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Deviance 2259 exam 2 - textbook .docx

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Department
Sociology
Course
Sociology 2259
Professor
Lauren Barr
Semester
Fall

Description
Deviance: Exam 2: Text Book Notes: Chapters 4-6 Chapter 4- Deviant & Normal Sexuality What is deviant sexuality Sexuality can be perceived both biologically and sociologically Social processes determine what is considered deviant/normal sexuality in society. Objective refer to cultural & historical variations in the norms that are used as the standard against which deviance is judged Subjective refer to social construction Social processes determine who is socially typed as deviant through the processes of description, evaluation, and prescription o Description the category due to sexuality o Evaluation basis of the category into which they have been placed o Prescription made subject to particular measures of regulation or social control. Interactions perspective understand why ppl become their own sexuality and the understanding of individuals sexuality of others. Critical perspective analyze the ways that power influences ppls understandings and attributions of meanings o Foucault is emphasized. o Those in authority convey the knowledge about sexuality and that subsequently comes to perceived as truth. o Political, legal, religious, media etc The cultural and historical construction of sexuality The Sambia of New Guinea: o Patriarchy power embedded in males o Misogyny hatred and mistrust of women. o The presence of females polluted bodys, and would prevent the development of masculinity, which was seen as the ability to engage in warfare o At the age of 7 10 the males were removed form daily contact with females in the village and separated into an all male enclave for the next 10 -15 years. o Acts of elation occurred between old males and boys o As males progress instead of getting fellator they are going to be the fellatee. o At marriage they would move out of the male enclave and begin having sex with wives while still segregating young men. o Homosexuality and pedophilia was common o It is deviant if the man does not participate in these rituals o Ritualized homosexuality religious purposes. o Over all - homosexuals when boys bi sexual when young men heterosexual when adults. Intended to reproduce and perpetuate the society that they live in. Ancient Athens: o The Greek are typically looked upon as having created the foundation which western society is build o Slaves and women were not considered citizens originally. o The only purpose of women was for their male heirs o There was no distinction between homo- and hetero- sexuality o There were rules between males and males having sex. No sex during dusk to dawn Boys must take the dominant sexual role as they grow (or a lot of shame will be upon them) If a boy was to have anal he must take compensation for it and he is forbidden to be a citizen of the state o Greek aristocracy is where the western culture got is ideas Marriage is good to produce male heirs and sexual relationships. Traditional aboriginal cultures of North America: o In tradition aboriginals sexuality was inextricably interwoven with all other aspects of social life. Life was viewed as: physical, intellectual, emotional, and spiritual Sex is magical- and intended to be pleasurable. o Only ppl who were attracted to members of the same sex accepted in theses cultures and given specific roles o Colonizing European cultures sex was the sole purpose of reproduction and even that notions of pleasure were frowned upon Sexuality was sinful require careful and stringent control Not integrated into social life at all, at rather isolated from it, as an evil and infuse with guild. The only non-deviant sexuality was that which occurred between husband and wife, and even that only occurred in the missionary position. o The aboriginal women were called les femmes du pays or the country wives. North America From the 17th century to the 20th century: o 17th century colonial era to the end of the 20th century the meaning of sexuality transformed from a primary association itch reproduction within a powerful structure of kinship, to a primary association w/ emotional intimacy in marriage & then to an association with personal fulfillment to individuals. o 17th century: Time for exploration and settlement and economic activities revolved around the fur trade. Sexual relationships between aboriginal and white women were common and accepted. Slave owners frequently determined whose was permitted to mate and whom for the purposes of reproduction. Slave men were used to pregnant the slave women Slave women were used to have sex for reproduction o Sexuality in the U.S was channeled into marriage for the purpose of reproduction and courtship. Sexuality outside the arenas of courtship and marriage was considered unacceptable and local church; courts, family and the community both formally and informally controlled sexuality. The community was also seen as a legitimate regulator of deviance not uncommon for neighbors to report sexual improprieties to relevant family members or community and church leaders. Some sort of punishment for the unacceptable behavior was dispensed in order for individuals to learn the errors of their ways. o US: the revolutionary war & the expansion of commerce spread the ideology of the pursuit of happiness w/ subsequently infused sexual culture as well. o Women played a large role in the enlightenment era bc the language of sexuality was no long reproduction but mores based on intimacy in marriage o The family was becoming more of an isolated unit in society, recognized as a private realm outside of the surveying gaze of many others o Women played a large role in regulating sexuality through their efforts in reducing pregnancy rates. There was a tremendous health risk associated with pregnancy Contraception was made Sexual Culture Today Criteria for determining deviance: Consent: o The attitude based on the intention to engage in certain sexual activities o Consent represents some form of agreement to engage in sexual activity o It is deviant if there is no consensus involved. o The complete lack of consent leads many people to interpret sexual assault as
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