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Western University
Sociology 2151A/B

November 1- Suburbs & Beyond • About 6km outside of the city development of Mesopotamia, they found proof of suburbs (4000 years ago) • For people who could afford to live further away from the city - elites • For people who could afford a summer/winter home (cottage) • 13 c. Italy – there are reports about people of the city escaping (because of the plague) to their suburban homes roughly 6km away • Air was cleaner outside of the cities • Wasn’t until the Industrial Revolution that significant growth in sub-urban population occurred – industrialization of transportation and mechanization • Railroad suburbs: suburbs every 5-6km because that was how often the train could stop • Communities that developed along transportation routes were very small and homogeneous • Post-WWII (1945) – suburban sprawl because of the automobile becoming much more common U.S. Population Distribution (%) Central City Suburbs Rural 1900 21.2 10.7 68 1920 28.9 14.8 56 1940 31.6 19.5 49 1960 33.4 33.3 33.3 2000 30.3 50 19.7 2010 28 54 18 • People began moving out of cities into the suburbs because of the baby boom, and coinciding economic boom • Reconstruction: there was very high levels of international migration from Europe to North America into the cities because that it was they can afford, displacing the population that is already there (invasion-succession) • VLA: Veteran’s Land Act (Canada); VHA: Veteran’s Housing Act (USA) – the government felt that they owed returning soldiers housing, usually at low-interest rates • The idea was that everyone could afford them • Canadian requirements: you had to own ½ acre plot of land to have your house built on, only available outside of city limits • Changes of opportunity in business, industry and communication occurred • “Cookie-cutter” homes are less expensive because it all becomes pre-fabricated, pre-modeled, with cheaper materials • Duncan and Reiss (1956): looking at who was living in Suburbia? • Sub-urban labour force had higher socioeconomic status • The population was younger • Population of women working was less than previous years • Homogeneity City-Suburb Comparisons City Suburb Transportation Walking/mass transit Car Density High Low-moderate Settlement Pattern Centralized Decentralized Land Use Mixed Homogenous Location of Activities Outdoor/street Indoor/private spaces Control of Space Public Private • Suburbs are conceived as being elitist areas of the affluent Post 1950s • Tract homes: development of an entire area of homes over a short period of time (i.e. Levittown, N.Y.) • Video • Until the 1950’s-60s, homogeneity within the suburb, but increasing heterogeneity throughout suburbia • Bennet Berger, Myth of Suburbia, a lot of the myths we have about Suburbia are no longer true • It’s not a perfect utopia – there were social problems • Not everyone is rich, with upward social mobility • There is working class suburbs, racial suburbs, rich, poor, etc. that have filtered down from one socioeconomic status group to another • Crestwood Heights (1956) – people read it and assumed that life in the suburbia was typically high-class, ideal • Crestwood Heights was really Don Mills Area of Toronto • They used the term Crestwood Heights to protect the aristocracy of the area November 8 - Single Industry Towns Settlement Hierarchy – Konstantinos Doxiadis • Ecumenopolis – the entire area of earth that is taken up by human settlements. As of the year 2009, the United Nations estimated that for the first time more than 50% of the world’s population lived in cities, so the total population of this area would be 3.6 billion people as of 2012 • Megalopolis – a group of conurbations, consisting of more than ten million people each • Conurbation – a large group of cities and their suburbs, consisting of three to ten million people • Metropolis – a large city and its suburbs consisting of multiple cities and towns. The population is usually in 1-3 million. • Large city – a city with a large population and many services. The population is usually 300,000 – 1 million people • City – a city would have abundant services, but not as many as a large city. The population is between 100-300,000 • Town – a town has a population of 1-20,000 • Village – generally does not have many services, possibly only a small corner shop or post office. The population has population of 100-1000. • Hamlet – a tiny population (<100), few public buildings and very few (if any) services • Isolated dwellings – 1 or 2 buildings of families. It would have small services, if any. • United Nations – urban settlements are places with a population over 5000 • Statistics Canada – urban settlements are places with a population above 1000 • Doxiadis has identified 14 million settlements across the world • Only 150,000 had populations over 2000 (less than 1%) • In Britain, there are 17,000 villages and hamlets Canada • 1961 population = 18,238,000 | Rural/small town = 6 million (33%) • 1991 population = 27.3 million | Rural/small town = 3 million (22%) • 2001: 20% | 2006: 19% | 2010: 17.5% • 6 million people have been living in rural/small town Canada for 60 years, but remains a declining proportion of the Canadian population • There are 200,000 people being added to the urban population every day for the next 20 years • Smaller communities have different economic bases • Tourism – landmark attractions • Port/fishing – tend to have a lot of individual sailing ships • Agriculture – older, white-Anglo-Saxon, protestant • Mining – “Resource extraction” – people working for MNCs • University • Power • Pulp/paper forestry • Railroad towns • Resource Extraction Towns • > 800 in Canada • 15-20% of all communities in Canada • Contain 25% of Canada’s non-metropolitan population • 25% of Canada’s rural workers • These towns are usually built by individual private communities • Less stable because they are only there as long as they are economically viable – as long as they keep producing the commodity • Isolated, away from