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[Sociology 1020] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 10 pages long Study Guide!


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC 1020
Professor
Kim Luton
Study Guide
Midterm

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Western
Sociology 1020
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Chapter 1
Durkheim
Argued that suicide rates vary because of differences in the degree of social solidarity in
differet groups. Aordig to Durkhei, the ore a groups eers share eliefs ad alues,
and the more frequently and intensely they interact, the more social solidarity a group exhibits
Microstructures patterns of intimate social relations. They are formed during face to face interaction.
Families, friendship circles and work associations are all examples of microstructures.
Macrostructures are patterns of social relations that lie outside and above your circle of intimates and
acquaintances. Macrostructures include class relations and patriarchy the traditional system of
economic and political inequality between women and men in most societies.
Global Structures are international organizations, patterns of worldwide travel and communication,
and the economic relations between countries are examples of global structures. Global structures are
increasingly important as inexpensive travel and communication allow all parts of the world to become
interconnected culturally, economically and politically.
Sociological imagination the ability to see the connection between personal troubles and social
structures
Scientific Revolution Began about 1550. It encouraged the view that sound conclusions about the
working of society must be based on solid evidence, not just on speculation.
Democratic Revolution Began about 1750. It suggested that people are responsible for organizing
society and that human intervention can therefore solve social problems.
Industrial Revolution Began about 1780. It created a host of new and serious social problems that
attracted the attention of many social thinkers.
These three revolutions are three sources of the sociological imagination.
A Theory is a tentative explanation of some aspect of social life. It states how and why certain facts are
related.
Research is the process of carefully observing social reality to assess the validity of a theory. It is
because research can call the validity of a theory into question that theories are said to be only
tetatie eplaatios.
Values are ideas about what is right/wrong, good/bad.
Values help sociologists formulate and favour certain theories over others
Durkheim, Marx and Weber initiated three of the major theoretical traditions in sociology:
functionalism, conflict theory and symbolic interactionism.
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Functionalism
Durkheis theor of suiide is a earl eaple of hat soiologists o all functionalist theory
Functionalist theories incorporate four features;
1. They stress that human behaviour is governed by relatively stable patterns of social relations, or
social structures. For example, Durkheim emphasized how suicide rates are influenced by
patterns of social solidarity. Usually the social structures analysed by functionalists are
macrostructures.
2. Functionalism underlines how social structures maintain or undermine social stability. One
aspect of instability said Durkheim, is a higher suicide rate. Another is frequent strikes by
workers.
3. Functionalists theories emphasize that social structures are based mainly on shared values. Thus
Durkheim wrote about social solidarity meaning the frequency and intensity of social
interaction, but more often he thought of social solidarity as a moral cement that binds people
together.
4. Functionalists suggest that re-establishing equilibrium can best solve most social problems.
Durkheim said that if more people could agree on wanting less, social solidarity should rise and
there would be fewer strikes, fewer suicides, and so on. Functionalism, then, was a conservative
response.
o If people are expressing discontent because they are getting less out of life than they
expect, discontent can be lowered by figuring out ways for them to get more out of life).
Manifest visible, intended
Latent invisible, unintended
Conflict Theory
1. Generally focuses on large, macro level structures, such as relations between or among classes
2. Conflict theory shows how major patterns of inequality in society produce social stability in
some circumstances and social change in others
3. Conflict theory stresses how members of privileged groups try to maintain advantage while
subordinate groups struggle to increase theirs. From this point of view, social conditions at a
given time are the expression of an ongoing power struggle between privileged subordinate
groups.
4. Conflict theory typically leads to the suggestion that decreasing privilege will lower the level of
conflict and increase the sum total of human welfare.
Symbolic Interactionism
1. Focuses on face to face communication or interaction in micro level social settings. This features
distinguishes it from both the functionalist and the conflict paradigms.
2. Symbolic interactionism emphasizes that an adequate explanation of social behaviour require
understanding the subjective meanings people attach to their circumstances.
3. Symbolic interactionism stresses that people help to create their social circumstance and do not
merely react to them
4. By underscoring the subjective meaning people create in small social settings, symbolic
interactionists validate unpopular and unofficial view points, thus increasing ur understanding
and tolerance of people who may be different from us.
o Understanding the intention or motive of the actor is critical to understanding the
meaning of a social action and explaining it.
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