus Detection The Absolute ThresholdAbsolutethresholdthelowestintensityatwhichastimuluscanbedetectedcorrectly50ofthetimeolowerthresholdMOREsensitiveoVisioncandleflame50kmcleardarknightoHearingtickofwatchinquiet6mawayoTaste1tspsugarin75LwateroSmallonedropperfumeintoentirevolumelargeapartmentoTouchwingofflybeefallingoncheekfrom1cmawaySignal Detection TheoryPeoplesapparentsensitivitycanfluctuateoFIXEDabsolutethresholdincorrectbecausenosinglepointonintensityscaleseparatesnondetectionfromdetectionoRangeofuncertaintypeoplehavedecisioncriterionstandardofhowcertaintheymustbebeforetheysaytheydetectDependsonfatigueexpectationpotentialsignificanceRewardsvscostsofcorrectvsincorrectresponseaffectsinfluencetobecomebolderormoreconservativeoEgbliponradarinwarmissdisastrousdoctorconservativeinsurgeryfalsedisastrousperceptionpartlydecisionSignaldetectiontheoryaboutfactorswhichinfluencesensoryjudgementsPRESENTABSENTYEShitfalsealarmNOmisscorrectrejectionSubliminal StimuliSubliminalstimulussoweakbriefthatcantbeperceivedconsciouslythoughperceivedbysenseswellbelowabsolutethresholdoCanaffectattitudesorbehaviourConsumerbehaviouroEg1950sJamesVicarypublicrelationssaiddrinkcokeeatpopcornduringmovieincreasedbusinesswronghahaopersuasivestimuliabovetheabsolutethresholdarefarmoreinfluentialthansubliminalattemptsintosubconsciousbecausemoreliketogetthemessageAttitudesoStrongereffectsoEgsubliminalaggressivewordscastaggressiveinterpretationsoSubliminalstimulicanhavesubtleeffectsonattitudesjudgementsandbehaviourThe Difference ThresholdDifferencethresholddefinedasthesmallestdifferencebetween2stimulithatpeoplecanperceive50ofthetimeoAkajustnoticeabledifferencejndErnstWeber1830sGermanoWeberslawthedifferencethresholdorjndisdirectlyproportionaltothemagnitudeofthestimuluswithwhichthecomparisonisbeingmadeandcanbeexpressedasaWeberfractionWeight150wfBreaksdownatextremesAuditiontonalpitch1333Visionbrightnesswhitelight160Kinesthesisliftedweights150Painheatproduced130Auditionloudness120Touchpressureappliedtoskin17SmellIndiarubber14Tastesaltconcentration13Sensory AdaptationSensorysystemsarefinelyattunedtochangesinstimulationSensoryneuronsengineeredtorespondtoaconstantstimulusbydecreasingactivityodiminishingsensitivitytounchangingstimulusissensoryadaptationadaptationhabituationotinyinvoluntaryeyemovementskeepstationaryobjectsfromfadingRMPritchard1961fixedretinalpicturesalthoughsensoryadaptationmayreduceouroverallsensitivityitisadaptivebecauseitfreesoursensesfromtheconstantandthemundanetopickupinformativechangesintheenvironmentSuchchangesmayturnouttobeimportanttoourwellbeingTHE SENSORY SYSTEMSVisionNormalstimulusforvisionelectromagneticenergyorlightwavesnanometresoBeesseeUVlightrattlesnakesdetectinfraredenergyoHumans700nmredto400nmblueoROYGBIVTheHumanEyeLightwavesentercorneatransparentprotectivestructureatfrontofeyeBehindcorneaispupiladjustableopeningthatcandilateorconstricttocontrolamountoflightenteringeyeoSizecontrolledbymusclesincolouredirisoDarkdilatesbrightconstrictsBehindpupilislenselasticstructurethatbeomesthinnertofocusondistantobjectsandthickertofocusonnearbyobjectsLensfocusesimageonlightsensitiveretinamultilayeredtissueatrearoffluidfilledeyeballMyopianearsightednessgoodvisionclosebadfaroLensfocusesinfrontretinaoEyelongerHyperopiafarsightednessgoodfarbadcloseoLensnotthickenoughfocusedbehindretinaoAgingcauseseyetoshortPhotoreceptorsTheRodsandConesRetinaextendsbrain120millionsRODS6millionsCONESinhumaneyeRodsoBestindimlightNIGHToBlackwhitebrightnessreceptorso500timesmoresensitivetolightthanconesoNocolourEgowlsonlyhaverodsoPeripheryofretinaConesoColourreceptorsoBestinbrightDAYEgpigeonchipmunkoDecreaseinconcentrationawayfromcentreofretinaAnimalsactivebothnightanddayhavebothoRodseverywhereinhumansbutfoveasmallareaincentreofretinawithonlyconesBipolarcellshavesynapticconnectionswithrodsconesoSynapsewithlayerof1millionganglioncellsAxonsbundlemakingopticnerve126millionrodsconesinput1millionlanesoutofretinatohigherbrainRodsconesformrearofeyepointawayfromlightoConnectiontobipolarcellsimportantRodsconnectedtosamecombinefunnelindividualelectricmessagesAdditiveenablesfiringConesinperipheryalsosharebipolarbutinfoveadenselypackedconeshaveprivatelinefinedetailvisualacuityoEagleshawks2foveaspereyeOpticnerveexitsthroughbackofeyenearfoveablindspotoPerceptualsystemfillsinmissingvisualfieldVisualTransductionFromLighttoNerveImpulsesTransductionprocesswherecharacteristicsofstimulusconvertedtonerveimpulsesRodsconestranslatelightwavesthroughphotopigmentsproteinmoleculesoAbsorptionoflightmakeschemicalreactionchangesrateofneurotransmitterreleasebiggerchangebiggersignaloIfnerveresponsesaretriggeredateachof3levelsrodconebipolarcellganglioncellmessageinstantaneouslyonwaytovisualrelaystationinthalamusthenvisualcortexinbrainBrightnessVisionandDarkAdaptationRodshavebrightersensitivityEXCEPTatredrelativelyinsensitiveConesMOSTsensitivetolowilluminationingreenishyellow
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