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Sociology 1027A/B Final: Final Exam Study Notes - Everything you need to know!

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Sociology 1027A/B
Wolfgang Lehmann

Sociology 1027B Final Exam Study Notes Crime and Health • Social definition of deviance and crime o Norms vary widely and deviance is relative, no act is deviant in and of itself, everyone is deviant in one social context or another • Functionalist theories of crime o Deviance and crime are beneficial for society o When someone breaks a rule it gives people a chance to condemn and punish, reminds people of common values, clarifies moral boundaries, reinforces social solidarity o Deviance allows the social unit to develop norms they can stand behind, understand what is good/right/proper • Crime and deviance as socially constructed o What we label as deviant changes as society changes o Homosexuality is a key example ▪ Long considered deviant and a crime in Canada and the USA ▪ In a short period of time, homosexuality has not only been decriminalized but normalized (in some context – gay marriage) ▪ But: homosexuality is still a crime in many parts of the world o Other examples: abortion, interracial marriage, alcohol consumption, divorce, tattoos • Conflict Theories o Power differences matter o Privileged members of society ▪ Can determine what is deviant/criminal and what is not ▪ Use money and connection to escape or minimize punishment ▪ Create conditions that push others toward crime (job loss leads to economic deprivation) ▪ Can determine severity of punishment for different crimes (white collar/corporate crimes) o Who makes law? ▪ Typically people who have lived in privilege their whole lives • Conflict theories o Strain theory o Subcultural theory – organizations and groups have subcultures with different norms and values than the larger culture. As such, certain acts within these subcultures are seen as legitimate and necessary rather than deviant. o Learning theory – different environments provide opportunities to learn to engage in crime and deviance. If people interact and are exposed to criminals or deviants they will learn how to exhibit deviant behaviours via social interactions. o Control theory – weak social control leads individuals to engage in deviant and criminal behaviour. Weak social control is caused by: negative relationships with family, lack of involvement in institutional organizations, weak beliefs in traditional values, limited opportunities for success. o Labelling theory – how we respond to deviant and criminal acts and how this reaction can either increase or decrease an individual’s propensity to engage in further crime. It depends upon how you are treated when you are caught – leads to self-fulfilling prophecy. • Agnew’s General Strain Theory of Crime o Developed in 1980s and tested in 90s o Causal mechanism – individuals who experience strain feel more negative emotions, those motivate greater involvement in crime for some o Main source of strain: ▪ Failure to achieve positively valued goals ▪ Removal of positive stimuli ▪ Presentation of negative stimuli o Sources of strain examples: ▪ Inability to attain monetary success, parental rejection, harsh or excessive punishment, abuse, chronic unemployment, marital issues, discrimination o Individual vs. community level strain: your social environment affects your exposure to strain o Community level sources of strain: ▪ High rates of poverty and unemployment ▪ Overcrowding ▪ Lack of institutional support ▪ Fear of crime, fear of others ▪ Frequency of interactions with other strained individuals ▪ High levels of strain existing beside high levels of wealth worsens conditions • Currie’s Crime in a Market Society o 1997 – presented a neo-Marxist analysis of crime; inspired by Marxist thinking, but more grounded in the current world ▪ Looks at the economy to explain a social phenomenon o This means: he sees the impetus for crime in economic inequality and deprivation o Market driven system: social system in which the state plays a relatively small role, little provision for people under distress • Currie’s Seven Mechanisms o Good jobs are lost and replaced with bad ones ▪ Automation, shift from manufacturing to less permanent, uncertainty o Growing income inequality ▪ Lack of formal schooling affects job opportunities o Individualized vs. collective solutions ▪ If you can’t get a job its because there is something wrong with you, look at individual solutions when problems are more structurally based o Selfishness vs. community ▪ More worried with our own wellbeing than communal wellbeing o Competitions between members of society ▪ Common Marxist Theory – everyone trying to be better than someone else rather than looking at the problem as a whole. o Deregulation of the technology of violence. Guns are easily available. o Capitalism as hegemony: alternative political discourses are marginalized. ▪ A system that we accept so much that we don’t realize it is actually quite arbitrary – there are other ways we could organize life. False consciousness is a form of hegemony – systemic oppression. • How do these seven mechanisms lead to crime? o Many will be left behind, crime becomes attractive, even rational. o Issue is that some people who have everything still engage in criminal behaviour, there are also those who have extreme strain and do not. • Living in crime increases risk of victimization • Overall decline in crime rates through Canada since early 