Final: December 19 2-4 Semi cumulative: covers chapter 5/6 (urban ecology, theories)
Childe: characteristics which differ from their predecessors
2. Non agricultural specialists
3. Tax and capital accumulation
4. Public buildings
5. Ruling class
6. Writing and numbers
7. Predictive sciences
10. Residential basis for citizenship
o No public buildings during Aboriginal time periods in Canada
o Urban Canada begins with the arrival of the Europeans. They came for trade/wealth, and
to convert the Aboriginals to the Christian faith—missionaries were sent over.
o The explorers were urbanites; knew what cities were composed of, and they brought
these ideas to Canada
o Early Europeans: military, missionaries, _________. They were urban dwellers.
o Most transportation route were along the water; set up ports for wealth.
o Extended their colonies along these routes.
o Settlements were very small: couple hundred people.
o First permanent settlement: Quebec City, 1608
o Communities were very small during the Colonial phase. They didn‘t encourage
migration they just wanted something out of the deal: wealth.
o Census in 1698 of New France (Quebec): 15,000 people
o Was it a city? Childe would say no, however they inhabited a decent amount of his
Peter McGahan: Evolution of Canadian Cities
1. Colonial Towns:
not much different than a medieval town.
beginnings of urbanization. 2. Commercial Centres:
*1763: British North America Act= control swings from the French to the British.
They wanted a strong colonial empire, were into mercantilism: trade. Strength of
an empire is determined by its wealth.
England in the 1760s: phase 2 of the demographic transition.
Settlers need ―stuff‖: tools etc. This brings occupational specialized
Retail and commercial areas initiate
Business class is created
Creation of the lawyers: handled transactions of property.
Diversification due to the migrants from Europe
Transportation routes grow outside of waterways
Cities needed: water, resources, workforce
3. Commercial-Industrial Cities
Industrialization characterizes the city
Greater industrialization in Ontario than MTL
English speaking were coming from Europe thus they went to Toronto
4. Metropolitan Communities
Manufacturing is the key to
Toronto and Montreal reach state of metropolitan area: 1900s.
Metropolitan cities are very similar to one another
Economy derived on manufacturing the needs of the local population
Demographic transition in the late 1800s in Canada
If you couldn‘t attract the railroad your settlement died.
To get a railroad to go through your area you need to pay off someone.
CMA: Census Metropolitan Area
Area consisting of one or more adjacent municipalities situated around a major urban
At least 10,000
idea is stolen from the U.S.
People aren‘t living just inside the city, but in the surrounding areas; GTA.
SMA: standard metropolitan area: U.S. terms
Diminishes the population in the core city, even though the overall population has
increased; people move to the surrounding areas
Largest agglomeration in the world: Tokyo 37 million people.
US population distribution: 2000; 50 percent live in the suburbs.
continuous decrease in rural, increase in suburbs Growth in central cities in Canada and the U.S. stopped in the 1960s.
2030: 5 billion people living in cities
Half the world‘s population lives within an hour of a metropolitan area
90% of the population live within 10% of the land.
Limits to the growth of the city:
Location of the next city
1921: Patrick Geddes
Conurbation: the coming together of cities.
Gotttman: book; Megalopolis
Mumford: foremost urban historian. Cities expand like a cancer. Hates cities, hates concept of
them growing and expanding.
London gets our water from: Lake Erie and Lake Huron
NY: Catscale Mountains, more than 200 km away.
Mega region same name as megalopolis.
Ecumenopolis: world city, one city covers the entire planet. They are functionally
interdependent, social business and trade connection among all the different regions.
Study by Millgram in 1969:
The small world project: you can send a letter to someone through people who know each
other on a first name basis
6 degrees of separation
Circles of acquaintance:
Uses email to communicate something across the continent.
48,000 people sample size
6 degrees of separation ( intermediaries)
Thus: the world is interconnected, your tied to other people through large geographical areas. st
CBD- centre of city.
Surrounded by city limits
Area between city limits and CMA are the suburbs
Suburbs have been around almost as long as cities
Suburban developments found in Mesopotamia (4000 years ago)
People escaped the Black Death by going to their country homes; 6 KM away from city
Cities used to be very dense, 4-6 km across the entire city
Industrial Revolution: mechanized transportation, allowed cities to grow
The suburbs were for the upper social class. This didn‘t change till 1945, after WWII
Cities began to fill in, ―urban sprawl,‖ due to the commonality of the automobile
Suburbs become less aristocratic
Central cities began to decline in the 60s: suburbs fell an increase
People wanted to escape urban problems: pollution, crime rates,
Population explosion due to excess of births
Very high levels of international migration; Europeans to N.A
Ecological process of invasion succession, the migrants displaced the existing citizens
VLA: Veterans Land Act. (Canada): idea that returning soldiers should be given some
rewards for serving: very low mortgages. You had to have a minimum of a half acre plot
of land you needed to live in the suburbs
VHA: Veterans Housing Act (U.S)
The industrial jobs moved from the core to the suburban areas; they no longer needed to
be at the centre of the city
Changes in communication: telephones now become available
Growths in suburban population were caused by construction techniques.
