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Review for Second Midterm Exam.docx

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Western University
Sociology 2259
Pamela Cushing

Review 1. How does Labeling Theory view the process of deviance? 2. What theory argues that, “people imagine how they appear to others and then develop feelings of shame or pride based on that imagination.” 3. In Mead’s theory of the “I” and the “Me” which one operates as an object? 4. In Mead’s theory of the “I” and the “Me” which one operates as a subject? 5. Which theorist came up with the social bond theory? 6. What is the basic theoretical question posed by the social bond theory? 7. Who does the social bond theory blame for deviance? (Which was argued to be one of the main flaws of the theory) 8. Name the Four main types of bonds. 9. What was Walter Reckless’ theory? 10.What were the three elements proposed that increased the probability of crime? 11.What is an indirect inner control? 12.What is an indirect outer control? 13.Who is considered the founding father of Functionalism? 14.What do Functionalists propose as a solution to deviance? 15.What is Anomie? 16.What is Eufunction? 17.In the textbook, under the section about functionalism, is scapegoating a positive or negative consequence of deviance? 18.What is Dysfunction? 19.What theory did Robert Merton adapt to create his Strain Theory? 20.What mode of adaptation would Merton apply to individuals that lived in a hippie commune? 21.What mode of adaptation would Merton apply to the protestors who were part of the Occupy Wall Street movement? 22.What are Mead’s four stages of socialization? 23.Who came up with the theory of “The Dramatization of Evil”? 24.What does the theory of the Dramatization of Evil suggest? 25.What is the difference between Primary Status and Primary Deviation? 26.What is the process of labeling? 27.What are Imputational Specialists? 28.What is the focus of Phenomenology? 29.What is Argot? 30.Who came up with the theory of Differential Association? 31.What does Differential Association Theory argue? 32.What was another name the Professor gave Differential Association theory? 33.What neutralizing technique is used when a person argues that they stole so that they could feed their family? 34.What neutralizing technique is used when a person argues that they smoke pot because it should be legalized anyway? Answers 1. People define what acts are considered deviant which leads to deviance. Deviance is a social construction. People with power use labels to create stigma. 2. The Looking Glass Self by Charles Cooley 3. The “Me”. The “Me” is how we are able to see ourselves as an object that can be acted upon. We can take on the viewpoint of the generalized other (through the process of socialization) which allows us to change our actions. 4. The “I”. The “I” can be considered our present self. It is the self that makes action. Through the process of socialization we are able to view that action from the perspective of the generalized other and view ourselves as an object or the “Me”. There is only one “I” but many “MEs” (the me is situational) 5. Travis Hirschi 6. “Why aren’t you a criminal?” Social Bond Theorists assume everyone is a criminal but only some choose to act. 7. The Mother. Social Bond theory argues that we do not deviate if we have strong social bonds. The Family is responsible for socialization and creation of those bonds, specifically the mother. 8. Attachment to significant others, Commitment to occupational aspirations, involvement, belief in norms and values. 9. Containment Theory, which argued that there were Inner and Outer factors that contained (or controlled) the average person and kept them from being deviant. 10.A motivated Offender, Suitable Target, an absence of a capable guardian. 11.An Indirect inner control is based on an individual’s personal and rational interest in maintaining conformity. They are actively aware of how they want to be seen by society. They are personally invested in societal norms. 12. An indirect outer control is based on relationships. If your mother is also your teacher you are less likely to fool around during class time. You want to maintain the relationship with your mother; this is an outer control, however, because if she were not there you would fool around. Where as if it was a indirect INNER c
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