1990s, decline in crime severity index • Explanations for decreasing crime rates: o More and better trained police, demographic change (aging population), improved economic conditions since high crime in 1980s, legalization of formerly illegal acts (homosexuality) • Other behaviours have come into spotlight: o Shift between gender relations; date rape, rape culture, sexual violence o Our understanding of deviant behaviour has changed to be more of a public issue instead of private = more criminalization of these things • Labelling theory o Explores how we respond to deviant or criminal acts o Reactions either increase or decrease an individual’s propensity to engage in further deviance, an activity becomes deviant when we label it as such o Can result in self fulfilling prophecy • Labelling: Being Sane in Insane Places (Rosenham, 1973) o Fake mental illness o Variations in diagnosis; variation in type of mental hospital admittance o Doctors and staff don’t recognize them as fakes, patients do o Dehumanizing experience in hospital o Fake conditions become real o Being called sick and treated as such creates the condition of “being sick” • Being sick as a form of deviance? (Sick Role – Parsons, 1951) o Sick role associated with expectations and obligations: ▪ Exemption from other roles ▪ Exemption from responsibility ▪ Obligation to try to get well, seek help o Decline of autonomy ▪ Being diagnosed, treated at the mercy of others (depending on severity) o Dehumanization ▪ Being hospitalized, poked, probed = loss of dignity • Being healthy: significant increase in childhood obesity in past 30 years • Why? o Increased use of media than in the past, more time indoors than outside o Wider range of junk food available, lower cost and higher convenience o More women working who have less time to prepare healthy meals/buy groceries o Enrolling kids in physical activities is expensive o Increase in eating disorders o Marketing/media o CBC news report about researchers finding healthy eating more expensive than fast food • Social gradient of health: on all health measures o As income increases, life expectancy increases • Social determinants of health o Health outcomes and experience differ by social-structural factors; class, gender • Education – determines social class and affects: o Access of information to make healthy choices, ability to negotiate health care system and professionals, impacts type of job we can get • Employment – determines social class and also affects: o Risk and stress at work, stability at work; unemployment/underemployment, access to health resources at work • Income – determines social class, also affects: o Diet, leisure time and activity, access to extra health care and benefits, stress levels, quality of housing, exposure to environmental hazards • Sociological perspective: o Health is not simply a matter of good or bad choices o Problems of the healthy lifestyle discourse: ▪ Ideal body shape and class, changes over time ▪ Obesity – social class access to good food: where are grocery stores in your city? o What is meant by healthy lifestyle anyways? ▪ Loose aggregation of behaviours and conditions encompassing body size ▪ Focus: individual • Food deserts o Are there grocery stores in your neighbourhood? o Can you reach them easily by public transit? o Do you need to drive? Do you have a car? Schooling • Education is human capital, required for employment • Education is a massive employer o Many people in admin positions for institutions o Canada has highest rate of people ages 25-64 with a post secondary degree • Functionalist view: a modern school system should: o Socialize children to become responsible adults o Create national identity, social cohesion o Teach skills needed in modern society and economy o Give children equal opportunity o Reward children based on merit o Create a fair selection process o **considered manifest functions of schooling • Functionalist latent functions: o Create a youth culture o Create a marriage market – facilitates assertive mating – choosing a mate who is similar to oneself on various ranking criteria o Create a custodial and surveillance system for children o Regulate labour market – keep students out of work and in school o Policy makers often discuss raising education age to reduce number of troubled youth, idea that staying in school keeps them busy • Steaming/tracking in schools (Functionalist) o Students learn better: at the same rate as people with similar knowledge o Learning outcomes: bright students not held back, slow learners not overwhelmed o Better teaching and classroom management o Functionalist because: ▪ Based on fair assessments, fair sorting of students, best preparation for future roles suited to aptitude • Conflict view on streaming/tracking o Fundamentally affects educational experience ▪ What/how we learn, for what we are qualified o Problem with stream placement: class and race ▪ Disproportionately high number of low SES and minority students in applied streams ▪ Placement based on test or teacher biases? ▪ Is potential/ability known when stream placement happens? • Disadvantages for slower learners in applied streams o Fall further behind o Pedagogy and curriculum don’t prepare for good jobs o Lower levels of self esteem o Teachers and peers develop more negative attitudes o Long-term effects on students’ aspirations • Krahn: longitudinal study of 1985 Edmonton high school seniors o Examined how academic vs. applied stream related to parental education o Discovered