the bigger urban centers • Dependent on the outside world Evolution of Resource Extraction Communities • Construction • BOOM Phase; build the resource extraction facility and houses for the workers • High population turnover rate, gambling, drugs • Men who can operate heavy equipment and do manual labour • Sex ration is 10:1 (male:female) • Recruitment • Recruit people to work in the resource extraction facility • Usually people who have a degree in mining or engineering • People who are looking for opportunities for experience/money • A lot of marital discord because one person in the relationship has nothing to do while the other works (high transiency) • Social problems are declining • Sex ration is 4:1 • Transition • After 5-10 years • Becoming a stable community – the population is beginning to recognize the community as home • The MNC who built the town allows for the people to have some say in what they want to happen next • Company starts to transition ownership of the land to people who want to stay/invest • Maturity • Where we have local government – allowed to elect town officials, hire a sanitation director • Salaries are no longer paid out by MNCs; they start signing contracts with the RCMP/professional police forces • Establish an education system • Limited social mobility – people expect to keep their jobs for life • Occupational inheritance: the children of the workers will get the jobs of their parents, although their usually aren’t enough jobs to go around • Decline • Always a possibility • When the community does fall, they have a lot of resentment to the outside world – they see them as the common enemy; but there is no outright discrimination • Because people know everything about your life, it is different to keep your personal life to yourself • To escape, a lot of people turn to drugs/alcohol • Many of the activities are regulated • There is almost no health care services/doctors – when there is one around, they usually only treat the symptoms temporarily November 15 - World Urbanization • Last class talked about small rural towns • Today: cities in less developed worlds • More variety of lifestyles when looking at different cities all over the world • World’s population now 51% urban • But in our western world we are over 80% urban, and less developed worlds are around 40% urban • Most cities in less developed worlds are usually recent developments • Cities before colonization divided into 2 categories: • Regional center • Serves some sort of trade function • Religious centers • ex. Mecca in Saudi Arabia • Significant growth of cities in third worlds doesn’t occur until after World War 2 • After WW2 was also a Demographic Transition in Europe • Lasted 150-200 years • Mortality rates dropped rapidly because of “transfers of technology” • Causes population explosion • Fertility rates went up a little bit • Developed countries want children because they are economic assets • Developing countries make up an increasing share of the world population • Their population keeps increasing while developed countries have a steady population • Majority of population in developing countries are farmers • The growth of slums • More than one in every seven humans now live in an urban slum • Slum: high density, low SES neighbourhood • Illegal housing developments • Squatter settlement: illegal housing, living where no one else wants to live, and where the land is not occupied, there is nothing there to begin with you would have to build your own house • ex. Jarkarta 62% living in illegal housing • People moving from rural to urban areas have an age range: 15 to 30 years old • Because they will be reproducing • Gecekondus: houses/communities built overnight that you basically have to sneak in to in order to live in them • Picture of these communities: built on a cliff with houses scattered everywhere • Developing cities are not industrialized, almost no economic opportunities • Where opportunities do exist, its usually in ONE city per third world country • 80% of these cities’ populations were born somewhere else, minimum 40% born somewhere else • Every country has a different name for their squatter settlements ex. Brazil = favelas • How to minimize squatter/homeless problems? • Not enough money for us to build enough houses for everyone • Best thing to do nowadays is to train local people to build their own homes • Also considered was to raise mortality because this would be the easy way out, could stop feeding people, but would be extremely unethical • Lowering fertility number one solution as of now, and best way to do it is to educate women • Giving out birth control to women doesn’t work, need to educate them and make them want to believe in using contraceptives Video: Population Pressure – Mexico City • Migrants flow through the city each day with no homes or jobs • Jobs in the city is what attracts people to it • Traditionally Mexicans live in rural areas • In the 1950s medical care improved and the mortality level fell • But the birth rate still remained high • Step migration: moving to smaller towns • Breathing the air in Mexico City is equivalent to smoking 60 cigarettes per day November 22, 2012 Most Populous Countries, 2010 and 2050 • 2010: China, India, U.S., Indonesia, Brazil, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria, Russia, Japan • 2050: India, China, U.S., Pakistan, Nigeria, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Brazil, Ethiopia, Congo Population of Cities with 10 million inhabitants or more: • 1950 (1 country) | 1975 (5 countries) | 2001 (17 countries) | 2015 (21 countries) Latin America • Population of the world is growing – mostly occurring in the third world (20-25 million people) • Highest urbanized region (Mexico and South) • 77% urbanized • Most modern day Latin American cities started after European settlers arrived • Extensive urban developments before the Europeans came (unlike North Americans) • 4-5000 years ago, major cities existed in North America • Populations o
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