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Psychology Final Study Sheet.docx

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Western University
Psychology 1000

Chapter 14PersonalityPersonalitya particular pattern of behavior and thinking that prevails across time and situations and differentiates one person from anotherPersonality typesdifferent categories into which personality characteristics can be assigned based on factors such as developmental experiencespersisted long afterwardsPersonality traitan enduring personal characteristic that reveals itself in a particular pattern of behavior in different situationsExtroversionoutgoing nature and a high level of activity In general extroverts like people and socializing are spontaneous and take risksIntroversionrefers to the opposites of these characteristics Theyre shy reserved and carefulNeuroticismpeople who are fraught with worry and guilt and are moody and unstable anxiousEmotional stabilitytendency to be relaxed and at peace with oneselfPsychoticisman aggressive egocentric and antisocial natureSelfcontrolthe tendency to be kind and considerate in nature obedient of rules and lawsFivefactor modela theory stating that personality is composed of five primary dimensions neuroticism extroversion introversion openness agreeableness and conscientiousnessNEOPIRthe instrument used to measure the elements described by the five factor modelMachiavellianismskill at manipulating others socially Psychopathylack of empathy and a high degree of impulsivityNarcissismtrait characterized by grandiosity and feelings of superiority Social cognitive theoryembodies the idea that both the consequences of behavior and an individuals beliefs about those consequences determine personalityExpectancyindividuals beliefs that a specific consequence will follow a specific actionReciprocal determinismbehavior environment and person variables interact to determine personality SelfEfficiencypersons beliefs about his or her ability to act as required in a particular situation to experience satisfying outcomesSituationismview that the behaviors defining certain personality are determined solely by the current situation rather than by any preserving traits Person variablesindividual differences in cognition which according to Mischel include competencies encoding strategies and personal constructs expectancies subjective values and self regulatory systems and plansLocus of controlrefers to whether one believes that the consequences of ones actions are controlled by internal person variables or by external environmental variables A person who expects to control his or her own fateor who perceives that rewards are dependent on his or her own behavior have an internal locus of control A person who sees their life as being controlled by external forces unaffected by his or her own behavior has an external locus of control Psychodynamica term used to describe Freudian notion that the mind is in a state of conflict among instincts reason and conscience Idthe unconscious reservoir of libido the psychic energy that fuels instincts and psychic processes Libidoan insistent instinctual force that is unresponsive to the demands of reality the primary source of motivation Pleasure principlethe rule that the id obeys Obtain immediate gratification whatever form it may takeRationalizationthe process of inventing an acceptable reason for behavior that is really being performed for another less capable reasonConversionprovision of an outlet for intrapsychic conflict in the form of a physical symptomThe anal stagepersonality development begins during the second year of life According to Freud sensual pleasure comes from emptying the bowels Phallic stagethird psychosexual stage During this stage the primary erogenous zone is the genital area and pleasure derives from both direct genital stimulation and general physical contact Collective unconsciouscontains memories and ideas inherited from our ancestors Archetypesuniversal thought forms and patterns that Jung believed resided in the collective unconscious Striving for superioritymotivation to achieve ones potential Adler argued that striving for superiority is born from our need to compensate for our inferiority Basic orientationsHorneys sets of personality characteristics that correspond to the stages of moving toward others moving against others and moving away from othersObjectrelations theorytheory that personality is the reflection of relationships that the individual establishes with others as an infantHumanistic approachstudy of personality emphasizes the positive fulfilling elements of life Self actualizationrealization of ones true intellectual and emotional potentialConditions of worthconditions that others place on us for receiving their positive regardUnconditional positive regardunconditional love and acceptance of an individual by another person Objective personality testssimilar in structure to classroom tests Most contain multiplechoice and truefalse itemsMinnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory MMPI produce and objective reliable method for identifying various personality traits that were related to a persons mental healthProjective testsdesigned to be ambiguous so that the persons answer will be more revealing than simple agreement or disagreement statements provided by objective testsRorschach Inkblota projective test in which a person is shown a series of symmetrical inkblots and asked to describe what he or she thinks they representThematic Apperception Test TATa projective test in which a person is shown a series of ambiguous pictures that involve people The person is asked to make up a story about what the people are doing or thinking The persons responses are believed to reflect aspects of his or her personalityChapter 15social psychology
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