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Sociology 2259
Kim Luton

Chapter 2- Explaining Deviance: The Act Theorizing Deviance - theory provides us with the central means of explaining and understanding deviance - scientific theories of crime have existed for almost a century - scientific study of criminality is recognized as beginning with the work of Cesare Lom- broso in the early 20th century - explained criminality on the basis of evolution- suggest that criminals were atavists- evolutionary throwbacks whose biology prevented them from conforming to societys rules - Goring believed just as biological traits were inherited, so was social behaviour - by mid-century, social theories of crime had largely replaced biological theories, and theorizing about non-criminal forms of deviance gained prominence as well - although the debate continues over whether there is a distinct body of deviance theory, there is no doubt that deviance specialists, whether they focus on criminal or non-crimi- nal forms of deviance, utilize a wide range of theory: general sociological theories (e.g. conflict theory), specific criminological theories (e.g. Strain Theory), and interdisciplinary theories (e.g. feminist theories) - multiple coexisting explanations for the same phenomenon - each theory provides us with one way of looking at a certain aspect of deviance, but no single theory can explain all of the components that make up deviance as a whole - social theories can be classified as positivist, interpretive, or critical - positivist theories take more objective ways of recognizing deviance, including views based on normative violation, statistical rarity, harm, and societal reaction - each of these definitions of deviance suggest that there is an inherent deviancy is a certain trait - emerging from this core idea is an interest in finding out why people become deviant - interpretive and critical theories take more subjective approaches when looking at deviance, suggesting that the only characteristic all deviant people have in common is that enough important people have said they are deviant - emerging from this core idea is an interest in exploring the social typing process- the process through which deviance and normality are socially constructed- who becomes typed as deviant, how are they treated, and what rationales are offered? In what way does power influence societal perceptions of and reactions to particular behaviours? - significant trend in theorizing is that of theoretical integration- combining aspects of dif- ferent theories in order to explain a particular phenomenon - positivist, interpretive, and critical theories may be integrated in multiple combinations Why Do People Become Deviant? Using Positivist Theories - positive sociological theories are fundamentally interested in explaining why people act in particular ways - universal laws that govern the environment - positivist sociological theories are in the pursuit of planning for a better society - positivist explanations of deviance are inevitable coupled with efforts at social control Functionalist Theories - functionalist theories, which in the past were also called structural functionalist theo- ries, dominated the discipline until the mid-20th century - society is seen as being comprised of various structures (e.g. the family; the educa- tion system; the political system), each of which fulfills necessary functions for the smooth running of the social order - some are manifest functions- intended and recognized - others are latent functions- unintentional and unrecognized - e.g. post-secondary education is to train young adults for employment, latent function is providing individuals with social networks - smooth running of society is threatened if one of its structures has a poor fit with the other structures that make up society - core concerns of the functionalist perspective is the maintenance of the social order - the rules exist because we agree they should exist; we agree they should exist be- cause they serve a useful purpose for society - Talcott Parsons and Robert Bales (1955) suggest that traditional gender roles- men re- sponsible for instrumental tasks (breadwinning) and women are responsible for expres- sive tasks (e.g. nurturing the children) are functional for society because they ensure that the division of labour in the family is done efficiently - challenging traditional gender roles may therefore interfere with the social order and threaten the equilibrium of society - alternatively, it may be that a part of the structure of society has become dysfunctional, which is causing people to break the rules Durkheim: Anomie Theory - not only is Emile Durkeim (1933, 1951) recognized as one of the founders of the disci- pline of sociology; his work also defined the structural functionalist perspective itself - his notion of theory is defined in 2 ways - first, Durkheim suggested that a certain level of deviance is actually functional for soci- ety; deviance serves a useful purpose in helping maintain societys balance or equilibri- um - second, Durkheim addressed deviance in the context of pathological levels of deviance that occur when society changes too quickly, and anomie (normlessness) emerges - deviance is functional in enhandcing social order and increasing social solidarity among those of us who join together in fighting back against those people who join to- gether in fighting back against the people who break the rules - deviance also functional in that in observing behaviour and its consequences, society determines what its moral boundaries are, what its rules should be, and what is consid- ered acceptable and unacceptable - deviance can be functional in that it tests societys boundaries and may demonstrate when certain rules no longer work and need to be changed - finally, deviance serves as a way of reducing societal tensions in 2 ways - first, tension reduced when there is some sort of scapegoat that can be blamed for a social problem, since blaming a scapegoat takes the pressure off society at large - second way that societal tensions can be defused is when individuals engage in small acts of minor deviance that act as a safety valve and let off some steam- i.e. drinking af- ter a hard weeks work - Parsons and Smelser (1956) elaborate on this latter function, suggesting that letting off steam through minor acts of deviance subsequently activates social processes that re- turn deviant actors to their acceptable roles in society - the social processes that return people to their acceptable roles include socialization (wherein deviant actors who are letting off steam have internalized societys rules suffi- ciently that they return themselves to their legitimate social roles), profit (which teaches citizens that there is a payoff or benefit accorded those who conform to societys rules), persuasion (through advertising, the sermons of religious leaders, psychologists ad- vice, etc) and coercion (punishment for those who do not return to their legitimate so- cial roles). - several researchers have explored the functionality of deviance in reinforcing moral boundaries, testing social boundaries, increasing social solidarity, and reducing societal tensions - Kai Eriksons (1966) classic analysis of the PUritans of the Massachusetts Bay Colony reveals that acts of deviance helped to reinforce the moral boundaries of their communi- ty - helps to change outdated laws - Victors (1992) review of scapegoating in America illustrates the functionality of de- viance both in reducing societal tensions and in enhancing social solidarity - directing hostility toward some type of external enemy temporarily helps to reduce ten- sions and increase social solidarity - collective manufacturing of an evil enemy image was directed at heretics and witches in the Middle Ages - Durkheim pointed out that deviancy remains functional up until a certain point, beyond that particular level it no longer enhances social order but rather interferes with it - living in 19th century Europe, Durkheim observed that the processes of urbanization and industrialization and their subsequent greater emphasis on individuality, led to an in- crease in deviancy to the point of dysfunction - noted that suicide rates were higher in more individualistic communities characterized by less social integration (i.e. cohesion or social bonds) and lower levels of moral regu- lation (i.e. the enforcement of societys norms) - before industrialization, he theorized, societys structure was held together by me- chanical solidarity- i.e. society was bonded together by likeness or by a collective commitment to conformity - these societies were characterized by minimal specialization in the division of labour; people produced whatever they needed for their survival - interactions were personal and often kin-based - with industrialization, the bonding mechanism for social structure was transformed into one of organic solidarity- society was bonded together by difference or interdepen- dence through a highly specialized division of labour - interactions are based primarily on our dependence on others because of the degree of specialization in the division of labour - mechanical and organic solidarity, with social integration and moral regulation, both have the potential to keep deviance at a functional level and facilitate the degree of con- formity necessary to maintain social order - however, when social change occurs at too rapid a pace, individualism gets out of con- trol, and bonds between people become weaker than is necessary for the well-being of society
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