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Sociology 2259
Lauren Barr

Deviance Final Notes Deviant Subcultures Definitions - Pop culture: Cult – a group whose belief systems/practices could be considered strange or sinister o A system of ritual practices - West: A group or movements exhibiting a great or excessive devotion to some person, idea or think and employment unethically manipulative techniques of persuasion and control – designed to advance the goals of the group’s leader - Howard J Becker – small religious groups lacking in organizational and emphasizing the private nature of personal beliefs o To be considered a cult there is often an assumption of deviance  Satanism  Not always out in a force/extreme groups  Witnesses Infamous Cults - Roch Theriault Cult o Theriault called himself Moses o Brought his followers into the wilderness near Lindsay Ontario where he organized his commune o Theriault took numerous wives and fathered many children – felt it was his job to populate the world o His followers were subjected to the cruelest forms of abuse – keep people in [control them] o He was ultimately arrested and pleaded guilty to second degree murder in 1993 o He is still alive - The Charles Manson Family o Manson convinced followers to murder several innocent people o Plane to spark a race war between the white race and the back race  He believed each side would kill the other and his family would be the only survivors o Collected young people and convinced them to murder people – one of whom was a movie star o His whole ideology, he believed that if they had white people killed and blamed it on blacks – it would start a race war Characteristics of a Cult - Has a living leader - Cult doctrine based on leaders’ techniques and beliefs - Leader may claim special powers or connection to a higher being - Leader is sole judge of dedication and quality of member’s faith - Leader may predict the end of the world – Apocalypse cults - Cults provide salvation – anyone outside cult is evil or lost - Members must cut self off from past life - Emphasizing on money making - Non-traditional religion Values, Norms and Sanctioning From Within: - Structure and discipline - Thought control - Questioning religion and criticism frowned upon – a sign of bad faith - Daily work demeaning - Individually frowned upon - No grey area – everything and everyone is either right or wrong: pure or evil - Members give up right to think and decide for themselves Who are the Leaders? - While the leaders of such cults differ from case to case, there are some traits that are common among them o Extremely charismatic and likeable o “hypnotic speakers” who inspire listeners to believe in them Process of Belonging to a Cult - Who Joins o Most are nonreligious, 18-30 years, middle class, white, need for peer support, in transition (ended love affair, starting school away from home), a good person, idealistic and naïve - Recruitment techniques o Brainwashing and mind control techniques o Free will Getting Out? - There are at least three ways people leave a cult: o By one’s own decision o Through expulsion – breaking the rules/sanctions of the group and leader o Through intervention (exit counseling, deprogramming) - Things to Consider o Adults are legally capable of making their own decisions o There is not much one can do legally to remove an adult from a cult o Some people belong to cults because it is really what they want to do, and some report beneficial experiences from their time spent with a cult o Impact of stereotypes and preconceived notions of what a cult is The Outside World – STIGMA and Discrimination - Anti-cult movement that swept through media - High profile crimes - “cults” gained an increasingly negative connotation, becoming associated with things like kidnapping, brainwashing, psychological abuse, sexual abuse, and other criminal activity, and mass suicide - Mind control vs. rational choice - “new religious movements” replace “CULT” - Cathrine Wessinger: The social issue of stigma o The word cult should be avoided = derogatory o Dehumanizes the group’s members and their children o Labelling a group as subhuman, she says, becomes a justification for violence against it o Labelling a group a “cult” makes people feel safe, because the “violence” associated with religion is split off from conventional religions, projected onto others, and imagined involve only aberrant groups The Branch Davidians - Probably the most infamous modern cult was the David Koresh cult - In April of 1993 a standoff of 51 days led to the compound being burned to the group with over 75 people inside – 20 children - Controversy over who started the fire The definitions have political and ethical impact beyond just scholarly debate - Bruce J Casino – presents the issue as crucial to international human rights laws - Limiting the definition of