Sociology 2169 Study Guide - Circadian Rhythm, Labour Candidates And Parties In Canada, Human Capital

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Published on 18 Apr 2013
School
Western University
Department
Sociology
Course
Sociology 2169
Professor
Ch 10 Labour Market Trends 1/28/2013 10:09:00 AM
Ch. 10 Labour Market and Employment Trends
January 28, 2013
Why are labour market statistics important?
o Sheds light on how the economy is doing and helps policy makers
determine where change needs to occur
o The number of “good” and “bad” jobs in our society has great implications
for the state of equality
o See how changes in the economy have impacted workers
What is a Labour Market?
o Where employers and employees come together, where workers get
distributed into jobs and industries
o Human capital theorists- open competition, people rewarded in proportion
to education and skills
o Plural- not one single labour market
o Determined by geography or industry
Labour Segmentation Theory
o Focuses on how labour markets are “segmented” or separated into
sections containing different kinds of jobs
o Where you are in the labour market may limit chances of getting a good
job
o Core vs. periphery
Core Labour Market
o Relatively noncompetitive market
o Capital intensive
o Large
o Often unionized
o Can exert control over their environment
o Stable with good benefits
o E.g. “good” jobs- financial services, professional, technical, scientific
Periphery Labour Market
o Lower-tier service industries- “bad” jobs
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o Highly competitive markets
o Smaller firms
o Labour intensive
o Nonunionized
o No security
o Low wages
o High turnover
o
Primary vs. secondary
o Chances of finding a good job are not only determined by sector but also:
o Primary labour markets- the “lifetime” job
o Secondary labour market- “dead end” jobs
Labour Market Shelters
o Labour market chances also affected by labour market shelters
o Limit entry and protect wages (i.e. unionized or regulated professions)
Labour Market Ghettos
o The outcome of labour market segmentation
o Trap certain groups of workers in the worst jobs in the labour market or
within occupational categories
o Structural barriers based on stereotypes (race, gender etc.) may also
prevent people from entering “good” jobs so they may end up in ghettos
Geography
o Some areas just don’t have industries where “good” jobs are
Labour Market Trends
Contextualizing the Canadian Labour Market
o Canadian economy experienced two recessionary periods in 1980s and
1990s
o 1990s- more long-term effects and recovery slow
o Late 1990s- labour market picked up
o Overall 1990s- high unemployment & increasing income inequality
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Document Summary

Labour segmentation theory: focuses on how labour markets are segmented or separated into sections containing different kinds of jobs, where you are in the labour market may limit chances of getting a good job, core vs. periphery. Core labour market: relatively noncompetitive market, capital intensive, large, often unionized, can exert control over their environment, stable with good benefits, e. g. Periphery labour market: lower-tier service industries- bad jobs, highly competitive markets, smaller firms, labour intensive, nonunionized, no security, low wages, high turnover. Primary vs. secondary: chances of finding a good job are not only determined by sector but also, primary labour markets- the lifetime job, secondary labour market- dead end jobs. Labour market shelters: labour market chances also affected by labour market shelters, limit entry and protect wages (i. e. unionized or regulated professions) Geography: some areas just don"t have industries where good jobs are. Contextualizing the canadian labour market: canadian economy experienced two recessionary periods in 1980s and.

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