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107 Pages

Course Code
Psychology 1000

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Chapter 1Psychology The Science of BehaviourPsychodynamicpsychologicalBehaviourismenvironmental Cognitivepsychological BiobioSocioculturalenvironmental Humanisticpsychological PsychologyThe scientific study of behaviour and the factors that influence it Scientific study of behavior actions and responses we can directly observe and the mind internal states and processesthoughts feeliTaking into account Biological Individual and Environmental factorsFocuses on biological basis of behavior how brain processes genes hormones influence our actions thoughts and feelignsEvolutionary within biopsychfocuses on how evolution shaped our minds andbehaviors mate choice problem solvingDevelopmental psychexamines human physical psychological and social development across ENTIRE lifespanCognitive psychtopics include sensation and perception learning memory judgement and decision making problem soling mental imagery attention intelligence and creativityExperimental psychfocuses on basic processes like learning sensation and perception motivationMuch of research done in this area with nin human animals Is vision different in animals that live entirely in rooms with horizontal versus vertical stripes Eventhough it is called experimental psych basically all forms of psych are experimentalIndustrial organizationsal io psychexamines begaviour in the workplaceleadershipPersonality psychforcuses on personality traits what makes people similar to or different from other people Are there core personality traits Social psychSubfieldstopics of different subflields so sometimes overlapdecision making could realistically fall under any of the categoriesScience involves gathericng and evaluating empirical evidence evidence gained through experience and observationWant to know how people intellectual abilities change as they age cannot rely on folk widomempirical but not systematicCannot rely to preexisting beliefsSystematic observationsome osrrt of specific test that is scored objectively as possible iq test in a controlled environmentgAtehr empirical evidenceadminister same test to idividuals or different ages or to the same every 5 yearsuse statsdeetemine w critical thinkingactive role rather than simply receiving factsBasic and Applied ScienceTwo types of researchoBasic research is a quest for knowledgeKnowledge gained purely for its own sake The goals are to describe how people behave and to identify factors that influence it Research maybe carried out in lab or real world eg Robert CaveJigsaw case studyshowed how competition leads to hostility but could be reduced by making them dependent on each otheroApplied research Knowledge gained to solve specific practical problems Uses principles discovered via basic research to solve practical problemsGoals of PsychologyFour basic goalsoDescribe how people and animals behaveoExplain and understand the causes of the behaviouroPredict how people and animals behave under certain conditionsoInfluence or control the behaviour through knowledge and control of causesImportance of PerspectivesDiverse viewpoints allows for enriched understanding of behaviour and its causesSix different perspectives biological cognitive psychodynamic behavioural humanistic and socioculturaloBiologicalphysical side of human nature brain and genesoCognitivethought processoPsychodynamicunconscious forces motivating behaviouroBehavioralrole of external environment on our actionoHumanisticself actualization and free willoSocioculturalculture and behaviour relateThe Biological PerspectiveFocuses on the physical side of human natureoEmphasizes role of brain including biochemical processesMindbody dualism The belief that the mind is a spiritual entity not subject to the physical laws that govern the bodyoNo amount of research on the body could ever explain the mindoAncient widelyheld view especially by GreeksMonism The belief that the mind and body are one and mental events are a product of physical eventsoModern view by most scientistsBehavioral Neuroscienceoaka Physiological PsychologyoExamines brain processes and other physiological functions that underlie our behaviour thoughts feelings etcoKarl Lashley 18901958oLesions damage to specific brain areas affects learning and memoryoDonald Hebb 19041985oLearningChanges in the connections between brain cells oCognitive NeuroscienceoBehavioral GeneticsExamines how behaviors are influenced by geneticseg breeding foxes for behavioral characteristicsTwin studiesIdentical twins share the same DNA while fraternal twins are no more similar than regular siblingsGreater behavioral similarities are found for identical twins even when raised in different homes and dissimilar environmentsThese results suggest that there is a genetic basis for those behaviorsDiscovery of BrainBehaviour RelationsLate 1700s Luigi Galvani discovered severed leg of frog moved with electrical current applied to itoDefied prior belief that bodily movements were caused by soulBy 1870 researchers applied electrical stimulation directly to brains of animalsoStimulation of specific areas on brain resulted in movements of particular musclesKarl Lashley damaged specific regions of brain and studied effects on learning and memory abilities in animals trained to run through mazesIn 1929 invention of electroencephalogram EEG allowed researchers to measure electrical activity of large areas of brainEvolution and BehaviourDarwins theory of natural selection demonstrated that inheritable characteristics that increase likelihood of survival will be maintained Proposed that humans and apes arose from the same ancestorEvolutionary psychology focuses on role of evolution in development of human behaviouroPsychologists stress organisms biology determine its behavioural capabilities and behaviourSociobiology holds that complex social behaviours are built into human species as products of evolutionoNatural selection favors behaviours that increase ability to pass on genes aggression competition dominance in males cooperation and nurturing in females etcoSociobiologists believe that ones genetic survival is more important than ones own physical survival altruismoCriticized for overemphasizing innate biological factors at expense of cultural and social learning factors in explaining complex human social behaviourBehaviour GeneticsStudy of how behavioural tendencies are influenced by genetic factorsAnimals can be bred not only for physical but also behavioural traits aggression intelligence etcIdentical twins with identical genetic makeup are very similar in behaviour compared to fraternal twinsoFound even when identical twins reared in different homesThe Cognitive PerspectiveViews humans as information processors and problem solvers whose actions are governed by thought and planning What sets humans apart is that we have mental capabilitiesoStudies how mental processes influence our motives emotions and behaviourSeveral schools and individuals contributed to modern cognitive perspectiveoStructuralism
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