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Sociology 1020 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Premarital Sex, Intimate Partner Violence, Ascribed Status

Course Code
SOC 1020
Kim Luton
Study Guide

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Psychological and anatomical
ascribed status (you are born with it)
not an achieved status (earned)
a biological category
Castor Semenya
fast 18 year old South African track + field
Olympics test her “gender”
Had been “cleared”
Becoming our sex
1-3% of babies are born inter-sexed
medical professionals can re-assign infants (1995)
90% ! easier to dig a hole than to build a pole
a social category
culturally defined
based on social expectations for individuals
set of social attitudes that can vary from culture and over time within society
gender norms
rules specifying appropriate behaviors for each gender
gender scripts
Sex Codes
pre-marital sexual standards
abstinence standard
double standard
love standard
fun standard
28% of societies forbid premarital sex
it is okay for men to have pre-marital sex, but it is not
okay for women
sex is permitted if you are in love/ in a committed
casual sex is permitted
Risman Study
a change in attitudes towards people based on sexuality
egalitarian conservative ! lost respect for women + men
Egalitarian libertarian ! did not loose respect
Traditional double standard ! loose respect for women
Reverse double standard ! loose respect for men

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Becoming our Gender
gender identity
powerful aspect of self which develops in accordance with the individuals
gender. not necessarily the same as their sex.
achieve status
master status
your gender is your defining characteristic
18m-3 years to learn your gender identity
Gendered Order
set of structural relations through which people are treated differently
because of their gender
created socially
present in all known societies but 2
specific to that society
Gender Intensification
hyper-differentiate from the other gender in terms of behavior & experience
perpetuated by mass media/advertising/pursuit of $
adolescence is a key period
5% of girls have the ideal body according to media
1/5 girls are anorexic
¼ disordered attitude to food
Tough Guise
Disguise to look tough
Defense mechanism
Media brings pressure to conform to tough guise
Race has been a cultural norm associated with violence and masculinity
Degenderization- makes masculinity invisible
Effects of Gender Intensification
Gender intensification ill prepares both men and women for the roles that
they will later perform.
Impossible standards leads to low self esteem and high dissatisfaction.
Emphasizes the dominant/submissive nature of the male/female relationship
and perpetuates gender inequality.
Gender Stereotypes
occurs when people believe others possess certain characteristics
simply as a result of being a member of a particular group

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Gender Stereotypes
Attributing certain characteristics to others simply on the basis of
whether they are male or female
Persistence of Beliefs about Gender Differences
Even when there is a statistically significant difference between males and
females, for most characteristics, there is more similarity than difference
between the genders.
Most human characteristics fall into a NORMAL DISTRIBUTION where a
small proportion of people rate much higher; a small proportion rate much
lower; but most people fall somewhere in the middle
Persistence of Gender Differences
Gender schemas tend to shape the way we notice, interpret and remember
information according to our expectations about genders
Social roles for males and females enhance or suppress different
Differential gender socialization leads males and females to develop
different skills and attitudes which leads to different behaviours – the
differences in behavior seem to confirm the appropriateness of the different
roles - “Naturalization of biology”
Gender Stratification
Social status and social roles that men and women occupy in society
Gender stereotyping leads to social attitudes about “correct” gender roles
for men and women, leading to different statuses
Place in society is largely based on the value we place on their role in the
division of labour
Wage Gap
In 2009, women outnumbered men in the labour force for the first time
28% of women and 11% of men work part-time.
Female occupational ghettos remain
Women receive 58% of university degrees
Women still do most of the unpaid work at home
Reasons for Gendered Wage Gap
Human Capital factors – education, experience, tenure, field of study
Demographic factors – marital status & children
Job Characteristics – occupational segregation, industries, type of work,
size of establishment
Discrimination = 38%
Feminization of Poverty
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