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Social Psychology 2233 Lecture Notes.docx

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Sociology 2233
Tom Murphy

SOCIAL PSYCH 2233 CLASS NOTES Bystander apathyin a very busy place and a bad crimeevent occurs people are more likely to assume someone else will deal with it therefore no one ever does anything Cathartic effectif you work your aggression out ex Going to the gym then it will disappearo Note when research began on this effect they found out that the opposite actually happens ex Working out heightens aggressiono People should leave the situation that makes them aggressive and go for a long slow walk until the feeling goes away Note not everyone will respond in the same way to situations there can be a higher tendency or majority but not everyone The greater the likelihood of a relationship working out has statistically been proven that the more similar you are the better it workso Similar education level is one of the most important things for a relationship to work out Warm and Cold Experimentone word in a similar list changes many characteristics that people would assume Implicit personality theorytake what we know and assume other characteristics Social psychologyscientific study of the nature and causes of normal individual behaviour emotion and thought in social situations Sociological social psychology puts special emphasis on the social context of all individual actions especially the ways in which we attempt to exert social influence on others and how we react to the influencing attempts of otherso Research tests are done in a scientific way experimentso What we think what we feel and what we doo Less influence on the individual and more on the whole of societyWays of understanding o Folk wisdom and common senseo Philosophy literature religion arto Personality psychology and sociologyo The two social psychologieso Reality and perception construals Each person ends up constructing their reality on a day to day basis on how they see the world We act according to our perceptions Ex People make judgments based on other peoples appearances No such thing as racethere are genetic differences but no race category is too broad Does exist in 2 waysin peoples perceptions of the other and people self identify within those categories Construalsperceptions we have that govern the behaviour that we engage in Social influenceo The role of personalityo The fundamental attribution erroro The role of the situation The behaviourists perspectiverewards and punishments The Gestalt perspectivethe subjective experience What motivates us o The desire to feel good about ourselves selfesteem approacho The desire to be in the know cognitive approacho The desire to survive evolutionary approach In summary factors which affect our behaviouro The actions and characteristics of otherso Cognitive processeso Cultural context o Ecological factorsour physical environmento Biological factors Fundamental distribution errortendency to overvalue dispositional or personalitybased explanations for the observed behaviors of others while undervaluing situational explanations for those behaviorsThe Power of Social Influence People underestimate its effects on behaviour Study by Liberman Samuels and Ross 2004o Asked students to predict if fellow students would behave competitively or cooperatively in a strategy gameo The students who played were told it was either a Wall Street Game or a Community Gameo Independent variablehow students were predicted by others to play and check webct o Dependentpercentage of people choosing cooperative strategy Situational factors have large influence on behaviour but we must examine them from the perspective of those in it Construals not the objective properties of the situation are most importanto Example a reaction to a friendly greeting will depend on the recipients construal of the meaning of that greeting A greeting from a car salesman will be interpreted differently than a greeting from friend The emphasis on subjective perceptions has its roots in a school of psychology called Gestalt psychologyo Act in the world based on our perceptions of ito Kurt Lewin a founding father of modern experimental social psychology applied Gestalt principles so social perception Construals come fromo The need to be accurate about ourselves and our social world o The need to feel good about ourselves o The need for survival This is an instinct built into our DNASelfesteem approacho Selfesteem is an evaluation of ones selfwortho Most people have a need to maintain a positive view of themselveso We may sacrifice the need to be accurate in order to protect our selfesteem Selfjustificationo Retrospective interpretationWe may alter our recollections of past actions of which we are unhappy upset or ashamed in order to feel good about our past actions and decisionso Example enduring an embarrassing initiation to join a club or team may cause individuals to increase their positive feelings about the clubSocial cognition o Refers to how people think about themselves and their social worldHow people select interpret remember and use social informationo Social cognition approach The incorporation of human cognitive abilities into theories of social behaviouro Study found that teachers manipulated expectations of a students potential influenced the actually performance of that student selffulfilling prophecy Evolutionary approacho Incorporates Darwins theory of natural selection into explanations of behaviour and mental processeso Natural selectionis a process in which heritable traits that promote survival and reproduction in a particular environment are selectively passed on to future generationso Evolutionary psychologyAttempts to explain social behaviour and cognitive abilities in terms of geneticallybased traits adaptations that were naturally selected in our distant past Ex Theories of prosocial and aggressive behaviour and of interpersonal attractionFactor affecting behaviouro The actions and characteristics of others Ex Someone smiling at youo Cognitive processesHow we think about a situation alters a situation o Cultural context o Ecological factors our physical environment o Biological factorsDifferent life stages you will be a different person So many things are determined by sex of a person Social psychology and social problemso Much social psychological research has attempted to understand and find solutions to social problemso Sample topics Reducing feelings of prejudice Examining the effects of violent TV on behaviour Discoursing unhealthy behaviours Cognition is social psychologyo The following is a summary of an article by Susan Fiske and Shelly Taylor who are well known cognitive social psychologists We behave according to our perceptions of others whether accurate or not
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