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Religious Studies
Religious Studies 2132

RELEGEEN NETEE FENEL EXEE Judaism - Eldest religion of the Eestern worldE - Eometimes Enown as the "mother religion" of EhristianitE and EslamE - Teaches monotheismE - Es founded on the laws and teachings of the Gebrew EibleE - The Gebrew patriarchs are viewed as founding figuresE - Gas no single head and no international bodE with authoritE over religious practicesE - Not a missionarE religion - Jews trace their historE as found in the Gebrew EibleE - Ebraham is sometimes regarded as "the father of Jewish peopleE" - Ge lived around EEEE EEEE - EbrahamE his son EsaacE and grandson JacobE are Enown as the Gebrew patriarchsE - JacobE also called EsraelE had twelve sons –who gave rise to the twelve tribesE - Ell Jews are descended from Esrael’s sonsE thereforeE theE are sometimes called "the children of Esrael" or "EsraelitesE" - Eoses the great leader of Esraelites led them out of EgEpt around EEEE EEEEE EEE this historic event is called the ExodusE - Received the Ten Eommandments on EtE Einai as a basic set of rules for livingE - Joshua succeeded Eoses and led the EE tribes to the promised landE - David was the first Eing of the Esraelites (c EEEE EEEE EEEEE - The religion of Esrael tooE a more formal turn in his timeE - DavidEs son and successor Eolomon (EEE EEEE EEEE built the first Temple in JerusalemE Eacred Texts - Known as the "Gebrew Eible" orE to EhristiansE as the “Eld Testament" - The foundation of Jewish religionE - The entire worE is written in Gebrew except some chapters which are written in Eramaic - TraditionsEEnowledge were transmitted orallE from generation to generation before being written down - Written/edited/compiled over a vast period of time - There are three main sections in the Hebrew Bible: - 1.The Law (Torah): - Meaning "teaching" or "guidance" - Consists of the first five books of the Bible, - Called "Pentateuch" or "five books of Moses" - Eontains the Ten Eommandments and the basic laws of Judaism - Encludes religious and moral teachingsE ritual practicesE and civil and criminal laws - EEThe Erophets(NeviimE - Divided into two partsE the earlier prophets and the later(or "Einor "Eprophets - Eontains the moralEethical teachings of the great Gebrew prophets - EEEritings (KethuviimE - Eade up of a varietE of booEs - Their authors include teachersE poets and great thinEers - Eontain poetic writingsE proverbsE psalms and historical chronicles - The Talmud - Is a collection of commentaries, traditions, and interpretations of the Hebrew Bible - Seeks to understand Jewish laws in order to adapt them to daily life - Includes the traditions of the “oral Torah” - Serve as guide to civil laws, religious laws and teachings of Judaism Easic Teachings God - Faith in one GEd h (monotei smE forms the basis of Judaism - Not greatest among other GEb dsE E ut onlE one GEEd - Es the creatorE rulerE and Eudge of the universe and all human - Gi hs aolEE scr eE d and separate from the world and people - Gh as no form Eno nameE no familEE no historE - Ebraham called him “El Ehaddai” (God ElmightEE - Eame GEde reval ed himself to Eoses and call YGEG c (pronouned YahwehE - Jewish people prefer not to pronounce the divine name Eaddress as "Edonai" (LordEor “Gashem” (The NameE - Edol worship is not practiced - Ene can best serve GEd b bE oe iEgnh im - GEi hs te onlE one to whom one should praE - ErimarE dutE of a person is to serve GEE d and onlE GEE d - Ge is GEf oe mcreEE lova dni Eustce - GEi bs e Eond time and space - GEi gs dooa dnd em ands righteous conduct of his people - GEg iude s human beings and reveals himself through chosen prophets – active participant in human affairs - Eelieve in a personal GEE d - Easic praEe cr all ed “Ehema” (hearE The Eessiah - Jews believe that a personal messiahE a descendant of the house of DavidE will come to save manEind on earth - The word derives from the Gebrew term moshiach meaning "the anointed one" and refers to one whom GEd e selcts to deliver his message to people - Eore generallEE messiah is one who brings a new era of peaceE righteousnessE and Eustice for the worldE Endividuals - Es head of the created orderE GEd h as created humans in his own imageE and all people deserve to be treated with respect and dignitE - Each person is a unitE of bodE and spirit - Etresses the importance of free will to obeEE and emphasizes human capabilitE of obedience and faithfulness - E personEs basic rights come from GEd a dnE no ruler maE taEh e tem awaE - Eurpose of human life is to serve GEE d and fellow individuals - No ascetic practices recommended Ethical teachings - Ethical conduct is verE important - The basis of moralitE is the word of GEEd - Eoral laws are GEd aEslE ws - The law consists in the commandments of GEh –te T en Eommandments and a few other sections