As we continue to study deviant behavior, the anomie theory, which refers to a break
down of social norms, and a condition where norms no longer control the activities of
members in society, help us better understand why certain individuals commit certain
crimes. Merton, the founder of this theory describes the four concepts that he calls
conformities to further explain deviant behavior. Ritualism, a generalization of people
who live in modest homes and are described as hard working; innovation, the concept
where someone is more susceptible to bend rules; retreatism, where one reject means
and goals of society, a form of withdrawal, and lastly rebellionism where individuals
loudly reject means and goals of society and advocate for a new society, are the four
concepts that describe deviance.
Each concept is used to better understand why certain individuals act the way they do.
Social scientists attempt to link these four concepts to crimes. The most appropriate
concept to elaborate and understand human trafficking, the illegal trade of humans for
the purpose of exploitation, would be by innovation.
Human trafficking can be looked at in many different perspectives such as functionalist or
feminist perspectives. Functionalists can argue that since human trafficking still exists because it
serves a function in society. On the other hand feminists may disagree. A large portion of profit
from human trafficking comes from sex slavery which is generally forced upon women.
Feminists may argue it is a form of exploiting women, highlighting the dominance men have over
women which reinforces stereotypical views of women as sex objects that can be abused by men.
These two theories offer alternative views on the roles of human trafficking whether they are
seen as beneficial or not.
As we con