that if a parent had attended university, high rate of people placed in academic stream o Did another study 14 years after they graduated high school ▪ Vast majority of students who had university educated parents completed university themselves • Why the differences in stream placements? Labelling o Pygmalion in the Classroom (Rosenthal and Jacobsen) ▪ Studied who would be high/low achievers o Ray Rist (1960s and 70s) ▪ Teachers label children early on; not based on achievement but other markers ▪ Teacher behaviours reinforce labels, subjective assumptions become objectified, labels become self-fulfilling prophecies Social Class • Class measured by income, occupation education • Parental education is most reliable measurement of class • Family income important predictor of university participation o With increase in income bracket, university attendance participation o College attendance increases greatly for the lower and middle outcome brackets, actually decreased when income bracket reaches around $75,000 • Sociological explanation: Rational choices? o Cost/benefit calculation ▪ Relative cost, risk, value ▪ Cost is relative to how much money you have, tuition costs have increased beyond inflation ▪ Reasons: universities are larger, need more resources, government funding for institutions is shrinking Differences by social class • Middle/upper o Education relatively cheap, outcomes relatively certain o Not participating = downward mobility • Working/lower class o Education relatively expensive, outcomes relatively uncertain o Not participating = neutral mobility • What changes cost-benefit equations? • Think: should we lower/abolish tuition, or keep tuition high and increase support to low income students? Who goes to university and who doesn’t? • Parent’s education, independent of income play a large role in university/college attainment o something about parent’s education that trumps income • Class and university attainment o Each level of parental education increases likelihood of being at university, women still have higher educational attainment rate regardless of sector Sociological Explanation: Cultural Reproduction • Pierre Bourdieu • Habitus o Shaped by family and larger social environment ▪ Parent schooling? Are they supportive of education? o Influences (educational) dispositions o Creates cultural capital • Cultural capital o Knowledge of dominant culture o High cultural capital aids school performance and integration o Working class (and ethnic minority) students unfamiliar with (Eurocentric middle class) values and culture expected in school • Field o Habitus and cultural capital have different value in different fields o Schools value middle-class cultural capital o Symbolic violence – if any kind of field arbitrarily rewards certain forms of knowledge and reward certain types of habitus and cultural capital over others • Professor Lehmenn’s High School Student Research o Family Background (class and habitus) o Interests (class and cultural capital) o Teacher expectations (class and field) • Research example: Lareau (Invisible Inequality; 2003) o Parenting approaches: ▪ Concerted cultivation: middle/upper class • Children’s lives programmed: music lessons, sports, tutoring ▪ Natural growth: working class • “carefree” childhood, minima adult supervision o Differences: ▪ Access to resources, organized activities, input in child’s life, negotiation, interactions with schools o Outcomes: ▪ Development of cultural capital, emerging sense of entitlement (middle/upper), emerging sense of constraint (working class) • Research Example: Calarco (I need it) o How do children themselves affect their learning experience and outcome? ▪ Help seeking in class; interactions with teachers ▪ Studied through ethnographic observations o Findings for middle class kids: ▪ Actively seek help, often, no hesitations, make sure they are noticed o Outcomes ▪ Middle class children are noticed and learned more ▪ Working class children overlooked, learn less, seen as less capable o Explanations ▪ Middle class children learned to ask for help at home ▪ Cultural capital and entitlement: parenting influences school behaviour o Role of cultural capital ▪ Middle class parents more educated, understand importance of asking for help, teach children to seek help outside of school (dance lessons, music) • Why is this inequality in educational attainment? o Genetics, IQ, inherited intelligence? No empirical evidence. o Financial explanations: Money buys better education, university getting more expensive, low incomes stagnant o Labelling: teachers treat students differently From education to work: knowledge economy • Reich 1992 – Work of Nations o Routine production – traditional manufacturing work/agriculture/mining ▪ Low skill, can be easily trained, standardized o In-person service; waitressing, hairdressing, sales clerks ▪ Mid to low level skill, can’t be easily automated o Symbolic analytic service – accountants, teachers, professors, lawyers ▪ High skill, professional jobs o Value-added service and production o Knowledge = success (learn to earn) • Canada or the US can’t compete on the basis of low labour costs o Can do the knowledge component that goes with it: build the software, advertise, design o Evidence of transformation in Canada ▪ Importance of education for competitiveness, mass education, increase in high school completion, massive PSE attainment gains in past 30 years, labour market pay-off for higher levels of human capital Credential inflation • Collins 