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Psych1000 Chapters 1-4 study questions.pdf

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Psychology 1000

CHAPTER 1 STUDY QUESTIONS 1. Define “psychology” 2. What is the difference between basic and applied research? 3. What are the main goals of psychology? THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES 1. Give a brief description of how each of the following major perspectives in Psychology would view human behavior. A. Biological perspective - Evolutionary perspective B. Cognitive perspective - Functionalism - Structuralism - Modern cognitive science C. Social Constructivism perspective D. Psychodynamic perspective E. Behavioral perspective F. Humanistic perspective G. Sociocultural perspective 2. What are some of the strengths or limitations of these theories? 3. Discuss the nature/nature controversy. 4. How would you use the integrated Biopsychosocial (i.e. biological/psychological/environmental) approach to explain the development of depression? 5. What are some of the major themes in Psychology? 6. What are some of the major specialty areas within psychology? 7. In what types of settings do psychologists work? CHAPTER 2 STUDY QUESTIONS SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES IN PSYCHOLGY 1. List three scientific attitudes 2. What is a hypothesis? How is this different from a theory? 3. What are the four steps in gathering scientific evidence? 4. Why are some of the problems with hindsight understanding? 5. Define the following terms/concepts: - Law of parsimony - Variable - Operational definition - Social desirability bias - Descriptive research METHODS OF RESEARCH 1. Describe each of the following research methods. What are some of the strengths and limitations of each method? - Case study method - Naturalistic observation - Survey research - Correlational research - experiment 2. What is a correlation coefficient? How would you calculate a correlation coefficient? What does it mean if 2 variables are positively correlated? Negatively correlated? 3. What conclusions can we draw based on correlation evidence? 4. Describe the components of an experiment. What is the logic behind this type of research design? 5. What is the difference between a dependent and an independent variable? 6. What is the purpose for using a control group? THREATS TO VALIDITY OF RESEARCH 1. Define internal validity. What are some of the potential threats to internal validity? 2. What is a confounding variable? 3. Describe the concept of placebo effect. 4. What is meant by “experimenter expectancy effect”? How can these be eliminated or controlled in research? 5. What is external validity? ETHICAL PRINCIPLES IN RESEARCH 1. What are some of the ethical principles that psychologists are expected to follow during research and practice? 2. What is involved in informed consent? 3. What are the ethical standards in animal research? CHAPTER 3 STUDY QUESTIONS UNDERSTANDING THE NEURAL BASIS OF BEHAVIOUR 1. What techniques are used to study the structure and function of the brain? THE NEURAL BASIS OF BEHAVIOR 1. What function do each of the components of the neuron serve? - Soma - Axon - Dendrites - Terminal buttons - Myelin sheath - Synapse 2. How do neurons transmit information in the nervous system? 3. What is the difference between an action potential and a graded potential? 4. Describe the phases in the action potential cycle of a neuron (from resting potential to action potential and back to resting potential). What processes are necessary during this cycle? What is the electrical charge inside the cell membrane during each of the phases in the cycle? How do positively charged and negatively charged ions contribute to this process? 5. What is a refractory period? 6. How do neurotransmitters impact the action potential cycle of a neuron? 7. What are the major neurotransmitters and what major function does each n
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