Deviance: Exam 2: Text Book Notes: Chapters 4-6
Chapter 4- Deviant & Normal Sexuality
What is deviant sexuality
Sexuality can be perceived both biologically and sociologically
Social processes determine what is considered deviant/normal sexuality in society.
Objective refer to cultural & historical variations in the norms that are used as the
standard against which deviance is judged
Subjective refer to social construction
Social processes determine who is socially typed as deviant through the processes
of description, evaluation, and prescription
o Description the category due to sexuality
o Evaluation basis of the category into which they have been placed
o Prescription made subject to particular measures of regulation or social
Interactions perspective understand why ppl become their own sexuality and the
understanding of individuals sexuality of others.
Critical perspective analyze the ways that power influences ppls understandings
and attributions of meanings
o Foucault is emphasized.
o Those in authority convey the knowledge about sexuality and that
subsequently comes to perceived as truth.
o Political, legal, religious, media etc
The cultural and historical construction of sexuality
The Sambia of New Guinea:
o Patriarchy power embedded in males
o Misogyny hatred and mistrust of women.
o The presence of females polluted bodys, and would prevent the development
of masculinity, which was seen as the ability to engage in warfare
o At the age of 7 10 the males were removed form daily contact with females
in the village and separated into an all male enclave for the next 10 -15 years.
o Acts of elation occurred between old males and boys
o As males progress instead of getting fellator they are going to be the fellatee.
o At marriage they would move out of the male enclave and begin having sex
with wives while still segregating young men.
o Homosexuality and pedophilia was common
o It is deviant if the man does not participate in these rituals
o Ritualized homosexuality religious purposes.
o Over all - homosexuals when boys bi sexual when young men
heterosexual when adults.
Intended to reproduce and perpetuate the society that they live in.
o The Greek are typically looked upon as having created the foundation which
western society is build
o Slaves and women were not considered citizens originally.
o The only purpose of women was for their male heirs o There was no distinction between homo- and hetero- sexuality
o There were rules between males and males having sex.
No sex during dusk to dawn
Boys must take the dominant sexual role as they grow (or a lot of
shame will be upon them)
If a boy was to have anal he must take compensation for it and he is
forbidden to be a citizen of the state
o Greek aristocracy is where the western culture got is ideas
Marriage is good to produce male heirs and sexual relationships.
Traditional aboriginal cultures of North America:
o In tradition aboriginals sexuality was inextricably interwoven with all
other aspects of social life.
Life was viewed as: physical, intellectual, emotional, and spiritual
Sex is magical- and intended to be pleasurable.
o Only ppl who were attracted to members of the same sex accepted in theses
cultures and given specific roles
o Colonizing European cultures sex was the sole purpose of reproduction
and even that notions of pleasure were frowned upon
Sexuality was sinful require careful and stringent control
Not integrated into social life at all, at rather isolated from it, as an evil
and infuse with guild.
The only non-deviant sexuality was that which occurred between
husband and wife, and even that only occurred in the missionary
o The aboriginal women were called les femmes du pays or the country wives.
North America From the 17th century to the 20th century:
o 17th century colonial era to the end of the 20th century the meaning of
sexuality transformed from a primary association itch reproduction within a
powerful structure of kinship, to a primary association w/ emotional intimacy
in marriage & then to an association with personal fulfillment to individuals.
o 17th century:
Time for exploration and settlement and economic activities revolved
around the fur trade.
Sexual relationships between aboriginal and white women were
common and accepted.
Slave owners frequently determined whose was permitted to mate and
whom for the purposes of reproduction.
Slave men were used to pregnant the slave women
Slave women were used to have sex for reproduction
o Sexuality in the U.S was channeled into marriage for the purpose of
reproduction and courtship.
Sexuality outside the arenas of courtship and marriage was considered
unacceptable and local church; courts, family and the community both
formally and informally controlled sexuality. The community was also seen as a legitimate regulator of deviance
not uncommon for neighbors to report sexual improprieties to
relevant family members or community and church leaders.
Some sort of punishment for the unacceptable behavior was dispensed
in order for individuals to learn the errors of their ways.
o US: the revolutionary war & the expansion of commerce spread the ideology
of the pursuit of happiness w/ subsequently infused sexual culture as well.
o Women played a large role in the enlightenment era bc the language of
sexuality was no long reproduction but mores based on intimacy in marriage
o The family was becoming more of an isolated unit in society, recognized as a
private realm outside of the surveying gaze of many others
o Women played a large role in regulating sexuality through their efforts in
reducing pregnancy rates.
There was a tremendous health risk associated with pregnancy
Contraception was made
Sexual Culture Today
Criteria for determining deviance:
o The attitude based on the intention to engage in certain sexual activities
o Consent represents some form of agreement to engage in sexual activity
o It is deviant if there is no consensus involved.
o The complete lack of consent leads many people to interpret sexual assault as