Study Guides (248,019)
Canada (121,233)
Psychology (1,703)
Dr.Mike (231)

October Exam Review FULL NOTES! Chapters 1 - 4

17 Pages
Unlock Document

Psychology 1000

Exam Review 23/10/2009 23:09:00 ← Psychology: the scientific study of behavior actions thoughts feelings reactions and the factors that influence it • Basic research vs applied research • Lab or real world (for interest) vs practical problems ← ← 4 goals of psychology • describe • explain causes • predict • control ← ← 6 perspectives • Biological o understanding behavior in terms of biological process, evolution, genetics  mind-body dualism: the mind is a spiritual entity not subject to the physical laws that govern the body  monism: mind and body are one and mental events are simply a product of physical events o Charles Darwin:  Natural selection  Survival of the fittest  Nothing special about humans meaning that humans can be studied scientifically  Do not have to be a positive outcome o Evolutionary psychology: focuses on the role of evolution in the development of human behavior • Cognitive o Humans as information-processing problem solvers o Thoughts influence emotions and behavior  William Wundt:  Founder of structuralism  Introspection: verbal reporting on immediate experience  Established first psychological lab  Hermann von Ebbinghaus: first empirical study of  Williams James (functionalism)  Studied function or purposes of consciousness  Wolfgang Kohler (gestalt psychology) • The whole is greater than the sum of the parts • Psychodynamic o Searches for the causes of behavior within the works of the mind o Freud  Hysteria  Attention to unconscious influences importance of sexual drives even in nonsexual spheres and the impact of early childhood experiences  Defense Mechanisms  Repression • Behavioral o emphasis on how the external environment shapes behavior o John Locke: nothing can exist within the intellect that did not have its origin in its senses (EMPIRICISM)  Tabula Rasa (blank tablet) o John Watson: Rise of Behaviorism (empiricist)  Observable behavior  Humans are conditions of their environment o Skinner; the environment rather than the individual characteristics is the primary determinant of our behavior o Cognitive behaviorism: bridges the gap between behavior and cognitive  Albert Bandura: we can learn new behaviors by observing the actions of others and storing this information in memory • Humanistic o Importance of motives and freedom  self actualization o Carl Rogers  Client-centered approach to therapy • Social-cultural Study of cultural differences and how culture is transmitted to its members Culture: enduring values, beliefs, behaviors and traditions shared by a large group of people and passed on from one generation to the next Orientation toward individualism versus collectivism represents one of the ways in which cultures can vary ← ← Psychology: • What do psychologists do? o Private practice o Colleges, universities (research, teaching and administration) o Psychiatry versus Psychology: (PHD) ← ← Levels of analysis • Biological o Focus on brain processing, hormonal and genetic influences and evolutionary adaptations • Psychological: focus on mental processes and psychological motives • Environmental : focus on physical and social stimuli Chapter 2 & the Appendix A ← ← Scientific Process • Observation/ Question idea • Form Hypothesis (if then statement) • Test Hypothesis gather evidence • Analyze data and draw conclusions • More research and theory building • New hypothesis derived from theory ← ← Theory: incorporates and organizes information within a single framework • Testable • Predictions support research • Law of parsimony (simpler theory) ← ← Variables: operational definition: how are you measuring what you want to measure? • Ex. What is depression? How to define? • Self reports “other” reports, physiological behavioral ← ← Descriptive research • Case studies o can challenge theories o Generating questions o Illustrating treatment o Rare events brain damage o Problems: not general to population • Naturalistic observation o Observe behavior in natural setting • Survey (population vs. sample) o Questionnaires o Population group want to study o Sample: subset of population  Want representative same characteristics of population  Randomly choose from there with an equal chance of being picked ← ← Correlation: are X and Y related? • Pearson product- moment correlation coefficiecloser to + or – 1 better fit o Positive as one variable increases so does other o Negatively sloped down, as one increased the other increased ← ← Experimental • Does manipulation of variations in X produce any changes in Y? • Control for confounding variables • Experimental (receives independent variable) and control groups ← ← Potential Problems: • Internal validitwere you measuring what you wanted to? o Confounding variables: cannot determine which influenced o Demand characteristics: cues that participants pick up about the hypothesis from the researcher o Placebo effect: expect that they will feel a difference o Experimenter Expectancy Effects: double blind procedure  Don’t know which group participants are in • External validitcan be applicable to real-world? ← ← Central Tendency: Mean (average), Median (middle number), Mode (most common) • Measures of variability o Range o Variance (deviation score)  Variance= sum (X-M)2/N  Standard deviation is the square route of the variance o 68% within 1 SD either side of the mean o 95 within 2 SD on either side of the mean  34.1%, 13.6,2.1 ← Inferential Statistics • Drawing conclusions about a certain population based on the sample we studied • Null hypothesis (expect no difference between the groups) ← ← Chapter 3 Biological Foundations of Behavior • Neurons o Axon: conducts electrical impulses • Dendrites: receiving messages from neighboring neurons • Myelin Sheath: insulation increases axonal conduction • Nodes of ranvier: gaps in Myelin Sheath o FASTER • Glial Cells: hold neurons in place, protect ← ← Action Potential • Resting potential= -70 mV • Gra
More Less

Related notes for Psychology 1000

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.