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Soc in Sports after the mid term.docx

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Western University
Sociology 2152A/B
William Marshall

th March 4 , 2012  Thought of the day: “The pessimist sees difficulty in every opportunity. The optimist sees the opportunity in every difficulty.”  Today: pg 145-169 (slides up to Performance Enhancing Substances)  Group assignment: 169-185 Deviance the actions, traits or ideas that fall outside a range of acceptance as determined by people with the power to enforce norms in a social world  We use the term deviance to emphasize the socially constructed and socially defined nature of deviance  It is a continual reminder that what we define as normal and as deviant varies depending on the time the place and the social context Problems face when studying deviance in sports 1. Forms and causes of deviance are diverse, and no single theory can explain them 2. Actions accepted in sports may be deviant in other social situations 3. Deviance in sports may be deviant in other social situations 4. Involves unquestioned acceptance of norms rather than a rejection of norms 5. Training and performance have become medicialized Using S.F theory  Deviance involves a rejection of accepted goals or the means of achieving goals in society  Conformity is equated with morality  Is caused by faulty socialization or inconsistencies in the social system  Controlled by getting tough and enforcing more rules more strictly “we need more rules to stop this stuff in sports” SF approach to deviance in sports Using S.C theory  Actions that interfere with the interests of those with economic power  Actions of those who lack power are more likely to be labeled as deviant  Those who deviate often are victims of exploitation in a system characterized by inequality  Will be minimal when power is equally distributed in society The need for a new approach to explain “deviance” in sports  Most deviance in sports is not due to the moral bankruptcy of athletes or a process of economic exploitation  Therefore, we need an alternative explanation that is not based on to functionalism or conflict theory A constructionist approach: based on four assumptions 1. Norms are socially constructed 2. Deviance is socially constructed as people negotiate the limits of what they will and will not accept 3. Power relations influence the process of negotiating normative limits 4. Most actions, traits and ideas in a social world fall into a normal Using Interactionist and critical theories to define deviance Figure 6.2 The Sport Ethic (S.I)  A set of norms that many people in power and performance sports accept and reaffirms as the dominant criteria for defining what it means, in their social worlds, to be an athlete and to successfully claim an identity as an athlete The Norms of Sport Ethic 1. An athlete makes sacrifices for the game 2. Strives for distinction 3. Accepts risks and play through pain 4. Accepts no limits in the pursuit of possibilities page 155: super-beings Asch Experiment 1. Sais the correct line is 2, looks at the other ppl as if there nuts 2. Hesitant, goes along with the incorrect lines 3. No pause, incorrect line Athletes Most Likely to Over conform to the Sports Ethics  Those with low self-esteem and strong needs to be accepted by peers in a sport  Those who see achievements in sport as their only way to get ahead, make themselves a name and become important in the world  Those men who link their athletic and gender identities together Hypothesis: more athletes are apt to take part in deviant behaviors when the above characteristics are present Social Processes in Elite Power and Performance Sports  Bond athletes in way that‟s normalize over conformity to the sport ethic  Separate athletes from the rest of the community while inspiring awe and admiration among community members  Lead athletes to develop hubris: that is, a sense of arrogance, separateness and superiority Title Following the norms of the sport ethic Social bonds among athletes Hubris Hypotheses About Deviance Among Athletes  Deviance becomes more likely when:  Social Bonds normalize risk taking  Athletes are separate from the rest of the community  Athletes develop extreme degrees of hubris  When people in the community see athletes as being special Hazing and University Policy  „zero tolerance‟ policies at universities may have made hazing worse by causing coaches to absent themselves, and by driving it off campus  Clear and fairly enforced policies, when combined with alternative initiation opportunities appear to have reduced the worsening of hazing pg 187 Chapter 7: Violence in Sports Violence -The use of excessive physical force, which causes or has the potential to cause or harm or destruction  Violence is not always illegal or disapproved  When violence involves widespread rejection of norms, it may signal anarchy  When violence involves extreme overconformity to norms, it may single fascism Aggression -verbal or physical actions grounded in an intent to dominate, control or do harm to another person th March 11 2012 2-14 17-20 30-37 study tip: make note for slides “put it all into practice” section on murderball Violence and Masculinity  Violence is grounded in general cultural norms  Violence in sports is not limited to men  Playing power and performance sports often are ways to prove masculinity In certain sports, violence is taught as a strategy Violence is Institutionalized in Some Sports  In non-contact sports, violence is usually limited to using violent images in talk  In contact men‟s sports, players learn to use violence as a strategy -enforcers and goods are paid to be violent  In women‟s contact sports, violence may be used as a strategy, but not to prove femininity Violence in Sports and Gender Ideology  During violence in sports reproduces the belief that “men are superior to women”  Power and performance sports, when they encourage violence, emphasize difference between men and women  Sports violence reproduces an ideology of male entitlement Violence Among Spectators  No data on how watching sports may influence violence in everyday relationships  Spectators at non-contact sports have low rates of violence  Spectators at contact sports have rates of violence that constitute a problem in need of analysis and control  Rates today are lower than rates in the past Celebratory Violence The form of violence has not been studied systematically by scholars in the sociology of sport General Factors Related to Violence at Sport Events  Action in the sport event itself  Crowd dynamics and the situation in which spectators watch the event  Historical, social economic and political context in which the event is planned and played Crowd Dynamics Situational Factors  Crowd size Alcohol consumption by spectators  Composition of crowd Location of event  Meaning and importance of event Motivations for attending the event  History of relationship between teams Importance of teams as sources of identity for spectators  Crowd control strategies at event Reasons for caution when predicting future participation  Budget cutbacks and the privatization of sport programs  Resistance to government regulations  Backlash among those recent changes that threaten the dominant gender ideology  Under-representation of women in decision-making positions in sport programs Cosmetic fitness  Images and messages in popular culture serve to perpetuate the importance of cosmetic fitness Reasons For Caution- when predicting future participation  Continued emphasis on “cosmetic fitness”  Trivialization of women‟s sports  Homophobia and the threat of being labeled “lesbian” Disability and Gender  Women with disabilities are disadvantaged in a culture where femininity and heterosexual attractiveness are equated  Men with disabilities are disadvantaged in a culture where manhood is constructed through narratives of conquest and domination  Some people with disabilities fear of being identified as “subnormal” and there, avoid playing sports Gender Equity Issues Always exist when sport cultures are:  Male dominated ( the characteristics of men are THE standards of judging qualifications)  Male identified ( the orientations/actions of men are THE standars for defining what is right) Gender and Fairness Issues in Sports  Inequities in participation opportunities • Often grounded in dominant definitions of masculinity and femininity in a culture • May be related to religious beliefs  Establishing legal definitions of equity is a c
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