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Lec 6 Industrial Rev.docx

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Sociology 2235

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Lec 6—Oct. 2 -Historical details about Canada not necessary for exam Industrial Societies 1900s Society -Time of great transition (evolutionary) -Altered families most dramatically -Wages, becoming capital society -Major change: saw employment that was previously either based in the home/part of the home (ex. Farming) to labour outside the home such as employment at a shop or factory -Separation of home and work -Family wage economy (NOT the same as family based economy) -Wage paid to male worker (thus expected to support family) -Family interdependency: no security or employment insurance when sick -Families worked together in mills and factories (employer or employer would push for hiring of family members) -Living next to factory not uncommon -Social class division emerged Family -Unit of consumption more than production -Breadwinner-homemaker family structure (beginning of this) -Fertility rate declined—smaller families -Economic liabilities -Less kids more manageable -Less self-reliant (dependent on wage) -Ex. Becoming urbanized thus can’t produce own food -More isolated (moving away) -More integrated into economy Marriage -Later age at marriage (biggest reason: started compulsory education) -Based on romantic love -Stressed attraction, respect and affection when choosing partners -No longer arranged marriages -Guy walking on side closer to road (Shield women from carriage splashes and waste that families throw out the window) -Focus on self development -Personal happiness important Women -Identities centered entirely in families -Shopping became leisure activity because it was one of the few places women could go without needing men to escort them Lec 6—Oct. 2 -“Homework” trivialized (housework) -Responsible for viability of marriages -Emotional labour: things women do to nurture family such as remembering birthdays and organizing celebrations -Gender-specific occupations -Paid work: maid, teacher, nurse -Middle class women: running shops -Hard time pursuing occupations outside norm -Sexual harassment and assault common -Unmarried, single, widowed, divorced women had a hard time -Likely lived in poverty, hard to find work -Thus single women began moving to cities to work -No jobs paid enough wage to be independent, eventually had to find partner -May not want to return to domestic sphere: scary re-entering relationship -Fall prey to moral temptations -Unacceptable if not married and pregnant -Married women supported by husbands -Money earned was to “supplement” husbands -Working compromised husband’s position in family (head of the house) -Seen as husband unable to support you, wife has to go out and earn $ -Working mothers not good for children -Bad cognitively, psychologically and morally (still in debate) -Tender years doctrine (had to be with kids for first 7 years) -Frowned upon if women chose work over looking after kids Men -“Head of household” -Exerted authority over families -Became breadwinners -Wage expected to support whole family (tough) Children -Parents’ love objects (during hunting and gathering, industrial society, 1950s) -Extended period of dependency on parents -Formal education began -Supervised—feared “idle youth” -Taught values & habits -Tasks differentiated by sex -Boys banged chalkboard erasers Lec 6—Oct. 2 The Golden Age of the Family Society -Period of experimentation -Pro family period (family centered society) -TV depicted family “ideal” -Ex. Father Knows Be
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