religion may interfere with freedom of religion - Too broad a definition may give some dangerous or abusive groups “a limitless excuse for avoiding all unwanted legal obligations” Mental Disorder and Stigma Mental Disorders - Alterations in thinking, mood or behaviour associated with significant distress and impaired functioning - How prevalent is it? o 20% of Canadians have experienced a mental illness o 80% of Canadians know someone with a mental illness o WHO has found that 25% of the world’s population has a mental health illness (450 million people) - Rates of Mental Disorder o Equal overall rates for women/men o Different types of mental disorders  Women: depression/anxiety  Men: antisocial personality disorder, substance abuse disorder, conduct disorder o Lower socioeconomic status  Social causations hypothesis  Social selection hypothesis o Adolescents/young adults  Biology and identity formation and stress - Costs of Mental Illness o Individuals and families  Education  Employment  Income  Family instability  Physical illness o Societal  Canadian economy loses $14 billion/year due to mental illness  Health care expenses  Absence from work  Lost tax revenues - Lack of Treatment o Two-thirds of people with mental disorders remain untreated, due to:  Lack of services (long wait times)  Perceptions of treatment as inadequate  Discomfort with self-disclosure in treatment  Neglect within families or communities  Fear of stigmatization Stigmatization - Is fear of stigmatization realistic – yes o Negative attitudes remain unchanged o Discrimination in employment, housing, health care o (Wolff, 2007) even cost-of-illness estimates reflect stigmatization - Negative consequences of stigmatization o Personal experiences are not necessary for negative consequences o Mere awareness of the stigmatization of mental illness  self-stigmatization  Internalization of the label “mentally ill”  Less likely to seek or adhere to treatment Policies and Programs - Embedded within two paradigms - Disease paradigm o Address symptoms of mental illness o Exorcisms, family care, madhouses, asylums, psychiatric care - Discrimination paradigm o Try to resist the stigmatization of mental illness Total Institutions - 5 Groups of Total Institutions o Care for persons that are harmless o Care for persons incapable of caring for themselves (can be a threat to the community) o Protect the community o Responsible for specific tasks o Designed as retreats from the world - Totalistic Features o In normal life we divide our life (public, private) o In a total institution  All aspects of life are together  Daily activities are done in groups  All activities are planned  There is a central rational plan - The Great Divide o The inmate vs. the superior o Each group has negative, hostile stereotypes of other  Staff see inmates as bitter, secretive, untrustworthy  Inmates see staff as condescending, highhanded and mean  Staff feel superior, inmates feel inferior  Social mobility is restricted  Interaction is discouraged Disease Paradigm - Medicalization of mental illness th o Began with “asylums” (19 century) - Effective treatment = medical – psychosocial supports o Facilitates recovery and prevents relapses in patients with schizophrenia and depression Deinstitutionalization - Began in the 1960s - Treatment within communities, not institutions - Has improved the lives of many people - But many people have fallen through the cracks - Effective deinstitutionalization requires: o Supportive family network o An accepting community o Adequate community resources o A place to live Deviance Dance - Evident in the integration of disease and discrimination paradigms o Out of the shadows at last o Establishment of the Mental Health Commission of Canada - Evident in resistance to medicalization o Concerns about the DSM  Debates over categories of “mental disorders”  homosexuality, ADHD  Role of power in the creation and revisions of the DSM o Concerns about diagnosis and treatment  Rosenhan (1973)  8 “pseudo-patients” institutionalized  7 – 52 days to be released  Released with psychiatric diagnoses  Conclusion: factors outside the individual influences psychiatric diagnosis, psychiatric diagnosis is precarious, documented dehumanizing treatment  Theoretical implications of Rosenham’s research  Illustration of total institution (Goffman, 1961) o Effects on identity  Illustration of the negative consequences of labelling o Debates over positive effects of labelling  must be labelled in order to receive treatment  Diagnosis and treatment are influenced by race and sex  Psychiatrists presented with identical “case studies” o Black persons rated as more “dangerous” then white persons  Women more likely to be given drugs Deviant Criminals The Role of Gender - The types of crime differs between men and women - Female criminals are more deviant - Female criminals