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Psych 1000 - chapter 13.docx

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Western University
Psychology 1000

Psych 1000chapter 13Behaviour in social contextAttributions judgements about CAUSES of our ownother peoples behaviours and outcomesPersonal attributions peoples behaviours caused by their characteristicsSituational attributions external aspects of the situations cause behaviour3 types of info determine attributions made1Consistency response consistent2Distinctiveness response distinctive3Consensus do people agreeoAll factors highsituational attributionoWhen consistency high other factors lowpersonal attributionFundamental attribution error underestimate impact of the situationoverestimate role of personal factors when explaining other peoples behaviouroEx Actors have same personal traits as characters playedoHow we perceive other peoples behaviours rather than our ownMore info about present situation when making judgment ourselvesPerceptual principle of figureground relationsWatch othersstand out against backgroundWe ourselvespart of background situation stands outoTime to reflectmore carefulreduced errorSelfserving bias making more personal attributions to successmore situational attributions for failuresoProtect our selfesteemoDepends on mood and cultural normsoDepressed peopleoppositeCulture influences attributions for own behaviouroHolistic viewtake into account more info when making causal attributions for others behavioursoSame underlying psychological principlelink between holistic thinking and causality beliefsAttributions key role in impression formationoPrimacy effect tendency to attach more importance to initial info that we learn aboutMost alert to info we receive firstInitial info may shape how we perceive subsequent infosnap judgements based on small amounts of initial informationorecency effect occurs when not make snap judgementstereotype generalized belief about group or category of peopleschemaselffulfilling prophecy mistaken expectations lead them to act toward others in way that brings about the expected behaviours confirm initial impression wo conscious awarenssohis reserved response is a reaction to your behaviourAttitude positive or negative evaluative reaction toward stimulusPredict behaviour 3 factors bw attitudebehaviour relationship1Influence behaviour more strongly when counteracting weak situational factorsaTheory of planned behaviour intention to engage in a behaviour strongest when we have a positive attitude toward that behaviouriSubjective norms support our attitude believe behaviour under our control 2Greater influence on behaviour when aware of them and when strongly heldaAttitudes are strongermore predictive of behaviourformed through direct personal experiences3General behaviour better at predicting general classes of behaviour specific attitudes better at predicting specific behavioursTheory of cognitive dissonance strive for consistency in cognitionso2 cognitions contradictexperience uncomfortable state of tensionmotivated to reduce itoselfjustification
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