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Psychology 1000
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SEPTEMBER 11 p216CHAPTER 1The Nature of PsychologyPsychologystudy of human behaviours actionsmental events ie thoughts feelings and the factors that influence itDifferent behaviours accounted by environmental biological and individual variationsBasic Researchquest for knowledge to get a better understanding ie Robbers CaveApplied Researchapplication of knowledge derived from basic research ie cancer researchRobbers CaveJigsaw Classroom ExperimentCompetitive feats can create hostility between two groups prediction but this hostility can be broken down if the two groups are forced to be dependant on one another in order to succeed influencecontrolapplied in classrooms Jigsaw Programmultiethnic groups were formed and each student had a piece of theinformation which would be covered on the testforcing the children to work together in order to do wellGoal of Psychology1Describe people and animals behaviour2Explain and understand these behaviours3Predict what behaviours will occur under certain conditions4Influence or control behaviour to improve human welfare through knowledgeEach of these goals is crucial in order to ensure the success of the next one ie you cant predict behaviour without understanding itIn normal life we are satisfied with understanding and often dont push ourselves to predict or influencecontrolPerspectives on Behaviour Guides to Understanding And DiscoveryCharles Whitman violent impulses resulting in 14 spontaneous murdersBiological tumour growing on region of brain known for aggressionPsychologicalpast and present experiencesEnvironmentgrew up exposed to and abusive fatherPerspectivevantage points for analyzing behaviour and its biological psychological and environmental causes1Biological2Cognitive3Psychodynamic4Behavioural5Humanistic16SociocultureBiological Perspective Brain GenesBehaviourPythagoras Plato and Hippocraetesmind in brain vs Aristotlemind in heartMindbody dualismmind is a spiritual entity not subject to physical laws which govern the bodyMonismmind and body are one and mental events are simply a product of physical eventsBiological perspectivefocuses on the physical side of human nature and emphasizes our highlydeveloped brain and the biochemical processes which underlie our every thought emotion and actionDiscover of BrainBehaviour RelationsLate 1700s Luigi Galvaniseparated frog leg would move with presence of electric currentDisproved that mind was linked to soulCaused further research re electrical nerve conductionnervous systemKarl Lashleyexperimented with effects of lesions on particular regions of brain1929 Electroencephalogram EEGmeasured large electric activity in brainEvolution and BehaviourDarwins Evolutionary TheoryThe Origin of Speciesspecies evolve over time in response to environmental conditionsNatural Selectioninheritable characteristics which increase the likelihood of survival are more likely to survive and reproduceEvolutionary Psychologystudies role of evolution in the development of human behaviourBiology determines behavioural capabilities and behaviour determines survivalSociobiologycomplex social behaviours ie aggression nurturing are built into humans as products of evolutionGenetic survival is more important than ones own physical survivalBehaviour and GeneticsBehaviour geneticsstudy how behavioural tendencies are influenced by genetic factorsExapplied in breeding of animalsThe Cognitive Perspective The Thinking HumanHomo sapienswise man in LatinCognitive Perspectiveviews humans as information processors and problem solvers who think and plan in order to actasks how mental processes influence our motives emotionsbehaviourOrigins of the Cognitive PerspectiveStructuralismanalysis of the mind by breaking it down into its basic structuresIntrospectionmethod used to study sensations which structurlists believed to be the basic elements of consciousnessFunctionalismanalysis of the mind by its functionsGestalt Psychologyconcerned with how elements of experience are organized into wholesthe whole is greater and different and the sum of its part diff from structuralism2insightsudden perception of a useful relationship or solution to a problemPiget Cognitive development in childrenconcluded new and specific stages of cognitive development unfold naturally as children matureEllis and BeckDistress is not caused by external situations but the ways we think about those situationsModern Cognitive ScienceArtificial intelligencecomputer models of complex human thought reasoningproblem solvingConcerned with how people recognize and produce speechSocial constructivismbelieves that what we consider reality is in large part our own mental creationConflict occurs because of a clash in the different types of realities between pplEx Dartmouth vs Princeton football gamepreconceptions can alter the way we see realityPrinceton students preconceived Dartmouth to be dirty and thus manipulated the reality rewatching the game to support their beliefsSEPTEMBER 12 p 17endThe Psychodynamic Perspective The Forces WithinPsychodynamic perspectivesearch for the causes of behaviour within our own personality emphasizing the role of unconscious processespast unresolved conflictsFirst psychodynamic theory was Freuds psychoanalysisanalysis of internal unconscious psychological forcesFreud studied hysterical women noticing that once recalling sexual abuse within their childhood that the womens hysteria symptoms subduedBelieved much of human behaviour is controlled by unconscious forcesAdult behaviour is shaped by early childhood experiencethe way we govern our internal forces as we grow upRepressionprotects us by keeping anxietyarousing impulses feelings and memories in our unconscious if this defence is broken we act out in ways unapproved by societyDynamic relationship between repression and expressing our internal forcesPsychodynamic concepts helped inspire much research and many current practices of psychology derive some concepts from itThe Behavioural Perspective The Power of the EnvironmentBehavioural perspectivenotes how the external environment shapesgoverns our actionsBehaviour determined by learnt habits in previous life experienceswhether they were rewardedpunished British Empiricismroot of behave perspbelief that humans are shaped by their experiencesseeing is believing vs reasoning which can be erredBehaviourismschool of thought that envtal control of behaviour through learningBehaviour modificationdecreasing negative behaviourincreasing positive behaviour by altering controlling environmental factors 1960s3
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