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Midterm

Sociology 1020 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Ethnography, Roman Calendar, Types Of Restaurant


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC 1020
Professor
Kim Luton
Study Guide
Midterm

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Sociology: Term Test 2 Study Notes
Gender (Ch.7)
- Hughes says that masc/femn status is part of a 'master status' and that everything is filtered through
gender identity
Gender Stereotypes
- gender stereotypes = giving characteristics to others on the basis of their sex
- most characteristics fall into a NORMAL DISTRIBUTION , where most people fall in the middle of
gender differences
Theoretical Perspectives on Gender
Structural Functionalism
- gendered practices promote social stability (division of labour) and maintain order
- Parsons: gender differences = integration of society where roles link people together for family
- families need mother and father
Symbolic Interactionist
- all things are negotiable ie. gender identity (not fixed and immutable, ex. transexuals), gender roles,
gender norms, masculinity, femininity
- behaviour defined by gender appropriate norms and sanctions
- androgeny: some take on masc and femn characteristics
Marxist - Conflict
- neither sex possessed the means of production
- concentrating on equalities leads to divisions and conflict
IMAGES OF SOCIETY
Ch.19 If Men Could Menstruate
- if men could menstruate then menstruation would become enviable, boast worthy and masculine
- political policies would be crafted to fit the 'new lifestyle of males'
- menstruation would have an impact on pretty much everything and the power justifications are limitless
Ch.20 National Conversation in the Wake of Littleton is Missing The Mark
- school shootings relating to a crisis in masculinity due to the over abundance of male perpetrators
- violence is a male phenomenon which indicates that gender is a vital factor
- issue is the construction of violent masculinity as a cultural norm

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- factors prevalent in the school system related to violence include: dominant displays of power and
control, ridicule of lesser opponents, respect equated with fear and deference
- shooters were ridiculed, marginalized, harassed and bullied
- media shapes masculinity as a tough image
Ch.21 Fraternities and the Collegiate Rape Culture: Why Are Some Fraternities More Dangerous
Places For Women?
- majority of rape cases are date or acquaintance rape
- rape culture is a set of values and beliefs that provide an environment conducive to rape
- generic culture surrounding and promoting rape
- based on the assumptions that men are aggressive and dominant
- double standard or sexual behaviour between the sexes
- rape has a social basis where men and women create and recreate masculine and feminine identities and
relations
- fraternities = venue of high occurrences of rape
- high risk fraternity houses have more members and more varsity athletes and more reports of aggression
and physical destruction
- gender relations in fraternities involve hooking up in terms of relationships
- peer pressure and situational norms have influence
- alcohol consumption was a key factor
Family (Ch.10)
- kinship: a social bond based on blood, marriage, or adoption ie. extended family
- propinquity: spatial proximity ie. most will marry within 20 blocks of eachother
Theoretical Perspectives
Structural Functionalism
- family performs these tasks and in effect society depends on families:
- socialization, regulation of sexual activity, social placement, material and emotional security
Conflict
- family perpetuates social inequality and plays a role in social layers:
- property and inheritance, patriarchy, racial and ethnic inequality
Symbolic Interactionism

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- explores how individuals shape and experience family life
- family living offers an opportunity for intimacy
- family members share activities and build emotional bonds
- courtship and marriage may be seen as forms of negotiation
Feminism
- family perpetrator of gender roles
- rethink notion that families in which no adult male is present are automatically a cause for concern
IMAGES OF SOCIETY
Ch.15 Changing Families
- marriage is occurring later in life and with less frequency
- achieved characteristics (education and occupation) play an increasing role in life
- causes women to delay marriage while they establish stable careers
- extent of homogamy (people marrying people like themselves)
- employment tends to predict marriage, belief that a successful marriage calls for two jobs
- risk of divorce is higher when the partner's parents have separated or when the parents of the partners
have higher education
- greater independence of women facilitates divorce as well as low socioeconomic status since this means
the exchanges in the marriage are less rewarding = divorce isn't viewed as negative
- remarriage, widowhood, living alone
Ch. 17 Experimental Family Organization: An Historico-Cultural Report on the Oneida
Community
- Oneida community had economic communism, group marriage, scientific breeding, sexual equality
- all lived in a huge mansion = promoted togetherness
- all activities in the mansion, emphasized the we as opposed to the I
- selfless collectivism with roles assigned to each member
- religion and spiritual devoutness united them
- intercourse was arranged by a committee that men would submit to and have it organized for them if the
woman agreed
- eugenics program of scientific propagation
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