of the Eentateuch - Enterpreted bE rabbis and should be followed bE all - These are moral practices to live in the communitE - Ene must show the love and respect to GE d bE performing right and good made Enown to them Kabbalah (Jewish EEsticismE - The Eephiroth are the ten emanations of GEid (or fnin ite light Ein EofE into the phEsical universeE - TheE constitute the “Tree of life”E and are aligned in three columnsE each headed bE a supernal and consisting of the seven daEs of creationE Etructures and Erganization - The sEnagogue or shul - Jewish house of worship - Elso the centre of Jewish education and communal affairs - From a GreeE term sunagoge meaning "assemblE" - TraditionallE maE be constituted bE EE men over age EE - The central sEmbolic obEi etc E n sEnagogue is chest Enown as holE arEE containing scrolls of the torah most praEa ers erc ha nted in Gebrew Rabbi - Eerves as spiritual leaderE teacherE interpreter of Jewish law - "Rabbi" means "mE master" Observances - Rituals play an important part - Reminder of one’s duties and obligations to G-d - Try to act according to the will of G-d - Community is very important Sabbath - The most important and unique practice - A day for rest and worship - Begins on Friday at sunset and lasts until sunset Saturday - Has scriptural authority -one of the Ten Commandments Dietary laws - They are rooted in Torah, elaborated in Talmud - To be observed by all Jews - Food prepared in accordance with Jewish dietary law is called “kosher”, meaning "proper for use" Circumcision - Symbolizes G-d's agreement with Israel and community - Ceremony takes place when boy is eight days old - Synagogue official performs the ceremony Ear Eitzvah - LiterallE means "son of the commandment" - EEmbolizes entrE into manhood - Eccurs on Eabbath following boEEs EEth birthdaE - E modern innovation is "bat mitzvah" Ea similar ceremonE for girls of the same age GolE daEs - The maEor holE daEs and celebrations of the Jewish calendar areE - EeeElE Eabbath - Eassover (EesachE - The feast of weeEs (EhavoutE - New Eear (Rosh GashanahE - The daE of atonement (Yom KippurE - The feast of booths (EuEEotE - The festival of lights (GanuEEahE Major Groups - Modern Judaism has three major divisions: Orthodox, Conservative and Reform - Not sharply divided from each other - Differ mainly in methods and practices, not beliefs Orthodox - Largest and strongest - Strictly observe Jewish laws and traditions - Believe in every word of the five books of Moses in the Hebrew bible - Men wear “Kippah”or skull caps as sign of respect to G-d - Men and women sit separately in synagogue –cover head - Use Hebrew language for worship and chanting Conservative - Most popular in the United States - Recognizes the authority of Jewish law as divine, but believe that revelation is subject to many interpretations - Interested in the scientific study of bible - Stress the unity of all Jews - Recognize the role of other faiths - Men and women may sit together in conservative synagogue Reform - Emphasizes more the prophetic teachings of Judaism -less on ritual observances - Follow Sabbath and holiday ceremonies -may observe dietary laws - Believe that each generation has right to accept, reject or modify the traditions it has received - Its synagogues are often called temples - Emphasize full equality of men and women in all religious matters (men and women may sit together in the temple) - Prayers and dietary laws are reduced for practice in the modern time Islam - Began in Arabia in 7th century CE - One of the largest in number of followers - Dominant religion of all the Middle East, Indonesia, Bangladesh and Pakistan - Islam means ―submission‖ or ―surrender‖ to the will of G-d, and is also related to the word―peace‖ (salaam) - Follower is called ―Muslim‖ meaning ―one who submits‖ - Muslims (a religious term) should not be confused with Arabs (an ethnic term) Muhammad (PBUH) - Muslims believe that Muhammad (PBUH) was the Prophet of Islam and last messenger of G-d - He completed the sacred teachings of earlier prophets - The name Muhammad means ―Praised One‖ - Muslims do not believe that he was divine, and they do not worship him - Born in Mecca in 571 CE, died in 632 CE - ―Peace Be Upon Him‖ said after his name Eeera‖—Life of the Erophet (EuhammadE - EarlE life - Eondition of societE before the Erophet’s mission - Euhammad’s marriage - Euhammad as Erophet - Ereaching and opposition - The GiEra(emigrationE - ReEie ntrE ento Ecca - The Last Eilgrimage - The death of the Erophet Ebu EaEr was elected the first ―Ea ilhpE - Ealiph means ―successor to the messenger of GEEd‖E the holE prophet Euhammad - Ealiphs were militarE commandersE civil and religious leaders of their people but not prophets Eacred Texts - The Qur’an (KoranE - Qur’an means ―recitation‖ or ―reading‖ - The angel Gabriel revealed Qur’an to Euhammad (EEUGE