1979. The Credential Society o Requirements rising = inequalities and social closure o Yet: inequality appears fair • Outcome of credential inflation: little change in power and status structure • Status hierarchies in Canada over time: o Despite growth in university participation, little change occurred in power structure in Canada Credential and the “extra credential” inflation • More forms of distinction occurring as more people getting educated o Work experience, volunteering, study abroad programs • Effects of social class; role of financial and social capital • Research example (Lehmann 2011) o Working class students at university, financial resources (economic capital) o More financially constrained, can’t volunteer to have the “extra credentials” • Opportunities (cultural capital) o Financial constraints of travel/work abroad makes applicants less desirable than those who can afford these experiences • Networks (social capital) o Not knowing people in the desired field, peers have better opportunities • Education, work and use of skills: do we really need all this education? o Growing percentage of Canadians working with uni degrees in jobs that don’t need uni degrees o Highest level of overqualification/underemployment is experienced by immigrants • Over-qualification/underemployment o Relatively steady over last two decades (despite rising educational attainment) ▪ Still too many uni grads and not enough college/trades o Gender differences by field of study: ▪ Relative number of men/women in a field; the fewer, the less likely they’re employment o Immigration ▪ Biggest difference between Canadian born and immigrants ▪ Point system of immigration vs. credential recognition o Age (not shown) ▪ Underemployment higher for younger workers ▪ Entry jobs and career progression Working Industrial work and sociology • First industrial revolution (1700s-early 1900s) o Factory production: technological innovation, centralization, division of labour, decline of artisan culture, management and office/support occupations, horrible work conditions th • Second industrial revolution (early to mid 20 century) o Fordist production: assembly lines ▪ Mass production and consumption. Hire lots of people, pay them good wages so they can buy the stuff you make. o Rise of management as profession ▪ People with more complex skills needed to run people and processes o Service work ▪ Bigger organization = more important to have departments like marketing, accounting, finance o Welfare state ▪ Public services, safety net, fiscal policy o *Industrialization and urbanization lead to unique issues addressed by sociology • Industrial work o Mundane, boring, routine? o Routinization and deskilling o Scientific management (Taylorism) – study of work processes, then developed the most efficient/effective way of doing the job ▪ Peace rate: give low salary, then made the rest of the income as a bonus to encourage people making more product faster o Assembly line controlled work o Stress & alienation – highly stressful and alienating Work and alienation • Marx : o firmly believed that good, human and productive work is at the center of human fulfillment o Absence of control – workers have little to no control under industrial production of the work they do o Division of labour – lack of knowledge about the whole process, divorces you from the final end product, can’t see yourself reflected in work you have done o Competition – modern industrial process leads to a way where workers see themselves united by a common interest to compete against each other (higher wages etc) o Commodification – you do “meaningless” work to get a salary, so your work is a form of commodity that your employer buys from you. No inherent, intrinsic value to you. The only reason you are working is so you can buy commodities = the commodity trap. • “Common-sense” definition: o Powerlessness, self-estrangement, meaninglessness Modern face of industrial work • In industrial nations: o Unionized, high salaries, well established work hours, changes/improvements in production processes o *disappearing due to automation, off-shoring • In developing nations: o Sweatshops, like early industrialization in Europe and US Post Industrial Era • Third industrial revolution (now) o Robotics and new communication technology o Expansion of international trade o Global networking of financial markets o Off-shoring of work (sweatshops) o Expansion of “newly industrialized countries” o Knowledge economies • Canada as knowledge economy o YES we are one, but most common occupations for men and women in Canada are nurses, salespeople, truck drivers… • Canadian labour market: where do people work? o Three labour market sectors: ▪ Primary: agriculture, forestry, natural resources ▪ Secondary: manufacturing, construction ▪ Tertiary: service work • Explaining the shift toward service work o Organizational: rise of large firms (bureaucratization & specialisation) o Socio-demographic: urbanization; mass education, gender equality, aging society o Social structure: rising income  spending power, changing family/social structure • Diversity of Service Work o “good”/high status service work ▪ Knowledge intensive, strong employment prospects o “decent” service jobs ▪ In person services, clerical work o “bad” service work ▪ Low pay, job security, benefits, part time, temporary (fast food, retail) • Difficulties of service work o Dual “responsibility” ▪ Employer vs. client, pote
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