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Chapter 15.docx

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Western University
Psychology 1000
Ronald R Holden

Chapter 15The Nature of Stressstress is a pattern of cognitive appraisals physiological responses and behavioural tendencies that occurs in response to a perceived imbalance between situational demands and the resources needed to cope with themStressorsspecific kinds of eliciting stimuliwhether physicalpsychological they place demands on us that endanger wellbeing requiring us to adapt in some mannerthe greater the imbalance between demands and resources the more stressful a situation is Microstressors daily hassles everyday annoyances we encounter at school on the job in family relationsCatastrophic events unexpectedly and typically affect large numbers of people natural disasters acts of war and concentration camp confinementMajor negative events being the victim of a major crime or sexual abuse the death or loss of a loved one an academic or career failure major illness requires major adaptationMeasuring Stressful Life EventsLife even scales quantify the amount of life stress that a person has experienced over a given period of timeasks people to indicate whether the event occurred whether the event was positive or negative and whether it was a major event or a daytoday eventdisadvantage like selfreport measures there is possible distortion and failures of recallmost modern researchers now define stress in terms of negative life changes onlyThe Stress Responsestarting point is our appraisal of the situation and its implications for us4 aspects of the appraisal process 1 Primary appraisal demands of the situation 2 Secondary appraisal resources available to cope with it 3Judgements of what the consequences of the situation could be 4Appraisal of the personal meaning that is what the outcome might imply about us distortions and mistaken appraisals can occur at any of the 4 points in the appraisal process causing inappropriate stress responses as soon as we make appraisals the body responds to themChronic Stress and the GAS
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