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Psychology 1000
Laura Fazakas- De Hoog

Psychology Exam Review Chapter 1 Definitions: Applied Research: research involving the application of scientific knowledge to solve practical problems (often applies basic research to specific events) Basic Research: research designed to obtain knowledge for own personal sake Behavior Genetics: the scientific study of the role of genetic inheritance in behavior Behavior Modification: therapeutic procedures that used to modify behavior by the reinforcement or inhibiting effect of its own consequences (conditioning) Behavioral Neuroscience: the study of the brain processes and functions that cause certain behaviors, emotions, thoughts, and sensory experiences Behavioral Perspective: a view based on the idea that the environment and learning experiences have shaped our behaviour Behaviourism: school of psychology that emphasizes on the influence of the environment and experience on behaviour. Also supports the idea that psychology is observable behaviour. (major figures include Watson and Skinner) Biological Perspective: a view based on the idea that ones biology shapes behaviour (ie genetics, biochemical function such as hormones, and brain functions) Biopsychology: a field of psychology that focuses on the biological influences on behaviour British Empiricism: school of psychology that proposed that all contents of the mind were gained through experiences and senses, children are born with a blank slate. This lead to the development of behaviourism. (major figure is John Locke) Clinical Psychology: the study and treatment of mental disorders Cognitive Behaviourism: an idea that the environment influences our behaviour by influencing our thoughts and providing us with information, and these cognitive processes allow us to control our behaviour (cognitive approach to behaviourism) **cognitive = mental processes Cognitive Neuroscience : the study of brain activity as people engage in cognitive tasks Cognitive Perspective : view based on the idea that humans are simply information processers and problem solvers. Focuses on the idea that mental processes influence behaviour Cognitive Psychology: a field of psychology that studies mental processes Cultural Psychology: a field of psychology that studies how culture is transmitted to a societys members Culture: values, beliefs, traditions that are shared by a group and past on to next generations Developmental Psychology: field of psychology that examines how our biological, physical, psychological and behavioural process develop of many years Evolutionary Psychology: field of psychology that studies how evolutionary processes (natural selection) have lead to adaptive psychological mechanisms and social behaviour (aggression, motherly) Experimental Psychology: field of psychology that studies learning, perception, sensory systems and motivational states Functionalism: school of psychology that focused on the functions of consciousness and behaviour that helps organisms satisfy needs and adapt to environment Gestalt Psychology: school of psychology that focused on the natural tendency to organize perceptual elements into wholes. the whole is greater than the sum of its parts Humanistic Perspective: view that focuses on how personal freedom, choice and self-actualization effect behaviour IndustrialOrganizational Psychology: field of psychology that examines peoples behaviour in the workplace Interaction: the idea that the presence of one factor may influence the other causal factors Levels of Analysis: an approach to analyzing behavioural phenomena and their causal factors in terms of biological, psychological, and environmental factors Mind-Body dualism: philosophical position that the mind is a nonphysical, spiritual entity that does not follow the physical laws the body does and cannot be thought of as a physical process. The body and mind are separate entities. (major figure: Descartes) Monism: philosophical position that the mind can be reduced to a physical entity within the brain. The mind and body are one Natural Selection: evolutionary process that involves the inheritance of traits that will increase the likelihood of survival. These traits are favourable therefore past on and will become more prominent within a population over time Neurotransmitters: chemical substances that are released into the synapse, bind to receptors of an adjacent axon and then produce a excitatory or inhibitory reaction Norms: test scores previously derived, presently used to examine an individuals test scores Personality Psychology: field of psychology that studies human personality Perspectives: a personal, or subjective view from different areas used to study behaviour and its causes (ie a view from the biological side) Positive Psychology Movement: the study of human strengths, fulfillment, and optimal living Psychoanalysis: the analysis of internal unconscious forces (Freud was a psychoanalyzer) Psychodynamic Perspective: view that focuses on the influences of the role of unconscious impulses and defenses on behaviour. (major figure: Freud) Psychology: scientific study of behaviour and its causes (goals include: predicting, understanding, describing, and controlling) -study of behaviour and the mind Self-actualization: the inborn tendency to strive towards ones full potential Social Psychology: field of psychology that examines peoples thoughts, feelings and behaviour with respect to the social world Sociobiology: a theory pertaining to evolution; emphasizes the role of humans social behaviour adaptations to maintain ones genes within the gene pool (parents risk life for children) Sociocultural Perspective: view that emphasizes the role of cultures and the social environment on differences in human behaviour Structuralism: school of psychology that attempted to study the mind by breaking it down into its components. (major figure: Wundt and James) Chapter 1 Brief Summary: - The mind refers to internal states and processes and cannot be directly seen so to be inferred from observable, measurable responses - The primary goals of psychology are to describe, explain, predict, and influence behaviour to enhance human welfare - Several perspectives have been developed to shape psychology, each views behaviour differently and focuses of different causes and behaviour - Psychologys roots lie in philosophy, and natural science (biology and medicine) - Behaviourists such as Watson and Skinner believed that psychology should only study observable stimuli and responses, and that behaviour could be controlled by controlling the environment - There are 3 levels of analysis that organize factors that influence behaviour: environmental, psychological and biological - 3 philosophical perspectives: o nativism: knowledge is innate (inherited) o empiricism: knowledge gained through experience and senses o rationalism: knowledge gained through logic and reasoning - Gall proposed that bumps in the skull were related to that section of the brain being most used o Localized brain regions for behaviour - Flourens proposed that the entire brain worked as one - Darwin stated that there was nothing special about human brains so we could use animals to study human behaviour - Wundt opened the first psychology lab o Structuralism-- used introspection: to look within (ie breaking down into components) - Freud proposed that mental disorders were caused by the unconscious fight between the inner aggression and sexual urges and the defense mechanism - Psychiatrists: o MD, training in treating mental disorders, can prescribe drugs - Psychologists: o PhD (6 yrs post BA), cannot prescribe drugs
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