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Sociology 2140 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Sex Segregation, Women Grow, Jeff Lorber

Course Code
SOC 2140
Cathy Thorpe
Study Guide

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Chapter 4
Alternatives to Incarceration
- Providing restitution & financially compensating victim for property loss and personal injury
- Electronic monitoring
oElectronic bracelet around ankle or wrist
oIf they stray too far, an alarm sounds at monitoring center as they are supposed to stay at
oOffender does not pose danger to community and jail term would be less than 2 years
- Community service
oOffers works certain number of hours within community
Mediation Services
- Work in cooperation with Crown Attorney’s office
- Bring victimizer and victim together in belief that both will benefit
- E.g. committing a crime may require that offender discount the consequences of their actions on
the victim or blame the victim
- Face-to-face meetings encourage a sense of personal culpability and compassion for victim
- The Hindsight effect
oEncourages victims to overestimate the extent of which they could have avoided
oConfronting the victimizer lessens the self-blame
- Empowering to see victimizer as other human being
Restorative Justice
- Philosophy concerned with reconciling conflict between the offender, community, and victim
- Approach to justice that focuses on dealing with the harmful effects of crime by engaging
victims, offenders, and community in process of reparation and healing
- Emphasizes individual and social healing, forgiveness, communication, and problem solving
oRather than punishment
- Value of offender as individual as affirmed
oTheir behaviour is condemned regardless
Aboriginal communities emphasized a model of justice in which:
- Focus is on problem solving and restoration of harmony
- Restitution and reconciliation are means of restoration
- Community acts as facilitator in process
- Offender is impressed with impact of their actions on community
- Holistic context of offense is taken into account
oIncludes moral, social, economic, religious consideration
- Stigma of offences is removable through conformity
- Repentance & forgiveness are important
- Offenders take an active role in restorative process
Legislative Action
- 1994: Anti smuggling initiative
- 1996: Witness protection program act
- 1997 : Legislative amendments to criminal code
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oIncluded anti-gang measures -> 14 years in prison
oProsecution of persons involved in child sex tourism in other countries
- 1998: Amendments to corrections and conditional release act
oThose convicted of offenses related to organized crime were ineligible for accelerated
parole review
- 2002: introduction of 3 new offenses involved with criminal organization
oBroader powers for law enforcement to seize crime profits or property
oIncreased protection of officers when investigation and infiltrating criminal organization
- Bill C-154
oIllegal to use internet to communicate with child for purpose of committing sexual
offense against child, transmit, make available, export or access child porn
oCourts can order the deletion of child porn posted on Canadian computer systems
- Bill C-36
oAnti-terrorism act
oDefines terrorist activity as encompassing acts of violence or destruction intended to
influence gov’t or intimidate public
oPreventive arrest and detain suspected terrorists for up to 48 hours without judicial
Racial profiling
- Law enforcement practice of targeting suspects based on race
Canada’s Youth Criminal Justice Act (YCJA)
- Replaces Young Offenders Act
- Principles
oProtection of society is achieved through prevention, meaningful consequences for
youth crimes and rehabilitation
oYouth treated separately under criminal law and in separate youth justice system that
emphasizes fair and proportionate accountability
oKeep in mind development and maturity of youth
oMeasures to address youth crime
Must hold offender accountable
Address their behaviour
Reinforce respect for social values
Repair harm done
oRespect gender, ethnic, cultural, & linguistic differences
oInvolve family, community and other agencies
oRespond to circumstances at youth with special requirements
oParents & victims have a constructive role to play
Should be kept informed and encouraged to participate
- Research on crime & violence supports the arguments of functionalists and conflict theorists
- Inequality in society & emphasis on material wellbeing and corporate profit produces societal
strains and individual frustration
- Poverty, unemployment, urban decay, substandard school can lead to development of criminal
subcultures and definitions favourable to law violation
oAlso weakening of social bonds between members of society and society as whole
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oLabelling of acts & actors as deviant
oDifferent treatment of minority groups by criminal justice system
- Crime & violence constitute major social problems in society, they are symptoms of social
problems such as:
oPoverty, economic inequality, racial discrimination, drug addiction, overburdened
school system, troubled families
- Get tough measures:
oBuilding more prisons
oImposing lengthier mandatory prison sentences on offenders
{Advocates claim that these make society safer}
- Prison sentences are:
oIneffective in preventing crime
oPromote it as they create an environment where prisoners learn criminal behaviour,
values, and attitudes
Bill C-10
- Safer streets & communities act
oTo enact the justice for victims of terrorism act
oTo ament the state immunity act, the criminal code, controlled drugs and substance act,
corrections and conditional release act, immigration and refugee protection act
- Enhancement of power given to government authorities to monitor online communication
- 2012 changes
oHarsher sentences for younger people
oKeep prisoners aboard or not
oFewer people on house arrest
The 3rd Strike Law
- Makes it easier to designate three-time offenders as dangerous & jail them indefinitely
Sex trade workers are viewed as victims by modern analyst’s
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