receive differential treatment Male Sexual Offenders - Objective and subjective views of sexual assault/abuse - Article “Vocabulary of Motive” o Justifying deviant behaviour o Trying to understand “why” Vocabulary of Motive “Accounts” - Admitters – admit to rape o Excuses, acknowledged assault, regarded themselves as deviant, compelled to rape; substance abuse, emotional problems, nice guy image - Deniers – admit to sex o Justifications; seductress, she meant yes, eventually she enjoyed it, nice girls don’t get raped, guilty of minor wrongdoing o Feel actions should not be considered rape What Role Does Society Play - The conscious or unconscious biological or psychological attraction between man and women does not exist on the part of the offender toward the women, but also, on her part toward him which in many instances may, to some extent, be the impetus for his sexual attack – often women unconsciously wishes to be taken by force - Illusions of love and the ideal partner - Movies, romance, novels, pornography The Ultimate Deviant Criminal - Violent/sexual female criminals o The fact that they are female makes them that much more deviant - Female Sex Offenders o Underreported o 23% of females in the US have been victims of sexual abuse  5% are female offenders o 7% males have been victims of sexual abuse  20% of female offenders  Mother –child  Teacher – student  Daycare/care-giving role - Profile o Caucasian, 31 years old, married, victims were relatives or known minors, co-offender, mental illness or substance abuse problems, abuse in childhood or adulthood - Female Sexual Offenders o Three classes of female sexual offenders  Substance abuse  Moderate psychopathology – depression or common mental illness  Extensive psychopathology – MPD (less common disorders) o Very little research exists to understand this group  Why  no attention on it – little funding (they don’t recognize it as an issue), underreported - Female Killers o They choose people that they know – rarely choose a stranger o Plan, study their victim, attack when most vulnerable – not a lot of physical force involved  Tend to use a gun – easy to pull the trigger o Methodological, cool, quiet, can go on for years before they get caught o Part of the taboo is the gender of the offender and part is their choice of victim o Female sociopaths; black widows, angels of death, mothers o Characteristics of female serial killers  Quiet, something to do with the role, deaths were attributed to other things  No blunt force objects  Females are often missing that sexual piece  they have different motivations Dexter – A Case Study - A pop culture explosion  advanced deviant - Analyses character using theories from class - Talks about how difficult it is to make yourself look normal o There are a lot of things that he has to think about in order to appear normal – things that we don’t have to think about Science and Religion Religion and Science as Social Typers of Deviance - Both based on the opinions and teachings of “experts” o representatives of religions, they tell you how to interpret the scripture o science – the scientists, medical community o both of these groups have a lot of power about how we think about and perceive things - Both are subjective and partial to human bias o They are partial to human bias – witch hunts – something that could be good can also be used for bad (religion) - Both are based on claims of ‘truth’ o Very little grey o Both claim they are the right answer - Both carry a lot of institutionalized power with very real social control functions o Religion can be seen  political debates – end up with voices of religion, holidays o Science  big bang, prove and disprove theories - How do we evaluate and deal with the behaviours of others? o Homosexuality – there are both science and religion explanations - How linked are science/religion in our formal social control methods? - The objective of this study is not to decide which is true, but to evaluate the ways these belief systems impact the experience of humans - Each belief system has great strength and merit in our social world - Each have been show to influence human behaviour in deviance studies Religion - The foundation for dominant moral codes for most of history - Dictated to followers by “leaders and experts” Religion as Deviance - Reviewing back some of the ideas discussed in tutorial - Religion itself can be deviant - Religion categories - Anti-cult or counter-cult movements Religion as a Social Typer - Religion Guides o Our own individual behaviours (micro)  Some decisions you make may be based off of religious guidelines  Sex, foods, books (banned) o Individual/societal level (meso)  Holidays o Social institutions (macro)  School, the things that we teach (curriculum) o What/how we think about ourselves and others  Religion kind of guides this The Burning Times - The Witch Burnings o A clear example of religious and political interconnection o 1300’s to 1600’s over 100 000 “witches”  Failure to convert  Women who did not fit the appropriate roles  Midwives  Anyone o Torture, confession under duress, sentencing - Malleus Maleficarum – The Hammer of Witches o Moral panic o Printed documents to the educated o Communicated by expert representatives o Imagine … the impact of distributing the DSM in the same manner Global Treatment of Women today - Influence of Religion and politics - Government has authoritarian control - Literal or fundamentalist reading and interpretation - Examples of current practices Missionary and World Religions - They attempt to persuade or convert others to a particular program, doctrine, or set of principles - Expect followers to accept their „truth‟ as the right path - In terms of deviance this leads to an automatic label and consequences that result - Depending on the religion, the society, the level of interconnectedness of religion, politics, education and power … different levels of consequence Residential Schooling - A direct connection between religion and scientific ideas of superiority - Colonization + Assimilation - Connected with ideas of evolution, civilization - Every aspect of aboriginal cultures was perceived as deviant and in need of elimination‟ - Institutionalized Discrimination and Abuse Female Sexuality + Infertility - Nymphomania o How To Treat:  Separate temporarily from her husband  Restrict her intake of meat and abstain from brandy and all stimulants to lessen her sexual desire  Replace the feather mattress and pillows with ones made of hair to limit the sensual quality of her sleep  Take cold enemas and sponge baths and swab her vagina with borax solution to cool her passions.  “It would probably become necessary to send her to an asylum" - Moral Degradation o “The world works in mysterious ways. So, too through the human body. It is reasonable to hypothesize that a young lady with heightened ... Appetites ... would present a less than ideal maternal model. The body knows such things.” Science - Knowledge or a system of knowledge covering general truths of the operation of general laws especially as obtained and tested through scientific method - The intricate nature of science o A belief system o A valued skill set o A part of our daily life - Is subjective - Emerge through processes of social construction – evolve over time o For example Big Bang Theory obsolete? - If we get locked into absolutes, we become blind to other possibilities - Is subject to social control – ethics and internal monitoring - DEVIANCE - Contributes to categorizing, labelling, judging people behaviours and characteristics - Belief systems in science o Claims about the nature of reality  the way the world works o Ethics and moral claims embedded in the system The Power of Scientific Social Typing: - Foucault “Power / Knowledge‟ - Lay people rarely question the scientist - Example given is the power of the title “DR” – given the example of Dr. Laura … or Dr. Phil Science as SUBJECTIVE AND BIASED: - Thomas Kuhn - The Structure of Scientific Revolutions  Google for more information if needed - An analysis of the history of science - The evolution of scientific theory is based in the intellectual and political circumstances of the time Social Darwinism and Eugenics - European colonization - Scientific theory took on the new method of justification for domination - Social Darwinism (Herbert Spencer) - Eugenics applied the ideas of social Darwinism to categorize individuals / groups within a society Example: 1922 Sociology Textbook - The problem with eugenics is to make such legal, social and economic adjustments that: o A larger proportion of superior persons will have children than at present o That the average number of offspring of each superior person will be greater than at present o That the most inferior persons will have no children o Other inferior persons will have fewer children than now CANADA’S EUGENCIS PRACTICES - Collective memory – Dr. R. Wilson o Indian / Indigenous Canadians o Mentally Ill o Handicapped individuals - Around the world o AIDS o “At Risk” group Explanations for Deviance in Science - Bad Apple / Bad person theory Take both these from text and - Iceberg theory readings Merton’s Four Norms of Science - Communism - Skepticism - Disinterestedness - Universalism Organized Crime Organized Crime Definition - Organized crime has been officially defined by the Canadian police as “two or more persons consorting together on a continuing basis to participate in illegal activities, either directly or indirectly, for gain”  working definition - “Criminal organization” means a group, however organized, that  Is composed of three or more persons in or outside of Canada; and  Has as one of its main purposes or main activities the