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Psychology 1000
Laura Fazakas- De Hoog

Psychology exam review: Chapter 9 Definitions: Algorithms: Procedures, such as mathematical formulas, that automatically generate correct solutions to problems Aphasia: The loss of ability to understand speech (receptive aphasia) or produce it (productive aphasia) Availability heuristic: A guideline used to make likelihood judgements based on how easily examples of that category of events come to mind, or are available in memory Belief bias: The tendency to abandon logical rules and form a conclusion based on ones existing beliefs Bottom-up processing: Perceptual processing that begins with the analysis of individual elements of the stimulus and works up to the brains integration of them into a unified perception Concept: A mental category containing similar objects, people, and events Confirmation bias: The tendency to seek out and favour information that reinforces our beliefs rather than to be open to disconfirming behaviour Creativity: The ability to produce something that is both new and valuable Deductive reasoning: Reasoning from a general principle to a specific case Deep structure: A linguistic term that refers to the underlying meaning of a spoken or written sentence; the meanings that make up deep structure are stored a concepts and rules in long- term memory Discourse: The sixth level of hierarchical structure of language in which sentences are combined into paragraphs, articles, books, conversations, and so forth Displacement: The capacity of language to represent objects and conditions that are not physically present Divergent thinking: A creative form of thinking that involves the generating of novel ideas that diverge from the normal ways of thinking about something Framing: The idea that the same information, problem, or options can be structured and presented in different ways Functional fixedness: A phenomenon often found in problem-solving tasks in which the customary use of an object interferes with its use in a novel situation Generativity: A characteristic of symbols of language that can be combined to generate an infinite number of messages that have novel meaning Grammar: The set of rules that dictate how symbols can be combined to create meaningful units of communication Heuristics: A method of problem solving characterized by quick and easy search procedures Imaginal thought: A form of thinking that uses images that can be from any sense modality Incubation: A phenomenon in which the solution to a problem suddenly appears in consciousness after a problem solver has stopped thinking about it for a while Inductive reasoning: Reasoning that proceeds from a set of specific facts to a general conclusion or principle Language: A system of symbols and rules for combining them that can produce an almost infinite number of possible messages and meanings Language acquisition device (LAD): According to Noam Chomsky, an innate biological mechanism that contains the general grammatical rules common to all languages Language acquisition support system (LASS): According to Jerome Bruner, the factors in the social environment that facilitate the learning of a language Linguistic relativity hypothesis: The idea, suggested by Benjamin Whorf, that peoples language determines the ways in which they perceive and think about their world Means-end analysis: A heuristic problem-solving device in which people first define a subgoal they hope to achieve (an end), compare that subgoal to their present state of knowledge and, if there is discrepancy, try to find the means to reduce the difference Mental image: A representation of a stimulus that originates inside your brain rather than from external sensory input Mental representations: Cognitive representations of the world, including images, ideas, concepts, and principles, that are the foundations of thinking and problem solving Mental set: The tendency to stick to problem solving strategies or solutions that have worked in the past Metacognition: A persons awareness and understanding of their own cognitive abilities Morpheme: The smallest unit of meaning in a given language; English morphemes include whole words, prefixes and suffixes; there are over 100,000 English morphemes Motoric thought: Mental representations of motor movements, such as throwing an object Overconfidence: The tendency to overestimate ones correctness in factual knowledge, beliefs, and decisions Phoneme: The smallest unit of sound in a language; these are the vowel and consonant sounds that are recognized in any given language; English has 45 phonemes Pragmatics: In language learning, a knowledge of the practical aspects of using language Problem-solving schemas: Step-by-step scripts for selecting information and solving specialized classes of problems Proposition: A statement that expresses an idea in subject-predicate form Propositional thought: Thinking that takes the form of verbal sentences that we say or hear in our minds Prototype: The most typical and familiar members of a class that defines a concept Psycholinguistics: The scientific study of the psychological aspects of language, such as how people understand, produce, and acquire language Representativeness heuristic: A guide in estimating the probability that an object or event belongs to a certain category based on the extent to which it represents a prototype of that category Schema: A mental framework an organized pattern of thought about some aspect of the world, such as a class of people, events, situations, or objects Script: A mental framework concerning a sequence of events that usually unfolds in a regular, almost standard order Semantics: Rules for connecting symbols to what they represent
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