Final Exam Review Jerome S. Bruners Theory of Perception ** This will be one of the 10 mark short answer questions Know Bruner inside and out** Major Claim: while we could do something about our perception, we will likely not. Our perceptual and cognitive tendencies are vey important to us and therefore we do not want to change them. We enjoy being closeminded All percetual cognitive tendencies are based on past experience, current interests or need states and valesattitudes and therefore we will not become openminded. We will over assimilate the environment, so we will not become open minded o We make sense of the present based on what we know about the past Eg. A person is who shehe was (close minded thought) Uses of Perceptual Sets: Normal Extreme Bruner begins with what he calls a perceptual set, what Bruner calls a perceptual set is what we have been calling schemas o We walk around with a whole set of schemas that are an organization of content (beliefs, attitudes, values) He does argue however that with the development of more complex schemas one will be more likely to develop reflexive knowledge Bruner is optimistic! We will come back to this. o This is a requirement for understanding autonomy The idea that new meanings can emerge in interaction that cannot be predicted we are talking in part about the possibility of novel meaning Bruner identifies two states of perceptual readiness: a normal state and an extreme state of perceptual readiness o See handout **FINAL EXAM Essay Topic** Leon Festingers Theory of Cognitive Dissonance: Festingers point of departure is to claim that persons are driven towards achieving internal consistency with regards to their opinions and attitudes. There also tends to be a relative degree of consistency between a persons opinions and attitudes and their actual behaviour. o Ex: parents who value a university education will likely encourage their children to go to university Q: What happens when there is a misalignment between ones opinions and attitudes and ones actions? This is Festingers main question** Ex: why smoke if you know its bad for you, if you know it can lead to all sorts of health problems?