Faster, less expensive to build a home. ―cookie cutter construction‖ techniques
Duncan and Reies: 5 differences between urban and suburbia
1. Suburbia: ppl have higher SES
2. Suburbia: lower proportion of women working
3. Suburbia: younger average age
4. City: more immigrants located here
5. Suburbia: white collar jobs; more education more skill
Suburbs: homogeneity Klienewski
Transportation: walk/transit car
Density: high low moderate
Settlement pattern centralized decentralized
Land use mixed homogenous
Activities outdoor/street indoor/private
Control of space Public Private
Change in the 1950s
Development of entire area over a short period of time;
Levittown; largest development
Potato and spinach fields into a suburban area
Abraham Levitt built homes with his 2 sons.
Custom builders prior to war, they won a government contract to build houses in a hurry
AD: ―The buy of the century‖
Compared to Henry Ford.
Road known as Jerusalem avenue
Monthly pay to buy a house was cheaper than renting
After 1949 they were strictly for sale
People moved there because it was cheap
Nemea Todd infestation pushed farmers to sell to builders
Leviton was a symbol of everything going on in America, houses built accord ring to a
formula for a cheap price
4000 houses a year
17444 homes in 4 years
Largest housing project assembled by a single builder
1947 highest birthrate in American history
Levitt banned anyone who wasn‘t Caucasian
Ronek Park: accepted African Americans
Toennies concept of the traditional rural community.
Commonality of other things beside ―blood‖
Levitton: very homogeneous
Book: The Myth of Suburbia Much more heterogeneity in the suburbia‘s than we are led to believe
Seeley: wrote Crestwood Heights
People believed that suburbia was full of wealthy white class people
Crestwood Heights is a sutanim for Don Mills
Most typical of all suburbia neighbourhoods
As technology and transportation the cities began to grow; the suburban areas began to grow
Doxiadis wrote Ekisitcs; book about the hierarchy of cities.
Ecumenopolis; the entire area of the Earth that is taken up by human settlements; (world
city). As of 2009 more than 50% of the population lives in a city.
Conurbation (term from Geddes): a group of large cities and their suburbs; 3-10 million
Large city: large population and many services (London)
Metropolis: large city and its suburbs consisting of multiple cities and towns (Toronto)
Isolated dwelling – only has 1 or 2 buildings or families with negligible services
Hamlet- a hamlet has a tiny population, few public buildings and few (if any) services
Large town: 1,000-20,000
-Majority of the world population lives in an urban area (5,000 or more).
-Doxiadis estimates there are 14 million settlements
-99% of all settlements have populations less than 2000
-Brittan: 87% Urban. There are 17,000 villages and hamlets.
-Wirth: city is a large dense permanent settlement
-Rex Lucas: Canada‘s rural population was 33% in 1960. 2010: 17.5 trend is its declining
Economic Basis for small towns;
Port (port cities have either disappeared or are large cities like MTL)
Resource Extraction (mining)
Used to be railroad towns. There would be a service depot every 100 km.
Resource Extraction Towns
800 in Canada
15-20% of all communities in Canada are these type of towns
25% of Canada‘s non metropolitan population
25% Canada‘s rural workers Vital part to the economy
Usually built by one company, however holds the rights to the area
Less stable than other type of communities because there viable to the resources running
1960‘s book: my town, mill town, rail town
Evolution of Resources Extraction Communities: Mcgayon
1. Construction: Boom Phase: need to house the miners in order to extract resources: build a
town. Sex ratio 10:1, lots of alcohol drug abuse,
2. Recruitment- need to find workers, construction phase needs investment. Employ
university workers. Opportunities for experience and money. Ratio 5:1
5-10 years for stages 1,2
3. Transition: transition ownership of land to people. Lasts another 5-10 years.
4. Maturity: local government, citizens elect a mayor and town council.
Occupational inheritance: the children of the workers well have a similar job as their parents.
Problem is there are not enough of these jobs to go around.
When the mine closes down the value of homes is close to zero. Lots of resentment to the outside
world, they want the town to continue operating. Everyone wants to do well/good, however each
person has a different SES and has a different perception of what good is. Isolate yourself to
maintain your wellbeing; associate with people who are like you. People use drugs or alcohol to
distant themselves from people. Things are very regulated and, not a lot of freedom to do the
activities you please.
Health Services: almost all these communities don‘t have a full time doctor. Treat the symptoms
not the underlying cause- pill pusher
School are usually very good, provincially regulated, Urbanization November 15th
51/52% of the world