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Final

Final Exam.docx

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Sociology
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Sociology 2151A/B
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Prof

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Evolution of Cities Final Exam October 20 North American Experience *Refer back to Gordon Childe’s characteristics that differentiate the first ities form their predecessors first nations in Canada -almost none of the first nation tribes in Canada met the majority of the childe standards - after the arrivals of the Europeans is when cities in Canada began Evolution of Cnadaian Cities(P. mcgahan) 1. colonial towns (1600-1750) 2. commercial centres (1760-1850) 3. commercial industrial cities (1860-1900) 4. metropolitan communities( post 1900) 1600s Urbanits-immigrants who came from urbanized cities in Europe  city dwellers early years- explorers, religious converters , NO farmers, more to conquer. Transportation routes - water ways  the great lakes (sed by Europeans and aboriginal population) 1600-1750 Early sittlements –forts, small populations(100s of people), conquest and control , to extract wealth and ship it back to europe(the mother land) Towns isolated, communications were with the mother land(England, france) , export ports – furs etc. Quebec city 1608 church, administrative center, military Overtime the population grew 2000- in 100 years -Didn’t know how to farm -no one who lived” outside the walls” wasn’t safe -early cities in Canada traded goods/ideas(not much different than the medieval city)  walled community to exchange good/ ideas -sold necessities to people that lived there- tools clothing etc. 1763- british north America act- brittish take control of north America Mercantilist – centered around trade = british encouraged immigration (international migration after 1763) Migration empire loyalists into Canada British soldiers in NA, the government granted them land (land grant) -migration from US -migration from soldiers -migration from Europeans (germany, Netherlands, England)  heterogeneous 1760-1850 Beginning of commercial enterprise -farmers come in (need plows blacksmith-specialized traits) -city expand as commercial cities – look more like European cities - Occupational specialization -Diversification -politicians, lawyers, bearocrats, bankers concent east-west- railroads 1850- railroad access is key to the growth of cities 1860- factory system 1. transportation access for raw materials, 2. workers, 3. power 4. consumers 5. capital in-migration(international) + natural increase= population growth urbanization Is increasing – heterogeneity industrialization complex social classes(power prestige wealth) 1800s - segregation – older staying in core, younger in periphery improvements in transit- growth of the city 1900-metropolitan communities (CMA) #1 largest city =Montreal  392 100 population #2 Toronto #3 Vancouver metropolitanization -cities become less and less specialized and more and more like one another rapid increase in population (in migration) economy- meeting needs of local population advanced migrants in North America CMA 60% of canadas population -not evenly spread throughtout Canada , majority of Canadians live in a megalopolis – coming together of other metropolitan areas urban development (quebec city-ottowa-windsow) 1200-1500 kilometers 1-2% of land mass and it occupied with over 50% of urban Canadian population – continuous urban development – interrelated metropolitan transportation route Transportation modes – have shifted ( waterways, railroads - cars) Land between city limits and metropolitan limits= suburbs 5000 years Suburbs- occupied by elite ( people who could afford the transportation into the city) Geopolitical boundaries=city limits  becoming less and less important because of the larger use of the automobile , so larger amounts of people are living in suburbia , majority of the people in a city live in suburbia ( so geopolitical boundaries are less important, less relevant) reason for migration (long distance) #1 Economic oppurutnities  geographic mobility(job offers, job loss, cant afford living) reason for migration(short distance) =personal preferences (bigger house, smaller house etc) (in city-suburbs) 60% of all Canadian migrants = Toronto city 33 cmas in Canada November 3 Stats Canada- a city is more than 1000 people Ecumonopolis 99% of all settlements in the world have 2000 people small Canada defines 1000 people to be urban 87% population in great Britain live in urban cities Canada 1961 population-18,238,00 rural/small town= 6,000,000 33% 1991 popoulation= 27,300,000 rural=6,000,000 22% 2001=20% rural 2006= popoulation =31,6000,000 rural small towns =19% SINCE THE 60’S the same amount of people have been living in rural Canada =6 mill Rural= fishery, pulp/paper industries resource extraction towns >800 in Canada 15-20% of all communities 25% of canadas non metropolitan population 255 of canadas rural workers Evolution of Resource Extraction communities 1. construction- boom phase : great results , clear the land( 10:1- male to female reatio for manual labor) working, drinking, fighting 2. recruitment 3. transi
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