facilitation or commission of one or more serious offences that, if committed, would likely result in the direct or indirect receipt of a material benefit, including a financial benefit, by the group or by any of the persons who constitute the group  It does not include a group of persons that forms randomly for the immediate commission of a single offence  Legal definition - According to the FBI o Organized crime is committed by criminal organizations who existence has continuity over time and across crimes, and that use systematic violence and corruption to facilitate their criminal activities Organized Crime - In NA, just about every major national or ethnic group and every segment of society has been involved in organized crime - Historically organized crime provided an opportunity for upward mobility - These groups (families) were connected: o Common ethnicity, culture, language o Common place at the bottom of social status - What are The Social Dynamics? o The Dynamics that create Organized Crime  High crime countries/poor enforcement of criminal laws  Rapid social change  Advanced levels of economic development  Import/export ability  Restrictions on the legitimate methods of obtaining desired goods  Higher immigration/ethnic minority numbers  A ‘romanticization’ of crime figures - Models of Organized Crime o Parton-client networks: within this model organized crime groups operate as smaller units within the overall network – they generally feature:  Hierarchies based on naturally forming family, social and cultural traditions  Tight-knit locus of activity/labor  Fraternal or nepotistic value systems  Personalized activity; including family rivalries, territorial disputes, recruitment and training of family members, etc.  Entrenched belief systems, reliance on tradition  Communication and rule enforcement mechanisms dependent on organizational structure, social etiquette, history of criminal involvement, and collective decision-making o Bureaucratic/corporate operations – this model closely resembles legitimate corporations- they are generally typified by:  A complex authority structure · An extensive division of labor between classes within the organization  Meritocratic  Responsibilities carried out in an impersonal manner  Extensive written rules/regulations  Top-down communication and rule-enforcement mechanisms o Youth and Street gangs  Commonly feature a distinctive gang culture  Young members  Often relatively low cohesion, few shared goals and little organizational structure There Are No Borders - Trends in transnational criminal activity o Technology use  Allows old crimes like theft and fraud in new ways  Also allows relatively new activities such as hacking and ‘spoofing’ websites  Similar to legitimate businesses, organized crime relies on email, global positioning system (GPS), cell phones, instant messaging, accessing large amounts of electronic data and transferring funds quickly and securely  Crimeware  Criminal groups have also created technological tolls specifically for crime  Crimeware is a type of malicious software, specifically designed to steal confidential personal and financial information o Changes in organizational structure and composition  Traditionally, organized crime was understood as being comprised of hierarchically structured groups that were ethnically, racially or culturally homogeneous  Instead, more multi-ethnic criminal groups are detected by law enforcement  The traditional understanding was that organized crime is primarily hierarchical and operates in an authoritarian, rule-bound fashion evolved as well  Many organized crime groups today are loosely structured, competitive networks with fluid linkages between members and associates, with a diverse range of leadership structures o Legimatization (set up legal businesses, donate to community and social cause)  Some criminal groups operate businesses that are primarily intended to facilitate criminal activities  Others offer legitimate trade but also facilitate enterprise through, for example, trafficking drugs, smuggling contraband or laundering funds  Criminals many own or operate these businesses openly, conceal their dealings, or involve the owners or employees  Corruption or coercion can be used to place members of the criminal group within legitimate business and then use the business for illicit purposes  Legitimate businesses can also enable criminal groups to distance themselves from criminal activities and provide an appearance of legitimacy  Many criminal organizations also involve themselves in charity work including:  Participation in toy drives  Organizing scholarship funds in their communities  Organizing blood drives  It has been suggested that the presence of outlaw clubs at charity events may have harmed the needy by driving down public p
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