a little at a timeE starting in EEEE continuing for EE Eears until EEE EE - Qur’an contains the words of GEi d –E n no sense is the composition of Euhammad (tradition holds him to have been illiterateE - Eelieve that earthlE booEE is a copE of the ―well preserved tablet‖E an eternal booE preserved in heaven - Qur’an was memorized and recited bE Euhammad (EEUGEE later written down bE others - There has never been anE addition to itE no omission from it and no distortion has occurred to it - Et is slightlE shorter than the New TestamentE divided into EEE chapters (surasE - The Qur’an was written in rhEmed Erabic – the language is richE forceful and beautiful Et is the source of education and text booE for the studE of Erabic - The final authoritE in matters of faith and practice for Euslims - Regarded as GEf d’s in al revelation The Gadith - The GadithE or traditionsE are the records of the ―Eunna‖E the custom or practice of Erophet Euhammad (EEUGE - ―Gadith‖ means ―a saEg inE ‖ or ―a report‖ - These words are applied to Euhammad’s (EEUGE practices and waEs of life (EunnaE and to reports of what he did or said (GadithE - The collection of GadithsE compiled at a later dateE became an important document for all Euslims Eharia - LiterallE means ―waE ‖ or ―path‖ - Eodification of Eslamic divine lawE applied to specific situationsE politicalE social or religious - These are moral principles that must be applied to all dailE actions of EuslimsE eatingE marriageE divorceE tradeE praEe erE ctE E - Et gives religious significance to one’s dailE life - Et provides for Euslims the Enowledge of right and wrong in matters of politicsE economicsE societE and religion - To live according to Eharia is for Euslim to live according to divine law Easic Teachings - GEa (Ellh E - The most important belief - Qur’an teaches the absolute unitE and power of GEEd - ―Ellah‖ literallE means GE― d –al ‖ (theE and ―lah‖ (GEEd E - Es supremeE the one and onlE oneE undividedE aloneE complete and eternal - Es the creatorE ruler and Eudge of the world - Ell EnowledgeableE all powerfulE all seeingE all willingE existed prior to anE other beingE full of Eustice and mercE Ellah has the EE beautiful names –most frequentlE used as ―the merciful‖ or ―the compassionate one‖ - Ellah reveals his will and guides people in three waEsE throughE - Euhammad (his messengerE - Qur’an (his revelationE - The angels - No idol worship Engels - Eelief in spiritual beings of various Einds found in Qur’an - Engels are messengers of GEd c –hief one is Gabriel - Eblis (EatanE is the leader of the evil ones - Geaven and Gell - Eoth are real places - Eoth are graphicallE described Judgement - Belief in the judgement of all souls at the end of time - Believe in the coming judgement by Allah for all persons and their reward or punishment, but those who submit will receive Allah’s mercy - Life on earth is a period of testing and preparation for the life to com Erophets - Eelieve in EE prophets of GEE d - Euhammad (EEUGE is the last prophet(the ―seal‖ of the prophetsE Endividuals - Gighest beings in creation - Nearness to GEa d dnc eompletb suimissE on to the will of GEi d hs te purpos e of life - Given free will to maEe a morcl ho ice - Eelieves in spiritE but not emphasized Ethical Teachings - Qur’an supplies guidance for everEdaE life - Forbids gamblingE drinEing alcoholE and porE eating - Teaches honour for parentsE Eindness to slavesE protection for orphans and widowsE charitE to poor - Eromotes rights and protection for women - Eermits a man to have four wives under specific conditions - Ell Euslims are regarded as equal before GEd i hn tei r efforts to achieve salvation through submission to GE d’swill - This submission is active and requires Euslims to perform five specific dutiesE Enown as the Five Eillars of Eslam EEDeclaration of the Faith (EhahadaE E That ―there is but one GEd aE dnE Euhammad is his prophet‖ E Ecceptance and faithful repetition of his creed(but not mechanicallEE E Euhammad (EEUGE is the last and greatest of all prophets E Ge was not a divine beingE had no supernatural powersE performed no EEEraEE r ( EalatE - EraE to GEf iv e times dailE - Ell Euslims praE in the same waE to witness the unitE - TheE face the Ka’aba in Eecca while praEginE - Throughout the praEh erE te s acred sentence (the TaEEb ErEE - GEi hs te greatest‖ (Ellu’ha EEbarE is repeated - EraEars erb hotb puilc and private - FridaE is the daE for congregational praEaer (Eum’h E at mosque EEElmsgiving (ZaEa E t E - Ehould be given in the spirit of submission to GEEd - To support the communitE and sustain the poor - Eould be required or bE free will - E Euslim must give EEEE of his Eher wealth each Eear for the needE - No limits on free will charitE EE Fasting (EawmE - Ebstention from eating and drinEing in daElight during the Eth month of the lunar Eslamic calendar –―Ramadan‖ - TravelersE the sicEE nursing and expectant mothersE soldiers on the marchE and children are excused - Teaches selfEa controlE sEmphtaE towdrE s the poor –sense of communitE and brotherhood EE Eilgrimage (HaE EE - To maEa e i pgliramge to Eecca at least once in a lifetimeE health and means permitting - En the spirit of total sacrifice of personal comfortsE prideE national originE social status - Et taEeas plce during a special month of Euslim calendar - EanE ceremonies are required during the pilgrimage - Eignifies the brotherhood of Euslims Structure and Organization - There is no longer central authority - No international body to control religious practices - The Imam (Sunni) - Is the leader or chief officer in the mosque - He is not a priest –Islam has no organized priesthood - Imam’s main duty is to lead the people in prayer - Any virtuous and able Muslim can lead prayers The Mosque (Masjid) - Place or house of worship - Arabic word ―masjid‖ means ―place of prostration‖ - Not a temple-oriented religion - Friday is the day for congregational service - There are no idols or images worshipped in the mosque –only Qur’an is kept - Mosque has at least one minaret (tower) from which a crier calls for prayer Major Groups - Two major branches of Islam(Sunni and Shi’a) - The split occurred after the Prophet’s (PBUH) death - Reflects the disagreement over the selection of Caliph - Agree on the basic principles –differ in some practices Eunni - EEE of Euslims belong to the Eunni sect - Regarded as the orthodox version of Eslam - Eelieve that Euhammad’s successor should be chosen on basis of merit - En religious mattersE Qur’an and Eunna (Erophet’s examplesE have highest authoritE Ehi’a(Ehi’itesE - Ebout EEE of Euslims are Ehi’ites - EostlE in Eran and Eraq - Eupporters of EliE cousin and sonEinElaw of the Erophet - Eaintain that Ealiph must be a descendant of the Erophet - Eractice certain ritualsE focus on the familE of Eli - Eontains manE subsectsE Esma’ili (EevenersEE DruzeE Ja’fariEEthna’ashri (TwelversEE ElawiE Zaidi (FiversE etcE - En the mainstream Ethna’ashri branchE clergE (EEatollahsE plaE verE important role with authoritE Sufis (Mystics) - Sufis are mystics of Islam. There are Sufis in both branches of the religion - They follow an ascetic lifestyle - Some believe in attaining a mystical communion with G-d through ritual dancing, music or meditation - Sufis organize themselves into orders similar to Christian monastic orders - Some of Islam’s greatest poets and philosophers have been Sufis: Sa’di, Rumi, YunusEmre, Bektash, Abdul-Qadiral-Jilani, Rabi’aal- Adawiyya. EhristianitE - Es the largest religion in the world (bE number of followersEE - Founded upon the life and teachings of Jesus EhristE - ElaEead e EaE pirt hn te historE and culture of Eestern civilizationE - Eontains a great varietE of beliefs and practicesE - Eegan as a movement within Judaism in the first centurE EEE - EissionarE religionE - Eain message is love and brotherhoodE Life of Founder Jesus Ehrist - Ehristians believe that Ge is the Eon of GEh wao wes sent to art h to save human Eind - JesusEE“Yeshua” in Gebrew means “saviour” - “Ehrist” comes from the GreeE word Ehristos meaning “anointed one” - Followers called him “Eessiah” meaning “anointed one of the Lord” Eacred Texts - Ealled “The Eible” sometimes “The EooE” - “Eible” comes from a GreeE term biblos meaning “booE” - These are the Eld Testament and New Testament booEs which constitute the sacred writings of EhristianitEE - The Eible contains EE booEsE EE in the Eld Testament and EE in the New Testament - The first four booEs of the New Testament are the Gospels (good newsE according to EatthewE EarEE LuEe and JohnE which record the life and teachings of Jesus - The Gospels are followed bE the booE Enown as the “Ects of Epostles” –a historE of the earlE Ehristian missionaries - EE documents called “Epistles” followE letters written bE various Ehurch leaders –most notablEE the Epostle EaulE - The New Testament ends with the EooE of RevelationE a visionarE account of the final victorE of God Canon of the Bible - Term used for the books that are believed to belong to the Bible because they were inspired by G-d - The 27 books make up the Canon of the New Testament Easic Teachings - Gave his teachings in simpleE nonE technical terms - Eften explained his thoughts bE means of parables - The Gospels mention about EE parables The Kingdom of G-d (also known as the “Kingdom of Heaven”) - Primary teaching about the expected reign of G-d on earth characterized by moral action - Jesus differed from his Jewish contemporaries on many features of the Kingdom - Any person could become a member of the Kingdom by living a moral life and humble repentance - Accessible to all who asked - Its membership included individuals
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